by Bob Algozzine, Robert H. Horner, George Sugai, Susan Barrett, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Lucille Eber, Donald Kincaid, Timothy Lewis, & Tary Tobin
Evaluation is the process of collecting and using information for decision-making. A hallmark of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) is a commitment to formal evaluation. The purpose of this SWPBS Evaluation Blueprint is to provide those involved in developing Evaluation Plans and Evaluation Reports with a framework for (a) addressing evaluation questions that may be most useful, (b) selecting evaluation measures and measurement schedules that practically meet the needs of local decision-makers, and (c) using evaluation information for active decision-making at the school, district, region, and state levels.
We propose a model for addressing evaluation questions using repeated cycles of core indicators that address considerations about the context (e.g., who, where, when, why) in which implementation of SWPBS is to occur or has occurred, the input (e.g., what) that directs or directed the SWPBS implementation, the fidelity with which core elements of SWPBS are or were put in place (e.g., how), and the impact of those core elements of SWPBS on the social and academic behavior of students (e.g., what difference is expected or achieved). We also emphasize that evaluation of SWPBS often will be expected to address questions related to replication, sustainability, and continuous improvement. Within this model consideration of the following evaluation questions is encouraged:
- What are/were the goals and objectives for SWPBS implementation?
- Who provided support for SWPBS implementation?
- Who received support during SWPBS implementation?
- What professional development was part of SWPBS implementation support?
- Who participated in the professional development?
- What was the perceived value of the professional development?
- To what extent was SWPBS implemented as designed?
- To what extent was SWPBS implemented with fidelity?
- To what extent is SWPBS associated with changes in student outcomes?
- To what extent is SWPBS associated with changes in academic performance, dropout rates and other areas of schooling?
Replication, Sustainability, and Improvement
- To what extent did SWPBS implementation improved capacity for the state/region/district to replicate SWPBS practices, sustain SWPBS practices, and improve social and academic outcomes for students?
- To what extent did SWPBS implementation change educational/behavioral policy?
- To what extent did SWPBS implementation affect systemic educational practice?
Successful completion of SWPBS evaluation requires selecting measures and measurement schedules that practically meet the needs of local decision-makers. We provide guidance and specific suggestions for evaluation measures that may be useful for addressing questions related to assessing critical questions related to core indicators of SWPBS.
The final step of a successful evaluation is using information that has been collected to construct local, regional, and state evaluation dissemination documents and presentations. We provide samples of brief formative and summative reports, outlines for end-of-year documents, and illustrations of content for small- and large-group presentations intended for sharing outcomes with decision-makers.