Tier 1 Supports

Tier 1 Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

Randomized Control Trials assessing SWPBS

Horner, R., Sugai, G., Smolkowski, K., Todd, A., Nakasato, J., & Esperanza, J.  (2009). A Randomized Control Trial of School-wide Positive Behavior Support in Elementary Schools.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11(3), 113-144.

This paper documents that typical state agents were successful in implementing SWPBS practices, and that these practices were experimentally linked to improved perception of school safety, with preliminary support that implementation was associated with improved proportion of students at 3rd grade who met the state reading standard.


Bradshaw, C., Waasdorp, T., & Leaf P. (2012) Examining the variation in the impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.  Pediatrics, 10(5), 1136-1145.


Bradshaw, C., Koth, C., Thornton, L., & Leaf, P. (2009).  Altering school climate through School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports:  Findings from a Group-Randomized Effectiveness Trial. Prevention Science, 10, 100-115.

A randomized control trial documenting change in the organizational effectiveness of schools as a function of implementing SWPBS.


Bradshaw, C., Koth, C., Bevans, K., Ialongo, N., & Leaf, P. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools.  School Psychology Quarterly, 23(4), 462-473.

Bradshaw et al., document that implementation of school-wide PBIS by typical implementation personnel was successful in achieving high fidelity of adoption, and improved “organizational health” within the schools.


Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on student outcomes: Results from a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in elementary schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 133-148.

This randomized control trial documents experimentally that implementation of SWPBIS was related to (a) high fidelity of implementation, (b) reduction in office discipline referrals, (c) reduction in suspensions, and (c) improved fifth grade academic performance.


Bradshaw, C., Reinke, W., Brown, L., Bevans, K., & Leaf, P. (2008).  Implementation of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: Observations from a randomized trial.  Education and Treatment of Children, 31, 1-26.

The authors document a randomized control trial of SWPBIS with observations from school implementers.


Bradshaw, C.P., & Pas, E.T. (2011). A state-wide scale-up of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS):  Developing systems to support and assess adoption, implementation, and outcomes. Manuscript submitted for publication.


Benner, G., Nelson, J.R., Sanders, E., & Ralston, N. (2012). Behavior intervention for students with externalizing behavior problems: Primary-level standard protocol. Exceptional Children, 78(2), 181-198.


Ross, S., Romer, N., & Horner, R.H., (2012).  Teacher well-being and the implementation of school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 14(2) 118-128.


Richter, M., Lewis, T., & Hagar, J. (2012).  The relationship between principal leadership skills and school-wide positive behavior support: An Exploratory Study.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 14(2) 69-77.


Sprague, J., & Biglan, A., et al (in progress).A Randomized Control Trial of SWPBS with Middle Schools.

This research in currently in data-collection phase, with preliminary results presented a professional conferences indicating reduction in problem behavior levels when SWPBS core features were implemented.Publishable results are anticipated for 2010.


Sprague, J. R., Walker, H., Golly, A., White, K., Myers, D. R., & Shannon, T. (2002). Translating research into effective practice: The effects of a universal staff and student intervention on key indicators of school safety and discipline. Education and Treatment of Children, 24(4), 495-511.

Quasi-experimental design documenting improved perception of safety linked to implementation school-wide positive behavior support.


Waasdorp, T., Bradshaw, C., & Leaf , P., (2012) The Impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Bullying and Peer Rejection: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial. Archive of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 166(2): 149-156.


Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Goldweber, A., Rosenberg, M., & Leaf, P. (2012). Integrating schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports with tier 2 coaching to student support teams: The PBISplus Model. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 5(3), 177-193. doi:10.1080/1754730x.2012.707429