Tier 3 Supports

Tier 3 Supports

The research supporting the effectiveness of functional behavioral assessment, the design of individualized behavioral interventions, and the active use of data in the implementation of behavior support is perhaps the most robust of the databases within SWPBS.  The majority of this research has employed single-case designs to examine the effects of specific interventions, but increasingly studies are linking behavioral and academic interventions to reduction in problem behavior.

This research has not at this time assessed the interaction effects associated with implementation of elements at all three tiers in the SWPBS prevention framework.

Benazzi, L., Horner, R.H., & Good, R.H. (2006). Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans. Journal of Special Education, 40(3), 160-170.

Blair, K.C., Umbreit, J., Dunlap, G., & Jung, G.  (2007).  Promoting inclusion and peer participation through assessment-based intervention.  Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 27(3), 134-147.

Borgmeier, C., & Horner, R.H.  (2006). An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 100-105.

Brooks, A., Todd, A. W., Tofflemoyer, S., & Horner, R. H.  (2003). Use of functional assessment and a self-management system to increase academic engagement and work completion. Journal of Positive Behavior Intervention, 5, 144-152.

Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behavior: Preliminary results from a single case study. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 26, 15-25.

Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Turnbull, A. P., Marquis, J. G., Magito-McLaughlin, D., McAtee, M. L., et al. (1999). Positive behavior support for people with developmental disabilities: A research synthesis. American Association on Mental Retardation Monograph Series. Washington, D. C.: American Association on Mental Retardation.

Crone, D., Hawken, L., & Bergstrom, M., (2007). A demonstration of training, implementing and using functional behavioral assessment in 10 elementary and middle school settings.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(1), 15-29.

Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., Guardino, D., & Lathrop, M.  (2007). Response to intervention: Examining classroom behavior support in second grade. Exceptional Children, 73(3), 288-310.

Grow, L. L., Carr, J., & LeBlanc, L. (2009). Treatments for attention-maintained problem behavior: empirical support and clinical recommendations. Journal of Evidence-based Practices for Schools, Vol. (10), 70-92.

Harvey, M. T., Lewis-Palmer, T., Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2003). Trans-situational interventions: Generalization of behavior support across school and home environments. Behavioral Disorders, 28, 299-213.

Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P., Wang, W., Kincaid, D., Dunlap, G., Strain, P. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of the Prevent-teach-reinforce (PTR) tertiary intervention for students with problem behaviors. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 17, 213-225.

Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G.  (2005). Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7, 224-236.

Loman, S., & Horner, R., (2014). Examining the efficiency of a basic functional behavioral assessment training package for school personnel.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 16(1), 18-30.

Lucyshyn, J., Albin, R., Horner, R.H., Mann, J. C., Mann, J. A. & Wadsworth, G.  (2007). Family Implementation of Positive Behavior Support with a Child with Autism: A Longitudinal, Single Case Experimental and Descriptive Replication and Extension. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(3), 131-150.

McIntosh, K., Borgmeier, C., Anderson, C., Horner, R.H., Rodriguez, B., & Tobin, T.  (2008). Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff FBA intervention measure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 33-45.

McIntosh, K. Chard, D., Boland, J., & Horner, R.  (2006).  A demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(3), 146-154.

Newcomer, L. L. & Lewis, T. J. (2004). Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(3), 168-181.

Pindiprolu, S. (2009). Functional assessment-based intervention in the general education setting.  Journal of Evidence-based Practices for Schools 10 (1), 48-65.

Preciado, J., Horner, R.H., & Baker, S. (2009). Using a function-based approach to decrease problem behavior and increase academic engagement for Latino English Language Learners. Journal of Special Education, 42 (4), 227-240.

Scott, T. M., & Caron, D. (2006). Functional Behavior Assessment at the School-Wide Level: Determining Predictability and Function of Typical Problem Behaviors. Preventing School Failure, 50(1), 13-20.

Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C., & Nelson, C. M., & McIntyre, J.  (2005). Team-Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14(1), 57-71.

Scott, T. M., McIntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., Conroy, M., & Payne, L. (2005). An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies with School-Based Teams. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 205-215.

Stover, A.C., Dunlap, G., & Neff, B.  (2008).  The effects of a contingency contracting program on the nocturnal enuresis of three children.  Research on Social Work Practice, 18, 421-428.