Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports - OSEP

OSEP Technical Assistance Center

School

Numerous products are available for school personnel, parents, and care-providers, all with the promise of erasing targeted behaviors. Unfortunately, no magic wand single-handedly works to remove the barriers to learning that occur when behaviors are disrupting the learning community. The climate of each learning community is different; therefore, a one size fits all approach is less effective than interventions based on the needs of each school.

What is School-wide PBIS?

One of the foremost advances in school-wide discipline is the emphasis on school-wide systems of support that include proactive strategies for defining, teaching, and supporting appropriate student behaviors to create positive school environments. Instead of using a piecemeal approach of individual behavioral management plans, a continuum of positive behavior support for all students within a school is implemented in areas including the classroom and non-classroom settings (such as hallways, buses, and restrooms). Positive behavior support is an application of a behaviorally-based systems approach to enhance the capacity of schools, families, and communities to design effective environments that improve the link between research-validated practices and the environments in which teaching and learning occurs. Attention is focused on creating and sustaining primary (school-wide), secondary (classroom), and tertiary (individual) systems of support that improve lifestyle results (personal, health, social, family, work, recreation) for all children and youth by making targeted behaviors less effective, efficient, and relevant, and desired behavior more functional.

Why is it so important to focus on teaching positive social behaviors?

Frequently, the question is asked, "Why should I have to teach kids to be good? They already know what they are supposed to do. Why can I not just expect good behavior?" In the infamous words of a TV personality, "How is that working out for you?"

In the past, school-wide discipline has focused mainly on reacting to specific student misbehavior by implementing punishment-based strategies including reprimands, loss of privileges, office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions. Research has shown that the implementation of punishment, especially when it is used inconsistently and in the absence of other positive strategies, is ineffective. Introducing, modeling, and reinforcing positive social behavior is an important step of a student's educational experience. Teaching behavioral expectations and rewarding students for following them is a much more positive approach than waiting for misbehavior to occur before responding. The purpose of school-wide PBIS is to establish a climate in which appropriate behavior is the norm.

What is a systems approach in school-wide PBIS?

An organization is a group of individuals who behave together to achieve a common goal. Systems are needed to support the collective use of best practices by individuals within the organization. The school-wide PBIS process emphasizes the creation of systems that support the adoption and durable implementation of evidence-based practices and procedures, and fit within on-going school reform efforts. An interactive approach that includes opportunities to correct and improve four key elements is used in school-wide PBIS focusing on: 1) Outcomes, 2) Data, 3) Practices, and 4) Systems. The diagram below illustrates how these key elements work together to build a sustainable system:

  • Outcomes: academic and behavior targets that are endorsed and emphasized by students, families, and educators. (What is important to each particular learning community?)
  • Practices: interventions and strategies that are evidence based. (How will you reach the goals?)
  • Data: information that is used to identify status, need for change, and effects of interventions. (What data will you use to support your success or barriers?)
  • Systems: supports that are needed to enable the accurate and durable implementation of the practices of PBIS. (What durable systems can be implemented that will sustain this over the long haul?)
Resources

Violence and youth: Psychology’s response

This summary report by the American Psychological Association's Commission on Violence and Youth examines individual and societal factors that contribute to youth violence in the United States and offers intervention strategies to reduce such violence. It examines biological, family, school, emotional, cognitive, social, and cultural factors which contribute to violent behavior. The report reviews what psychologists have learned about the factors that accompany and contribute to youth violence. It recommends a variety of specific efforts to reduce youth violence through: (1) early childhood interventions; (2) school-based interventions; (3) heightened awareness of cultural diversity; (4) development of the mass media to be part of the solution; (5) limiting access to firearms by children and youth; (6) reduction of youth involvement with alcohol and drugs; (7) psychological health services for young perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violence; and (8) education programs to reduce prejudice and hostility. Two appendixes list the table of contents of the commission's full report (volume 2) and describe the commission's work.

Applying Behavior Analysis to School Violence and Discipline Problems: School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed "schoolwide positive behavior support". In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis.

Best practices in school discipline

A book chapter from the book 'Best Practices in School Psychology-II.'

First Step to Success: An early intervention for elementary children at risk for antisocial behavior

The increased prevalence and seriousness of antisocial behavior displayed by today's youths have become serious concerns for parents, educators, and community members. Antisocial behavior has a developmental course that starts with minor offenses in preschool (e.g., whining, teasing, noncompliance) and develops into major offenses (e.g., vandalism, stealing, assault, homicide) in older children and adolescents. Research results suggest that if interventions are implemented in the early elementary years, the likelihood of preventing future antisocial behavior is improved. Furthermore, interventions are said to be more successful if family members and teachers are involved. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an early intervention strategy, First Step to Success, involving (a) teacher-directed and (b) a combination of teacher- and parent-directed strategies on the behaviors of elementary school children at risk for antisocial behavior. The results suggest that interventions involving teachers and parents were associated with decreases in problem behavior in the classroom that maintained over 1 academic school year after intervention. Implications and recommendations are presented based on the outcomes and limitations of the study. (Contains 4 tables and 6 figures.)

Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans

This study examined how the composition of a behavior support team affected use of assessment information in the design of behavior support plans. Specifically, we examined if typical teams designed behavior support plans that differed in (a) technical adequacy and/or (b) contextual fit when (1) teams did not include behavior specialists, (2) teams included behavior specialists, or (3) behavior specialists worked alone. Fifty-eight school personnel on 12 behavior support teams from typical elementary schools and 6 behavior specialists participated in the study. Vignettes describing hypothetical students with functional behavior assessment outcome information were used to develop 36 behavior support plans (12 by teams alone, 12 by specialists alone, and 12 by teams with specialists). Results were assessed by 3 expert behavior analysts for technical adequacy and by all 64 team members for contextual fit. Technical adequacy tended to be rated high if specialists alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Contextual fit tended to be rated high when teams alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Team members ranked plans developed by the team alone and plans developed by the team with a specialist as preferred for implementation over plans developed by a specialist alone. Implications for the selection of behavior support team membership are discussed.

Use of functional assessment and a self-management system to increase academic engagement and work completion

This study investigates whether a functional relationship exists between self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement and an increase in both on-task behavior and assignment completion. The study further assesses whether self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement is associated with generalization of performance gains to untrained settings. Training in self-management procedures included systematic instruction of behavior and general case programming to promote generalization of skills. An ABCAC design was used to assess the effects of self-management procedures in the training setting, and a multiple-baseline-across-settings design was used to assess generalization effects. The results demonstrated that a functional relationship existed between self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement and an increase in on-task behavior and assignment completion. Generalization of self-management skills to novel school contexts varied. The role of self-management procedures in promoting generalization is discussed.

Positive behavior support. Evolution of an applied science.

Positive behavior support (PBS) is an applied science that uses educational and systems change methods (environmental redesign) to enhance quality of life and minimize problem behavior. PBS initially evolved within the field of developmental disabilities and emerged from three major sources: applied behavior analysis, the normalization/inclusion movement, and person-centered values. Although elements of PBS can be found in other approaches, its uniqueness lies in the fact that it integrates the following critical features into a cohesive whole: comprehensive lifestyle change, a lifespan perspective, ecological validity, stakeholder participation, social validity, systems change and multicomponent intervention, emphasis on prevention, flexibility in scientific practices, and multiple theoretical perspectives. These characteristics are likely to produce future evolution of PBS with respect to assessment practices, intervention strategies, training, and extension to new populations. The approach reflects a more general trend in the social sciences and education away from pathology-based models to a new positive model that stresses personal competence and environmental integrity. The fourfold purpose of this article is to (a) provide a definition of the evolving applied science of positive behavior support (PBS); (b) describe the background sources from which PBS has emerged; (c) give an overview of the critical features that, collectively, differentiate PBS from other approaches; and (d) articulate a vision for the future of PBS.

Effects of a recreation fitness program on psychological parameters among persons with psychiatric disabilities

Concern exists nationally about the excessive mortality rates of persons with psychiatric disabilities. Comorbidity of disabilities and disabling conditions has been shown to place a disproportionately large burden on the healthcare system. An investigation was undertaken that examined the impact of a structured recreation fitness program on selected psychological parameters in a population of persons with psychiatric disabilities. Further, the research sought to investigate specific factors influencing fitness within a psychiatric population. Thirty individuals with psychiatric disabilities were randomly selected from an available population of 177 such persons and were further randomly ordered into experimental and control groups of 15 persons each in a pretest/post-test design. The experimental group received a seven-month recreation fitness program but the control group did not. The two groups, which were determined to have been equivalent in levels of activity and depression at the onset of the study, differed significantly in a therapeutically positive direction in favor of the experimental group. The effects were more pronounced in reducing levels of depression over time as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results of the study suggest there are potential benefits from integrating recreational and fitness programs into a regimen of psychiatric rehabilitation of persons with psychiatric disabilities.

Twenty years of intervention research in emotional and behavioral disorders: A descriptive analysis and a comparison with research in developmental disabilities

The current study was conducted to examine the trends involved with experimental intervention research designed to modify behaviors of children and youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). Trends are summarized and compared to the intervention research that has been conducted in developmental disabilities (DD). The contents of 10journals published between 1980and 1999 were analyzed. Descriptive dimensions of the research including participant demographics, settings, research designs, dependent and independent variables, intervention agents, and measures of ecological validity were investigated. In addition, the databases were examined to determine whether interventions were based on individualized processes of assessment. The results showed strikingly similar trends across interventions with EBD and DD participants. The discussion addresses the general status of intervention research across both populations, as well as the importance of extending the current research to examine additional variables and measures with various populations.

Measuring school-wide positive behavior support implementation: development and validation of the benchmarks of quality

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been implemented in more than 4,000 schools as a means of addressing problem behavior in a systemic fashion. Preliminary outcomes (e.g., office discipline referrals, suspensions) indicate the effectiveness of SWPBS in decreasing school-wide behavior problems and creating a positive school climate. Although the results of a majority of the program evaluations yielded significant findings, there has been a lack of measurement of treatment fidelity, possibly due to the absence of expedient, effective assessment tools. This article describes the theoretical background and development, including a qualitative pilot study and psychometric properties, of the School-wide Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ; Kincaid, Childs, & George, 2005), a tool intended to measure the implementation of SWPBS. Descriptive data on the instrument, including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, and concurrent validity, were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that the BoQ for SWPBS is a reliable, valid, efficient, and useful instrument for measuring the fidelity of implementation of the primary or universal level of PBS application in individual schools. Future considerations for evaluating the psychometric properties of the BoQ include extending the data collection and analysis to many more schools across multiple states.

A descriptive analysis of positive behavioral intervention research with young children with challenging behavior

The purpose of this study was to critically examine the positive approaches to behavioral intervention research and young children demonstrating challenging behavior. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of articles published between 1984 and 2003 across 23 peer-reviewed journals. Each article that met the criteria for inclusion in the study was scored on the following variables: disability type; age and gender of participants; availability of demographic data (e.g., race, socioeconomic status); intervention setting; dependent measures; intervention type; intervention agents; study design; and reporting of generalization data, treatment fidelity, and social validity measures. The results indicate an increasing trend of research using positive behavioral interventions with young children who demonstrate challenging behaviors. Most of the research has been conducted with children with disabilities between 3 and 6 years old. Primarily, teachers and family members have served as the intervention agents, implementing studies in special education classes and home settings, respectively. Most studies have employed single-subject design methodologies to examine multicomponent, instructional, or function-based interventions. The authors discuss areas for future research.

Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program

The purpose of this book is to describe a targeted system of positive behavior support called the Behavior Education Program (BEP): what it is, how it works, who can benefit from it, and how it is implemented in a school.

Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to behavior management

This comprehensive book presents a proactive behavior management system for decreasing behavior problems in the classroom and the school, plus a full range of strategies for correcting disruptive behavior once it has occurred. Coverage is based on the authors' belief that effective management strategies for any age or ability level must begin with an instructional analysis of the problem and be followed with a solution grounded in instructional principles and built on solid research.

School-wide behavior support: Legal implications and requirements

Examines laws and policies that support the use of school-wide discipline programs. Presents a brief overview of the primary components of these policies and examines laws and court cases that address school-wide discipline policies and procedures. Also discusses the legal implications when developing school-wide policies.

An Experimental Evaluation of Positive Behavior Support in a Community Preschool Program

Athough positive behavior support (PBS) has been established as an effective approach for resolving the challenging behaviors of many populations, little research has evaluated PBS with children under the age of 4 years. In addition, few studies have considered the effectiveness of PBS delivered via consultation in typical childcare and preschool settings. This study was conducted to examine the effects of PBS implemented by typical classroom staff for two 3-year-old girls in a community-based preschool accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Within the context of A-B-A-B designs, the data indicated reductions in challenging behaviors and increases in engagement for both girls in two separate group contexts. Fidelity data indicated that some components of the PBS plans were implemented but others were not. The findings support the efficacy of PBS with young children in natural settings while raising questions for future research regarding the utilization and efficiency of PBS support plans.

The widening world of functional assessment: Comments on four manuals and beyond

An escalating number of materials have been published recently on the topic of functional assessment and assessment-based behavioral interventions. We review four manuals that purport to provide practical guidance for conducting functional assessment. An examination of these manuals yields encouraging evidence that the field of behavioral support has made notable progress in adopting a functional (behavior-analytic) approach to unwanted behaviors. The content of the manuals, considered in the context of merging perspectives in behavioral support, suggests a number of important issues and directions that should be addressed by future functional assessment research and practice.

Parent-Professional Partnerships: A Valuable Context for Addressing Challenging Behaviours

Partnerships between professionals and parents of children with disabilities can be valuable ingredients in efforts to design and implement strategies of intervention and support. In this article, we provide a rationale in support of parent-professional partnerships and describe research and programmes that exemplify such partnership practices. We also describe approaches for facilitating the development of partnerships and a framework in which partnerships are placed at the optimal end of a continuum of parent involvement and parent support.

Functional communication training with toddlers

This study was conducted to examine the effects of functional communication training when used by mothers to address the serious challenging behaviors of toddlers. Multiple baseline (across home routines) designs were used with two mother-child dyads. The data showed mothers used the procedures correctly and interventions produced reductions in the children's challenging behaviors and increases in their use of communicative replacement skills. Social validity data supported the clarity of the effects and indicated that the procedures were viewed by the mothers as feasible and as having acceptable contextual fit. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of resolving challenging behaviors early in a child's life, and the need for additional research on effective strategies that can be used by typical intervention agents in natural settings.

Features of model programs for children and youths with problem behaviors

Addressing the Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs of Students with Challenging Behavior in Inclusive and Alternative Settings. Highlights from the Forum on Comprehensive Programming for a Diverse Population of Children and Youth with Challenging Behavior: Addressing Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs within Inclusive and Alternative Settings (Las Vegas, Nevada, February 9-10, 2001).

PBIS for Youth Involved in Juvenile Corrections

EDJJ (Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice) professional development series. General overview of Schoolwide positive behavior support implementation. The video describes what PBIS is, how PBIS is working at the public schools, and why PBIS makes sense. It also shows school examples and interviews with school administrators and teachers.

Discovering School-Wide PBIS: Moving Towards a Positive Future

Overview of Florida's School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) project funded by Florida state department of education. The video describes essential elements of SWPBS with actual school implementation examples.

Creating the Culture of Positive Behavior Supports

A film by Gray Olsen and Paula Baumann. This video clip includes lots of successful stories and examples on school-wide positive behavior support implementation at schools.

School-Wide Reading Model

The video clip is about reading and behavior improvement program from the Behavior and Reading Improvement Center at the University of North Carolina. The video shows critical components of reading model and process of comprehensive school model for reading.

Positive Unified Behavior Support: A Model of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

The behavior and reading improvement center at the University of North Carolina provides examples of positive unified behavior system (PUBS) in the video clip. The PUBS implies 1) unified positive attitude, 2) unified clear expectations, 3) unified positive corrective teaching, and 4) unified team approach.

The Implementation of Behavior Instruction in the Total School

The video describes 'Behavior Instruction in Total School' program. The Behavior and Reading Improvement Center at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte is now implementing positive behavior approach for 7 elementary schools in Mecklenburg, Charlotte. The video clips shows practical implementation examples and success stories from school staff.

Talking Points on Positive Behavior Support and Mental Health

SIGNetwork Teleconference Talking Points and Sustainability PPTs. The purpose of this document is to describe the context, guiding principles, and features of a school-wide approach to positive behavior support that reinforce the objectives and activities of the reauthorization of ESEA and NCLB. A case study example and selected supporting references also are provided.

Lessons Learned in SWPBS Implementation: Sustainability & Scaling Up

 Overview of what we've learned about taking SWPBS implementation "to scale," & Discuss state implementation experiences & lessons learned.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started (Colorado PBIS new team training)

Critical features of getting started with Positive Behavior Support. The main objectives include 1) Establish leadership team, 2) Establish staff agreements, 3) Build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems, 4) Develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS using Office Discipline Data, EBS Self-Assessment Survey, and Team Implementation Checklist.

PBIS, Functional Behavioral Assessment, BIP Development, and Manifestation Determination (OSEP Regional Meeting)

The slides were compiled by the OSEP PBIS TA Center with assistance on manifestation determination from Mitchell Yell at University of South Carolina. The slides were developed to assist school personnel and others in conducting FBAs, developing BIPs and conducting MDs based on current research and best practice. Opinions expressed are those of the authors and no endorsement from the Department of Education should be inferred. Research and best practice presented is not in conflict with the IDEA or subsequent regulation but may go beyond those requirements. This information is intended to be supplemental and NOT a replacement for careful study and application of IDEA and its regulations.

SWPBS: Coaching (Bridgeport Public Schools Coaches Meeting)

The presentation was made to 1) discuss importance of coaching capacity, 2) review coaching basics, 3) provide guidelines for effective coaching, and 4) discuss coaching experiences with teams.

Implementing Applied Behavior Analysis at Scales of Social Significance (North Carolina Applied Behavior Analysis Conference)

The presentation was made to 1) define an expanded role for ABA in our society and 2) Use School-wide Positive Behavior Support as one example of large-scale implementation.

Embedding Social Skills Instruction Throughout the Day (Oregon Positive Behavior Support training)

The presentation focused on 1) when and why you would teach social skills and 2) critical features of a social skills curriculum.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support (Iowa SWPBS)

The presentation describes general overview of school-wide PBS and progress in Iowa state. The goals of the presentation were 1) Review core features of School-wide PBS, 2) Update on current status of SWPBS nationally, 3) Update on SWPBS in Iowa, and 4) New Developments and Findings.

Linking Behavior Support and Literacy Support (Iowa SWPBS)

The presentation focused on 1) defining logic that links behavior support and academic supports and 2) providing summary of recent research.

Sustaining and Improving Implementation of SWPBS (Iowa SWPBS training)

The presentation focused on critical features and strategies for sustaining SW-PBS. The goals were 1) define "phase" of implementation, 2) select implementation "target," 3) plan for sustained implementation.

Building a Realistic Pyramid of Instructional and Behavioral Supports for Prevention and Intervention

The presentation is about critical features of linking academic and behavioral support using positive, proactive, and research based interventions.

Scaling Up: Lessons Learned in the Implementation of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (OSEP 16th Annual TA and Dissemination Conference)

The presentation describes 1) research recommendations about behavior support system, 2) essential features of SW-PBS, 3) key features in scaling up through SW-PBS, 4) school, district, & state examples related PBIS center activities, and 5) connecting "Schools" & "Districts."

SWPBS: National Perspective & Updates (NY Coaches Forum)

The presentation focused on overview, current progress, and national perspectives for SWPBS. It includes lessons from practical implementation, application examples, and data.

CT SWPBS: Coaching

The presentation was made for coach training and follow-up of CT public school work. Critical information for coaches such as self-assessment plan, activity guide, and school-wide systems for school staff are included.

“WORKING SMARTER” Problem Solving & Decision Making (CT SWPBS)

The presentation was made to provide guidelines for improving efficiency & effectiveness of decision making & problem solving. Common challenges and development of successful action plans are illustrated with examples.

Beyond Classroom Management: School-based Mental Health & Positive Behavior Support (Inside Schoolhouse Door Conference)

The presentation focused on critical features of classroom management. It includes general overview of SW-PBS including classroom and individual support system, application of continuum of instructional and PBS, and RTI model approaches.

SWPBS:Leadership Team 2005-2006 Cohort Follow-up (CT PBIS Leadership training)

The presentation focused on school-wide prevention logic model for student success. It includes RTI model approaches for behavior and academic system, features of successful organizations, and implementation process.

Universal Systems in Depth: Classroom Systems (CT PBIS Leadership training)

The slide shows classroom setting behavior support strategies, examples, and critical features. It includes evidence based practices in classroom management, action plan examples, resource for tools.

Preparing for & Responding to Crises & Emergencies (MN PBIS team follow-up Training)

The presentation was about critical features for classroom management and preparing for those inevitable crises that occur. It includes examples, generic sequence, guiding principals, and so on.

Secondary or Targeted Interventions (MN PBIS team follow-up Training)

The presentation was about efficient strategies for secondary or targeted interventions. The content includes common secondary intervention features, examples of behavior education plan, tools for secondary intervention, data, and so on.

Function-Based Behavior Support: Big Ideas (MN PBIS team follow-up Training)

The presentation was made to provide overview of critical features of function-based approach to addressing problem behavior. The content includes examples and non-examples of function-based approach, logic of functional approach, functional behavior assessment, and so on.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Follow-up #2 (Cohort 2) (MN PBIS team follow-up Training)

The presentation was made to help staff 1) establish leadership team, 2) establish staff agreements, 3) build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems, 4) develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS (using data: discipline data, EBS self-assessment survey, team implementation checklist), 5) organize for upcoming school year.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started Follow-up (Bridgeport SWPBS Leadership Team Training)

The presentation was made to provide critical features of school-wide PBS for getting started with PBIS. The content includes behavior support system building at all three levels, rationale of PBS, general implementation process and so on.

SW PBS at Nonclassroom Settings (Bridgeport SWPBS Leadership Team Training)

The slides show non-classroom setting behavior support strategies, examples, and critical features.

Understanding & Managing Escalating Behavior (Bridgeport SWPBS Leadership Team Training)

The presentation focused on enhancing our understanding of & ways of responding to escalating behavior sequences. The content includes behavior assumptions, functions of behavior, stages of behavior escalation and its strategies, and so on.

Understanding and Responding to Escalating Behavior

Corresponding document on 'Understanding and Responding to Escalating Behavior' presentation by Dr. Sugai and Dr. Colvin.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: What Is It? (MA School Psychology Association Spring Conference)

The presentation was made to help school staff 1) define SWPBS, 2) understand rationale for SWPBS, 3) build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems, and 4) understand SWPBS outcomes. The content includes general overview of SWPBS system, action plan examples, data-based decision making, case examples and so on.

North Carolina School-wide PBS (Data) (NCPBS)

The slides show North Carolina SWPBS status and outcomes with data. In North Carolina, nearly 500+ schools are in different phases of implementation and nearly 200 schools are entering data in SWIS and PBS survey website.

Sustaining School-wide Positive Behavior Support (Colorado PBS-Keynote presentation)

The presentation was made to provide information on 1) current status of SWPBS, 2) what we are learning about sustaining SWPBS over time, 3) linking Behavior Support and Academic Supports, and 4) updates on current research. The content also includes recommendations, important themes, effective implementation of SWPBS, lessons from current implementation cases.

Sustaining School-wide PBS: Self-Assessment

A tool for SWPBS self-assessing admin support, team-based system, use of data, policies, products (e.g., handbook), district support, family involvement, budget, and visibility.

Function - based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Colorado PBS training)

Critical features of Functional Behavior Assessment. The presentation describes behavioral function, functional behavior assessment, behavior support elements, and competing pathways.

A School Improvement Framework for Promoting Evidence-Based Academic and Behavior Supports (Closing the Achievement Gap Conference)

The slides describe critical features of getting started with school-wide PBS. The content includes 1) academic & behavior framework, 2) early literacy, 3) adolescent literacy, 4) social behavior, and 5) data driven decision making.

School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (Western NSW PBS)

The presentation describes all levels of SWPBS implementation strategies. Essential elements and practical resources of SWPBS are presented with data and case examples.

SWPBS Coaching: Functions & Fidelity of Implementation (Maryland PBS Summer Institute)

The presentation was made for PBS coaches to provide information on 1) importance of establishing coaching capacity, 2) coaching basics, and 3) coaching to support fidelity of SWPBS implementation. The content includes self-assessment plan, activity guide, school-wide systems for school staff, and so on.

SWPBS Getting Started – Elementary (Maryland SWPBS New Team Training)

General overview of SWPBS. The presentation provides 1) rationale, context, & features of SWPBS, 2) implementation practices, structures, & processes, 3) outcomes & examples, and 4) brief activities & team action planning.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started- Secondary Schools (Maryland SWPBS New Team Training)

The presentation was made to provide critical features of school-wide PBS for getting started with PBIS. The content especially focuses on secondary school behavior support system building including rationale of PBS, general SWPBS implementation process, function-based approach, and so on.

Evidence-based Practices: A Technical Assistance Perspective (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation provides information on SWPBS as a evidence-based Practice. The content includes SWPBS system, implementation process of SWPBS, lessons learned in providing technical assistance, and so on.

Scaling up and Sustaining Evidence-based Practices (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation discussed 1) defining the features and procedures for moving evidence-based educational practices from demonstrations to large-scale adoptions and 2) school-wide Positive Behavior Support as one example of large-scale implementation.

Policy Brief: Scaling up Effective Educational Innovations (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

This document is prepared at the request of the US Department of Education to outline considerations in the development of policy that will promote large scale implementation of evidence-based practices in education.

Scaling Up: Lessons Learned in the Implementation of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation provides information on scaling up SWPBS. The content includes recommendations on new initiatives promotion, researching finding summary, core features of SWPBS for scaling up, a school example, and so on.

“Lessons learned” regarding Michigan’s state-wide implementation of schoolwide behavior and reading support (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation shows general SWPBS implementation process and results from MiBLSi (Michigan's integrated behavior and learning support initiative). The content includes student outcomes, coaching support, team process, and so on.

Small Group/Targeted Interventions (Colorado Positive Behavior Support Symposium)

The presentation focused on small group/targeted interventions. The content includes starting point of small group intervention, small group intervention strategies, mentoring, mentoring survey tool, small group planning worksheet, and so on.

Keys to Sustaining School-wide PBIS (Illinois PBIS Leadership Conference)

The presentation was made to 1) provide update on emerging developments in school-wide PBIS, 2) emphasize the need to continuously revisit classroom systems, and 3) focus on variables that affect sustainability.

District Issues in Sustainability (Illinois PBIS Leadership Conference)

The presentation was made to 1) define four major areas where district decisions affect sustainability of school-wide PBIS and 2) define process for dealing with Òcompeting initiativesÓ using Òbully-proofingÓ and Òearly literacyÓ as examples.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: What Is It? (School Administrators of Iowa Annual Conference)

The presentation was made to provide overview of SWPBS. The content includes general elements and concepts of SWPBS system, action plan examples, data-based decision making, case examples and so on.

Classroom Management Self-Assessment

Classroom Management Self-Assessment measures extent to which effective classroom management practices are in place. The assessment consists of 10 items to check.

Oregon SWIS Summary (Oregon Coaches' Training)

Oregon SWIS summary showing student behavior improvement with SWPBS. ODR data is sorted by various data items.

Oregon Coaches’ Training School-wide PBIS

The presentation was made to 1) provide update on emerging developments in school-wide PBIS, 2) emphasize the role of coaching, and 3) update on current developments.

Positive & Responsive School Environments: Getting Started (Opening day training in Conventry & Willimantic)

The presentation was made to provide critical features of school-wide PBS for getting started with PBIS. The content includes behavior support system building at all three levels, rationale of PBS, general SWPBS implementation process, function-based approach, and so on.

SWPBS: Sustainability & Scaling Logic (CBER Research Forum)

The presentation describes progress & challenges of accurate, sustained, & scaled implementation of SWPBS through reviewing SWPBS features, descriptive data, conceptual logic, and future directions.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview (Beyond Behaviour Management: SWPBS Victoria Conference)

The presentation focused on overview of SW-PBS including critical features, challenges, outcome objectives, and practical examples. This presentation is given to let school personnel get a feel for what PBIS is all about.

Critical features of function based support with an overview of Positive Behavior Support, Classroom Management and Active Supervision (Australian Guidance Counseling Association Conference)

The presentation provides information on critical features of function based support with an overview of Positive Behavior Support, Classroom Management and Active Supervision.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview (Australian Guidance Counseling Association Conference)

The presentation was made to provide information on SWPBS. The slides show 1) rationale for adopting proactive systems approach to improving school climate, 2) features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support, 3) examples of SWPBS implementation, and 4) samples of outcome data.

Classroom Management: Self-Assessment Revised (version: April 7, 2006)

Revised version of classroom management checklist. Classroom Management Self-Assessment measures extent to which effective classroom management practices are in place. The assessment consists of 10 items to check.

Non-Classroom Management: Self-Assessment (Version: March 10, 2004)

Non-Classroom Management Self-Assessment measures extent to which effective non-classroom management practices are in place. The assessment consists of 8 items to check.

Creating School Environments to Prevent Problem Behaviour and Support Students At-Risk and Those with Disabilities through School-wide Positive Behaviour Support (Australian Association for Special Education)

The presentation describes all levels of SWPBS implementation strategies and RtI logic application for student success (for academic and behavior). Essential elements and practical resources of SWPBS are presented with data.

School-wide PBIS: Current Directions (Iowa Behavioral Alliance Third Annual Conference)

The presentation was made to 1) provide update on emerging developments in school-wide PBIS, 2) select a path for 07-08, 3) emphasize the need to continuously revisit classroom systems, 4) focus on variables that affect sustainability. Data from Iowa PBS implementation was reviewed and discussed.

Issues in Sustainability: Integrating Competing Initiatives (Iowa Behavioral Alliance Third Annual Conference)

The presentation focused on four major areas affecting sustainability of school-wide PBIS and process for dealing with "competing initiatives" using "bully-proofing" and "early literacy" as examples.

Mining Date: Using Data for Decision-making (Iowa Behavioral Alliance Third Annual Conference)

The presentation describes 1) three roles for data use in a problem-solving model, 2) the key features of a problem statement, 3) the process for identifying the data needed for decision-making, and 4) the process by which data are used to identify, refine, and problem-solve. Useful examples are presented with SWIS data.

Embedding Bully-Proofing in School-wide PBS (Iowa Behavioral Alliance Third Annual Conference)

The presentation focused on critical features of components to embed bully proofing into school-wide positive behavior support. The goals of the presentation were 1) defining a set of core features for Bully Proofing, 2) defining how to embed Bully Proofing into existing School-wide Expectations, and 3) providing current update from one research effort.

Implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBIS in Costa Mesa, CA)

The slides provide information on 1) key activities in implementation of SWPBS, 2) SWPBS tools to move individual implementation forward, 3) specific issues facing teams, and 4) overview of implementation process.

Check In Check Out: A Targeted Intervention (PBIS in Costa Mesa, CA)

The presentation was made to provide information on 1) the logic and core features of Targeted Interventions, and the specifics of the Check-in/Check-out (CICO) approach, 2) empirical evidence supporting CICO, and practical examples from local schools, and 3) self-assess strategies if CICO is appropriate for your school.

SWPBS: Year 2 Follow Up (Bridgeport follow-up training)

Critical features of sustaining and building capacity at the year two level in SW-PBS training. The year 2 outcome objectives include 1) full implementation of Primary Intervention Tier, including SW, nonclassroom & classroom settings, 2) discipline data collection & decision making procedures, including monthly & quarterly data summaries, 3) integration of behavior initiatives, and 4) developing behavior capacity at Secondary/Tertiary Intervention Tiers.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Annual Outcomes (Ver. May 7, 2006)- SWPBS Team Monthly Planning Guide

The purpose of this guide is to give SWPBS leadership teams a supplemental organizational tool for reviewing and planning their implementation activities. A self-assessment is provided to guide teams in their action planning.

SWPBS: Leadership Team Guidelines (Making Connections Conference)

The presentation was made to give SWPBS leadership teams extra organizational tool for reviewing & planning their current & future implementation activities and provide information on self-assessment to guide teams in their action planning.

Data-based decision-making (Making Connections Conference)

The presentation focused on 1) an approach for using data in the development of decisions, 2) establishing standards for building Òproblem statements," 3) data sources needed for effective decision-making, and 4) a process and outline for defining solutions.

Embedding Bully-Proofing in School-wide PBS (Making Connections Conference)

The presentation describes 1) a set of core features for Bully Proofing, 2) strategies to embed Bully Proofing into existing School-wide Expectations, 3) current update from one research effort.

Moving Up the Continuum: Implementing Successful Small Group Supports (Making Connections Conference)

This presentation provides strategies, examples, and useful resources for the small group/targeted interventions.

Moving Up the Continuum: Implementing Successful Small Group Supports (additional resource)

The document includes 1) Top 17 Classroom Management Strategies that should be emphasized in every classroom, 2) Effective Teaching Strategies, 3) Promoting Positive & Effective Learning Environments Classroom Checklist, 4) Effective Classroom Plan, and 5) ENVIRONMENTAL INVENTORY Checklist.

Classroom Checklists, Effective Classroom Plan, Environmental Inventory Checklist

The document includes 1) Top 17 Classroom Management Strategies that should be emphasized in every classroom, 2) Effective Teaching Strategies, 3) Promoting Positive & Effective Learning Environments Classroom Checklist, 4) Effective Classroom Plan, and 5) ENVIRONMENTAL INVENTORY Checklist.

SWPBS (aka EBS)10 Year Perspective (Making Connections Conference)

The presentation focused on current critical features and future of SW PBS. The content includes general overview of SWPBS system, action plan examples, data-based decision making, case examples and so on.

SWPBS: Leadership Team Follow-up (for year one follow-up) (MN PBS Initiative EBD Conference)

The presentation provides overview of SWPBS w/ focus on rationale, guiding principles, implementation features, and outcome data for year one schools.

Non-Classroom Settings: Active Supervision (MN PBS Initiative EBD Conference)

The presentation focuses on critical features & essential practices of active supervision for non-classroom setting behavior support.

Responding to Non-Responders: Managing Escalation (MN PBS Initiative EBD Conference)

The presentation focused on enhancing our understanding of & ways of responding to escalating behavior sequences. The content includes behavior assumptions, functions of behavior, stages of behavior escalation and its strategies, and so on.

MN SW Positive Behavior Support Initiative (MN PBS Initiative EBD Conference)

The presentation describes SWPBS status in Minnesota. The content includes implementation examples and outcomes from Minnesota elementary and secondary school.

Universal Systems Overview- CMA PBS Team Training

The presentation was made to help school staff 1) establish leadership team, 2) establish staff agreements, 3) build working knowledge of SWPBS practices and systems, 4) develop individualized action plan for SWPBS, and 5) organize upcoming school year plan.

SWPBS: Leadership Team Follow-up (Rhode Island PBIS Cohort 3 Team Training #2)

The presentation provides overview of SWPBS w/ focus on rationale, guiding principles, implementation features, and outcome data for schools.

Responding to Non-Responders: Managing Escalation (Rhode Island PBIS Cohort 3 Team Training #2)

The presentation focused on enhancing our understanding of & ways of responding to escalating behavior sequences. The content includes behavior assumptions, functions of behavior, stages of behavior escalation and its strategies, and so on.

Function-Based Support: Selected Topics (New England PBS Training)

The presentation provides information on function based behavior system including functional approach logic, functional behavior assessment, competing pathways for behavior support plan.

SW-PBS & RtI: Lessons Being Learned (New England PBS)

The presentation was made to 1) discuss "big ideas" & "lessons learned" about SWPBS & RtI, 2) define RtI & features, 3) describe SWPBS v. RtI, adn 4) show applied research examples. The content includes RtI logic, SWPBS and RtI features, application of behavior and academic system, and so on.

Advanced Topics in PBS: Secondary/Tertiary Interventions (New England PBS)

The presentation was about efficient strategies for secondary or targeted interventions. The content includes common secondary intervention features, overview of check-in check-out (CICO) system, evidence of CICO, and so on.

Making School-wide PBS: Effective for All Students: Closing Keynote (New England PBS)

Wrap up session of the training. Final themes to take from the training are listed.

SWPBS Overview: Establishing Continuum of Support for All(Fairfax/Loudoun Contries)

The presentation was made to provide information on SWPBS. The slides show 1) rationale for adopting proactive systems approach to improving school climate, 2) features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support, 3) examples of SWPBS implementation, and 4) samples of outcome data.

RTI: Reasons, Practices, Systems, & Considerations (RTI Summit)

The presentation describes the link between SWPBS system and RtI logic, prevention logic, and RtI system and consideration.

SWPBS: Leadership Team Training (Project Hi’ilani)

The presentation was made to give SWPBS leadership teams extra organizational tool for reviewing & planning their current & future implementation activities and provide information on self-assessment to guide teams in their action planning.

Increasing Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Support meets Response to Intervention (Region XI, Ft. Worth Texas)

The slides show essential features of SWPBS and RtI. The content includes SWPBS overview, implementation examples, prevention & supports for identified and as-risk students, Maryland PBS case examples, small group intervention, individual support, and Rtl.

SWPBS: Beyond Classroom Management (St Thomas, Virgin Island)

The presentation focused on critical features of classroom management. It includes general overview of SW-PBS including classroom and individual support system, application of continuum of instructional and PBS, and RTI model approaches.

2005-2006 Registration Calendar for PBIS Network Activities

This document provides a list of trainings scheduled for the 2005-2006 school

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Evaluation Template (Oct. 05)

This document is prepared for individuals who are implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) in Districts, Regions or States. The purpose of the document is to provide a formal structure for evaluating if School-wide PBS implementation efforts are (a) occurring as planned, (b) resulting in change in schools, and (c) producing improvement in student outcomes.

The Team Implementation Checklists (v 3.1)

This self-assessment tool has been designed to serve as a multi-level guide for (a) creating school-wide PBS action plans and evaluating the status of implementation activities on a quarterly basis.

PBS Leadership Team Self-Assessment and Planning Tool

This self-assessment has been designed to serve as a multi-level guide for creating action plans and evaluating implementation at the school, state and/or district level.

Effective Behavior Support (EBS) Survey (v 2.0)

The EBS Survey is used by school staff for initial and annual assessment of effective behavior support systems in their school. The survey examines the status and need for improvement of three behavior support systems: (a) school-wide discipline, (b) non-classroom management systems, and (c) systems for individuals students engaging in chronic behaviors.

PBS Leadership Team Self-Assessment and Planning Tool (Spanish Version)

The EBS Survey is used by school staff for initial and annual assessment of effective behavior support systems in their school. The survey examines the status and need for improvement of three behavior support systems: (a) school-wide discipline, (b) non-classroom management systems, and (c) systems for individuals students engaging in chronic behaviors.

School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET) - v 2.0

The School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) is designed to assess and evaluate the critical features of school-wide effective behavior support across each academic school year. This is old version of SET. New version 2.1 is available.

School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET) - v 2.1

The School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) is designed to assess and evaluate the critical features of school-wide effective behavior support across each academic school year. The SET results are used to: 1) assess features that are in place, 2) determine annual goals for school-wide effective behavior support, 3) evaluate on-going efforts toward school-wide behavior support, 4) design and revise procedures as needed, and 5) compare efforts toward school-wide effective behavior support from year to year. Information necessary for this assessment tool is gathered through multiple sources including review of permanent products, observations, and staff (minimum of 10) and student (minimum of 15) interviews or surveys.

Benchmarks of Quality for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) - Scoring Guide

Scoring guide for Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS.

The Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS has been developed in Florida's Positive Behavior Support project. The tool is designed to access and monitor PBS team activities.

School-wide Benchmarks of Quality- Team Member Rating Form

Team Member Rating Form of the Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS. The Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS has been developed in Florida's Positive Behavior Support project. The tool is designed to access and monitor PBS team activities.

School-wide Benchmarks of Quality: SCORING FORM

Scoring Form of the Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS. The Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS has been developed in Florida's Positive Behavior Support project. The tool is designed to access and monitor PBS team activities.

School-wide Evaluation Tool Implementation Manual Training

School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) implementation guide.

Oregon School Safety Survey v 2.0

The Oregon School Safety Survey is an instrument developed to obtain an efficient index of perceived school safety. This survey provides a summary of "risk factors" and "protective factors" that can be useful in determining training and support needs related to school safety and violence prevention.

Oregon School Safety Survey - Spanish version (Encuesta sobre Seguridad Escolar)

The Oregon School Safety Survey is an instrument developed to obtain an efficient index of perceived school safety. This survey provides a summary of "risk factors" and "protective factors" that can be useful in determining training and support needs related to school safety and violence prevention.

Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)

The FACTS is a two-page interview used by school personnel who are building behavior support plans for tertiary level supports. The FACTS is intended to be an efficient strategy for initial functional behavioral assessment. The FACTS is completed by people (teachers, family, clinicians) who know the student best, and used to either build behavior support plans, or guide more complete functional assessment efforts. The FACTS can be completed in a short period of time (5-15 min). Efficiency and effectiveness in completing the forms increases with practice.

Functional Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP)

The F-BSP is a planning tool for used by school personnel who are building a behavior support plan using function based behavioral assessment. This form was written by Horner and Crone 2005. This also has a Competing Pathway Chart or Competing Behavior Chart available for planning purposes.

Self-Assessment of Contextual Fit in Schools

The purpose of this interview is to assess the extent to which the elements of a behavior support plan fit the contextual features of your school environment. The interview asks you to rate (a) your knowledge of the elements of the plan, (b) your perception of the extent to which the elements of the behavior support plan are consistent with your personal values, and skills, and (c) the school's ability to support implementation of the plan.

Behavior Function: Staying Close to What We Know

Since the reauthorization of IDEA in 1997, attempts to implement function-based behavior supports have increased. We view these efforts as important enhancements toward improving the effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of educational programming for students with problem behaviors. However, we are becoming increasingly concerned by the potential for misapplication and over-extension of the function-based approach to behavior support programming. Thus, the purpose of this brief commentary is to describe considerations in the identification of behavior functions. This commentary describes potential misapplications in the identification of behavioral functions and offers readings for a more complete review of the issues and process.

Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools

Exceptionality Vol 8(3) 1999-2000 is a special issue devoted to articles reviewing the role of functional behavioral assessment in schools. This newsletter describes key point of each article and provides key components of functional behavioral assessment (FBA).

Tips for Educators: IEPs as an Essential Element of Individual Support Within Schoolwide PBS

The newsletter focuses on the development of IEPs that fully incorporate PBS. The article especially describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of IEPs as a tool for ensuring the effective delivery of individual PBS support.

Proactive Functional Behavior Assessment as a Collaborative Team Process

The newsletter shows a brief explanation of functional assessment, how it is connected to PBS, and how it provides a proactive approach to behavioral problem solving. In addition, it describes the value of a collaborative approach to functional assessment and answer some basic questions regarding how such an approach can be systematically developed at the school level.

Building Connections Between Individual Behavior Support Plans and Schoolwide Systems of Positive Behavior Support

The newsletter shows an individual support case study using functional behavior assessment and behavior intervention plan. The authors learned that larger overall school-wide systems are required to increase the likelihood that individual support plans are implemented with a high degree of integrity.

Laying the Foundation for Positive Behavior Support through Person-Centered Planning

The newsletter explains person centered planning (PCP) and effective PBS process for individual students.

Using Information in State or District Level Implementation of School-wide PBS

 The newsletter article provides information on how School-wide PBS can be implemented, not just within a few “demonstration schools,” but across large numbers of schools within a state/district.

Preparing for an FBA Meeting: What Should I Bring?

The newsletter provides detailed information on FBA preparation as a team.

Academic Achievement and the Implementation of School-wide Behavior Support

The newsletter article examined the relationship between school-wide behavior support and improved academic performance via 1) reviewing the relationship between academic achievement and problem behavior, 2) considering relationships between school-wide positive behavior support and improved academic performance as measured by grades and standardized test performance, 3) exploring why school-wide positive behavior support should improve academic performance.

Description of Wraparound and Case Example

The newsletter article provides research base, relevant target population, case example, and suggested readings for wraparound service.

Program-wide Positive Behavior Support for Young Children

The newsletter describes the key elements of PW-PBS and discuss some adaptations from SW-PBS that have been made in order to address the characteristics of young children and the settings in which they are served. We also discuss some directions that would benefit the further establishment of PW-PBS and, more generally, the entire enterprise of preventing challenging behaviors and promoting the desirable social-emotional development of young children.

Evaluating Time Saved as an Index of Cost Effectiveness in PBIS Schools

The newsletter describes cost effectiveness of SWPBS via reduced time spent on referrals and increased time engagged in instruction. The actual data for the cost effectiveness is included.

How to Get PBS in Your School

The newsletter article describes detailed process and information including roles and responsibilites for each critical PBS feature.

Response to Intervention and Positive Behavior Support: Brothers from Different Mothers or Sisters with Different Misters?

The newsletter article describes the tight relationship between Response to Intervention (RtI) and Positive Behavior Support (PBS).

SWPBS: Establishing District & Community Capacity: Beyond Classroom Management (Virgin Island PBIS)

The slides show general overview of SW-PBS including classroom and individual support system, application of continuum of instructional and PBS, family involvement, and outcome data from SWPBS schools.

How is My Classroom Management? (Bridgeport PBS Team Training Follow-up)

Review of critical features & essential practices of behavior management in classroom settings. The presentation describes basics & context for self-assessment & SW action planning.

PBS Team Training (Bridgeport PBS Team Training Follow-up)

General overview of SWPBS. The presentation provides 1) rationale, context, & features of SWPBS, 2) universal recap: evaluating implementation, 3) data for action plan, and 4) classroom vs. office referrals.

Basics of Classroom Management (Bridgeport PBS Team Training Follow-up)

This additional material for the PBS team training provides information on 1) maximizing academic achievement and outcomes, 2) effective instructional and behavioral management, 3) effective classroom teachers approach, and 4) basic consideration of classroom and behavior management. The document includes 'classroom management: self-assessment' tool.

Evolution of RtI & SWPBS (CO PBIS- administrators breakfast meeting)

The presentation describes 1) general description of RtI, 2) overview of SWPBS and the relationship between RtI & SWPBS, and 3) outcome data of SWPBS.

RtI & SWPBS (CT Phi Delta Kappan Meeting)

The presentation shows critical features of RtI and SWPBS through prevention logic, school-wide system for student success, and continuum of support for all students. RtI application examples and outcome data are included.

Example Letter to Parents (Colorado Department of Education)

A sample letter to parents for PBS program. The letter explains schoolwide expectations and school rules for safe environment to Arvada middle school parents in Colorado.

Example Letter to Parents (Explaining SW expectations)

A sample letter to parents to explain schoolwide expectations and acknowledgement system.

Example Letter to Parents (Explaining SW expectations: Spanish version)

A Spanish version of sample letter to parents for PBS program. The letter explains schoolwide expectations and school rules for safe environment to Arvada middle school parents in Colorado.

Example Letter to Parents- 2 (Colorado Department of Education)

A sample letter explaining SWPBS system to parents. The letter provides parents with detailed behavior expectations at each school setting such as hallway, gym, and library.

Example Letter to Parent- Elementary School Example (North Carolina)

A sample letter explaining SWPBS system, school behavior rules, and behavior consequences to parents.

Behavioral Strategies To Reduce School Violence

Public schools that use punitive approaches toward student discipline can unwittingly promote violence and other antisocial behavior. This article reviews constructive and preventive methods to reduce school violence and vandalism. Various strategies are presented and discussed. (Contains 62 references.)

A Blueprint for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: Implementation of Three Components

This article provides a case study (an eighth-grader with autism) within a case study (an urban middle school) in terms of the implementation of positive behavioral support (PBS). Information is provided on the characteristics of three key components of schoolwide PBS, universal support, group support, and individual support. (Contains references.) (CR)

Constructive Discipline for School Personnel

Describes the Constructive Discipline model as a preventive positive approach for managing behavior problems in school settings. Compares Constructive Discipline with traditional discipline approaches and stresses the need to clarify discipline policy, provide considerable staff support, and make allowances for individual student differences in the discipline policy.

Cost-Efficacy Analysis of Out-of-District Special Education Placements: An Evaluative Measure of Behavior Support Intervention in Public Schools

Evaluation of out-of-district special education placement costs in the 15 largest Massachusetts public school districts found the criterion school district (which had developed a system-wide approach to behavioral intervention) had the lowest per capita cost, lowest percentage of total school budget consumed by out-of-district placements, and the highest proportion of special needs students in inclusive educational classrooms.

Create Comprehensive and Collaborative Systems

Reviews the development of comprehensive and collaborative service systems for children with serious emotional disturbance and their families from the advocacy of the 1960s to the present. A detailed description of an empirically supported model system operating in Vermont is presented along with other state models.

Current Challenges to Behavioral Technology in the Reform of Schooling: Large-Scale, High-Quality Implementation and Sustained Use of Effective Educational Practices

This paper reports research on three innovations addressing teachers' adoption of effective instructional interventions: (1) an adoption/administrative model for promoting the use of measurably superior instructional practices; (2) a computer program providing expert implementation advice to individual teachers; and (3) a schoolwide strategy for identifying effective teacher-developed practices and promoting their use.

The Dark Side of Zero Tolerance: Can Punishment Lead to Safe Schools?

After four years of implementation, the National Center for Education Statistics found that schools employing zero-tolerance policies are still less safe than those without such policies. Indiscriminate use of force is the hallmark of authoritarianism. Programmatic prevention, screening and early identification, and effective discipline policies are viable alternatives.

Designing Schools to Meet the Needs of Students Who Exhibit Disruptive Behavior

Two elementary schools were studied over two years of a schoolwide program to improve service delivery to students with behavior problems. Program components included an advisory committee, schoolwide organizational practices, schoolwide classroom management intervention, and individual behavioral interventions. Target students displayed improved social adjustment, academic performance, and school survival skills.

Effects of Direct Instruction, Cooperative Learning, and Independent Learning Practices on the Classroom Behavior of Students with Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Analysis

This comparative analysis examined effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning instructional practices on the classroom behavior of four third graders with behavior disorders. In the direct instruction condition, students displayed higher rates of on-task behavior and lower rates of disruptive behavior relative to the other learning conditions.

The Effects of Setting Clear Standards on Students' Social Behavior in Common Areas of the School

Assessed the effects of a proactive instructional approach to school-wide discipline in common areas of an urban elementary school of 555 students on the social interactions of students and referrals for disciplinary action. Results show a clear improvement in social behavior that was maintained throughout the experiment.

The Effects of Teaching School Expectations and Establishing a Consistent Consequence on Formal Office Disciplinary Actions

A four-year study evaluated how establishing, teaching, and reinforcing schoolwide rules and routines and systematically responding to disruptive behavior affected the number of formal office disciplinary referrals in one elementary school. Results revealed that establishing clear standards and having in place a systematic response to disruptive behavior reduced referrals.

Elements of Behavior Support Plans: A Technical Brief

This article reviews features of behavioral support plans that teams should consider as they develop positive, effective responses to problem behavior, including investing in prevention occurrences of problem behavior and developing instructional objectives, avoiding rewarding problem behaviors, rewarding positive behaviors, and knowing what to do in the most difficult situations.

Ensuring Student Success through Team-Based Functional Behavioral Assessment

This article presents a detailed example of how faculty and staff at one middle school implemented team-based functional behavioral assessment (FBA) planning procedures with a student exhibiting recurring minor problems. Insets list tasks and considerations for an FBA, a sample formatted antecedent-behavior-consequence summary of team member experiences with the student, and tasks and considerations for team-based intervention planning.

Evaluation of a Comprehensive Behavior Management Program To Improve School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

A study evaluated a consultative approach to assisting a middle school (n=617 students) in implementing empirically based school-wide behavior management practices. The effective behavior support program resulted in increased positive reinforcement for appropriate social behavior and decreased aggressive social behavior among students. Discipline referrals were significantly decreased for 7th graders.

An Evaluation of an Organization Development Approach to Reducing School Disorders

An organizational development program was evaluated, which was implemented to reduce disorder in a Baltimore, Maryland, school. The Program Development Evaluation method was used. Increasing consistency of response to student discipline infractions, increasing rewards for appropriate behavior, and imposing peer and teacher support improved school conditions and resulted in positive changes in student behavior and attitudes.

The Evolution of Discipline Practices: School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports

Proposes that the current problem behavior of students in elementary and middle schools requires a preventive, whole-school approach based on positive behavior support. The features of positive behavior support are defined, and the application to whole-school intervention articulated. The steps used to implement school-wide positive behavior support in over 500 schools are described.

Examining the Efficacy of School-Based Consultation: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

Proposes that effective implementation of school-wide systems of positive behavior support will require moving the consultation process from individual cases to working teams of educators. Key skills and possible measurement strategies to develop and sustain school-wide consultation efforts are described.

Expanding Technical Assistance Consultation to Public Schools: District-Wide Evaluation of Instructional and Behavior Support Practices for Students with Developmental Disabilities

Describes consultation to a public school district in the form of a systems-wide evaluation of instructional and behavior support practices for students with developmental disabilities. The format of the evaluative model, respective findings, suggested remedies, and implications for large-scale public school consultation are provided.

Including the Functional Behavioral Assessment Technology in Schools

This introductory article to a special series discusses requirements under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to base behavioral intervention planning and positive behavioral support on information obtained through a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) process. The lack of guidance on FBAs and strategies for preventing FBA misrules are addressed.

The Influence of the School Principal on the Consultant's Effectiveness

Examined the relationship between the degree of support obtained from building principals (N=9) and the effectiveness of the counselor-consultant in facilitating a program to reduce vandalism. Results showed that schools with the highest principal support were most involved in the program and most successful in reducing vandalism.

Integrated Approaches to Preventing Antisocial Behavior Patterns among School-Age Children and Youth

This article proposes that schools take on the role of coordinating intervention efforts with school-age children who exhibit antisocial behavior patterns. Collaboration with families and social service agencies is urged. A generic prevention/intervention approach for reducing antisocial behavior risk factors is suggested, with recommendations for each prevention level.

Integrating Services, Collaborating, and Developing Connections with Schools

This article discusses the history of integrating services for students with disabilities and modern service integration initiatives. Examples of requirements for service integration are listed and interprofessional collaboration is described. The complexity, difficulties, and opportunities associated with school-related integration and collaboration are addressed, along with emerging challenges.

Managing Adolescent Behavior: A Multiyear, Multischool Study

A 3-year study in 8 middle schools tested a program to improve adolescent conduct. The program attempted to improve clarity and enforcement of rules, classroom organization, school-home communication, and increase reinforcement of positive behavior. Where it was well-implemented, student conduct improved significantly.

Maximizing Student Learning: The Effects of a Comprehensive School-Based Program for Preventing Problem Behaviors

A study evaluated a comprehensive school-wide program based on an effective behavioral support approach for preventing disruptive behaviors implemented in seven elementary schools. The program included a school-wide discipline program, tutoring, conflict resolution, and functional behavioral intervention plans. Schools showed positive effects on student discipline and academic performance.

Patterns in Middle School Discipline Records

Two exploratory studies describe patterns found in middle school discipline referral records. The first project involved the establishment of criteria for identifying the "most difficult" middle school students who would be candidates for a specialized mentoring program. The second project compared the discipline referral patterns of chronically referred students in three middle schools.

Positive Behavior Supports: Can Schools Reshape Disciplinary Practices?

The role of archival data in planning intervention priorities is examined and efficacy research focusing on the three types of positive behavioral support (PBS) is evaluated: schoolwide (universal), specific setting, and individual student levels. Overall, findings were positive across all types of PBS, validating implementation of these research-based practices.

Preferred and Promising Practices for Social Skills Instruction

Discusses the strategies and structures necessary for fostering social competence in all children, especially those at risk of academic or social failure. Discusses strategies for assessing and understanding social skills problems, teaching social skills, and preferred practices for achieving generalized responding. Also provides guidelines for developing, examining, and selecting a social skills curriculum.

Preventing Antisocial Behavior in the Schools

Multiple correlates and determinants of antisocial behavior within the home, community, and school are reviewed. A variety of contextual factors and setting events within the schools are found to be major contributors to antisocial behavior, and some of these factors are identified within the home. Increased attention to these setting events is encouraged to enhance safety of school environments.

Preventing School Violence: The Use of Office Discipline Referrals To Assess and Monitor School-Wide Discipline Interventions

A study involving 11 elementary and 9 middle schools illustrates how office discipline referrals can be used to indicate the status of school-wide discipline, and how schools can use the information to modify their universal interventions for all students and their targeted interventions for students with severe behavior problems.

Prevention Strategies for At-Risk Students and Students with EBD in Urban Elementary Schools

This study evaluated a prevention program using "universal" interventions (i.e., classroom management, social-skill instruction, peer tutoring) for at-risk students and those with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in urban schools. Direct observation and teacher reports indicated targeted students improved significantly in on-task behavior, positive recess interaction and play, aggression, out-of-seat behaviors, following directions, and disruptive behavior.

A Preventive Approach to School Violence and Vandalism: An Experimental Study

The investigators attempted to employ strategies that would attack identified perpetrators of school violence and vandalism existing within schools. Results indicated that the dollar costs of vandalism and frequency of inappropriate student behavior decreased more in experimental than in control schools.

Reducing Problem Behavior through a School-Wide System of Effective Behavioral Support: Investigation of a School-Wide Social Skills Training Program and Contextual Interventions

Explores the effects of a proactive school-wide discipline approach on the frequency of problem behavior displayed by elementary students. Study was designed to explore the impact of a social skill instruction program and direct intervention on problem behaviors in three school settings (cafeteria, recess, and hallway transition). Results indicate that educators reduced the rate of problem behavior across targeted settings.

Rethinking School Discipline through Effective Behavioral Support

Identifies three strategies for reducing challenging behaviors in students. They include teaching parents how to interact with their children in order to set limits, social skills training for students, and insuring a measure of academic success for the students. Advocates a three-tiered schoolwide prevention and intervention.

School Effectiveness Findings 1979-2002

The London studies of school effectiveness in the 1970s provided evidence that the qualities of schools made a significant difference to pupil progress. This article reviews the further evidence that has accumulated since then in order to assess how far the findings have been confirmed or refuted, what new questions have arisen and what key challenges remain.

School-Based Wraparound for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Challenges

Describes a process, wraparound planning, for extending educational services to students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and their families. A merger of community and school-based wraparound is being implemented in pilot school districts in Illinois. Guidelines for implementing school-based wraparound for students with EBD are provided and implications for school organization are drawn.

A Schoolwide Approach to Student Discipline

Professor Hill Walker has identified three challenges to handling disruptive student behavior: prevention, at-risk programs, and high-intensity interventions. Principals should beware administrative traps: getting tough is enough, targeting a few difficult students, seeking quick fixes, finding one powerful trick, revering outside experts, and believing more is better.

School-Wide Discipline and Classroom Ecology

Shortages of teachers with specialized skills, coupled with increased difficulty accommodating students with problem behaviors in general education classrooms, create pressures for performance and accountability in schools. Describes improvements in classroom ecology after implementation of a school-wide discipline model. These outcomes were positive and provide support for continuing efforts to improve discipline within the schools.

Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD): Further Validation, Replication, and Normative Data

Two studies probe validation, replication, and normative questions regarding the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) procedure. The first included teachers from 15 elementary schools, while the second drew from 2 school districts. Similar results from both studies supported SSBD validity. The second study also supported reliability and replicability factors.

Translating Research into Effective Practice: The Effects of a Universal Staff and Student Intervention on Indicators of Discipline and School Safety

The implementation of a school-wide discipline plan based on the Effective Behavior Support model in nine elementary and middle schools, in addition to the Second Step violence prevention curriculum, resulted in reductions of discipline referrals, improved social skill knowledge, improved school operations, and motivation to continue with the intervention.

Using Functional Assessment to Develop Interventions for Challenging Behaviors in the Classroom: Three Case Studies

This article presents three case studies of elementary students with learning disabilities whose behavior interfered with the quantity and quality of their classroom instruction. In each case, interventions involved teaching and reinforcing specific replacement behaviors that were identified through functional behavioral assessment.

Using Information Technology To Prepare Personnel To Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavioral Support

 This article examines impediments to effective dissemination of training in positive behavioral support, such as school discipline policies and the inadequacy of training models. It suggests ways new information technologies can overcome these obstacles and reviews some new approaches using CD-ROM and online instructional methodologies to advance the training agenda.

Working Together To Make Change: An Example of Positive Behavioral Support for a Student with Traumatic Brain Injury

A case study of a sixth-grade boy with traumatic brain injury and behavior problems illustrates the use of an in-school action team to provide behavioral support. The team included special and regular educators, parents, a vice principal, and a member of a school-wide team with behavioral expertise.

Effective Behavior Support: A Systems Approach to Proactive Schoolwide Management

This article describes Effective Behavioral Support, a systems approach to enhancing the capacity of schools to adopt and sustain use of effective processes for all students. Implementation across four major areas of the school system is discussed, including: (1) schoolwide; (2) nonclassroom; (3) classroom, and (4) individual student. A sample individual positive behavioral support plan is included.

Writing a Behavioral Intervention Plan Based on a Functional Assessment

This is a workbook format for anyone working with children who exhibit target behaviors. It takes the learner through ten days of data using an ABC data collection tool, uses competing pathways charts, and teaches how to look for the function of the behavior.

Understanding Problem Behavior (An Interactive Tutorial)

An on-line beginning level tutorial on the foundations of applied behaivor analysis. An excellent precursor to functional assessment training.

Arizona Behavioral Initiative Lake Valley Video

An on-line video (real player format) in which an elementary school's personnel describe the impact of PBIS. To view the video click on the following link. http://abi.ed.asu.edu/basics/video.htm

Behavior Intervention Planning: Using the Functional Behavior Assessment Data

A CD-Rom based training tool that trains individuals to develop behavior intervention plans using the results of functional assessment.

Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: An Overview

Very comprehensive overview of schoolwide PBS, reviews levels of PBS, PBS teams and member roles, discusses faculty buy-in, establishing data-based decision making, establishing rules and expectations, developing lesson plans, creating rewards, refining consequences, and monitor/evaluate effectiveness.

PBS for At-Risk Students: The Behavior Education Program

Refresh on At-Risk populations-Overview of BEP, Example BEP, BEP foundations, BEP processes.

PBS for At-Risk Students: An Overview

This is an introduction to working with At-Risk populations-how to identify giving examples and non-examples and using data-based decisions to select appropriate interventions.

Becoming Swift at SWIS

Preview of SWIS III user's manual, license agreement and confidentiality, preview SWIS account, data entry in practice account, basic report generation, customized reporting, and building fluency activities.

SWIS: Reviewing the 8-step process

Goes over: Conducting SWIS readiness tasks, submitting license agreement and school info form, setting up for SWIS taining, conducting SWIS training, follow-up, maintenance, facilitator boosters, license renewal process.

PBS for At-Risk Students: Intervention Decision Sheet

Is a checklist that is intended to help a team determine which (behavioral) intervention would be most appropriate for their students needs from looking at their school's data.

Behavior Support Plan

Blank form to do a behavior support plan for an individual student after a functional assessment has been conducted.

Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project Training Preparation Manual

Manual has been developed to assist local community contacts in coordinating community-based training in PBS within their area. Refer to page 3 of document for materials.

Training Evaluation

Training evaluation form to gain feedback about quality of training in PBS.

Principles of Behavior: ABC Activity

Teaching/training of A-B-C analysis to aid in determining the function of a students problematic behavior.

Original Britney Case Study

This is a case study for walking through PBS for an individual with disabilities (7 yr old).

Blank PATH Form

Blank PATH form to aid coach in person-centered planning.

Person-centered Process Facilitator Tip Sheet

Provides quick tips to fill out a path.

Person-Centered Planning Presentation.

This is a power-point that introduces person-centered planning and how to do a PATH.

PBS Summary: Safe and Drug Free

Defines PBS and provides research validated evidence for use of PBS. Provides specific PBS data from schools in Florida.

Levels and Descriptions of Behavior Support

Defines the following terms: school-wide, classroom, target group, individual student.

Positive Behavior Support: Comprehensive Assessment Tool. Assessing the level of need for PBS in your school.

Assessment tool which assists in determining the level of intervention needed for implementing PBs in your school and to develop an action based plan bated on your results.

Coaches Strategies

For coaches to reference regarding: keeping PBS team motivated, buy-in, interfacing more effectively with team, handling philosophical differences on team, providing effective staff training, identify effective rewards, getting administrative support, clarifying coaches role.

Best Practice: Initial Classroom Assessment

Helps to analyze classroom environment for management of student behavior by addressing the following area: physical setting of classroom, scheduling, instructional planning and delivery, classroom discipline plan.

Classroom Student Interview (use for functional assessment)

This is an interview of student to aid school professionals in identifying antecedents, consequences that might be contributing to the maintenance of problem behavior.

Individual Student Training

Person-Centered Planning, PBS Overview, Teaming/Collaboration, Functional Analysis/Assessment, Behavior Support Plan, implementation Plan.

School-wide PBS: PBS Coaches Training

Gives overview of PBS, role of a coach, teaming and collaboration, responsibilities of coaches, details about PBS team meetings, SWIS readiness, problem solving process.

Classroom PBS Training Modules

This is a series of 15 training modules for use of postive behavioral support at a classroom-wide level.

Action Planning Guide for School-wide PBS

This is an initial action plan for implementing SW-PBS based on results of PBS-CAT.

Facilitator's Guide for School-wide PBS

The Facilitator's Guide supplements the three-day training provided to school teams in Florida. The guide is intended to provide additional references and support to coaches and teams when they go back to their school to begin the development and implementation of their school-wide system. The guide is in PDf format and links to additional forms and resources. http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/pdf/OriginalFacilitatorGuideComplete11.25.03.pdf

PBS Online Training Modules

Four 1-2 hour online training modules on the topics of 1) person-centered planning, 2)functional assessment, 3)curriculum and instruction, and 4) developing, implementing and evaluating a behavior support plan. http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/pbsmodules/request.asp

Facilitator's Guide for Individual PBS

Provides narrative forms necessary to assist a team in implementing a five step PBS process with students. http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/resources_indstudents.asp

Targeted Interventions Training Manual

Training curriculum for PBIS school-based targeted teams.

Kansas Institute for Positive Behavioral Support Modules

These materials are used to train professionals to facilitate teams implementing individualized positive behavior support plans. The content is meant to be completed in conjunction with onsite case study support and field-based activities.

Online Academy Positive Behavior Support Modules

These materials are used to train professionals to facilitate teams implementing individualized positive behavior support plans. The content is meant to be completed in conjunction with onsite case study support and field-based activities.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual

This manual is designed for individuals who are training school-wide PBS teams and coaches in the practices and principles associated with School-wide Positive Behavior Support. The purpose of the manual is to assist trainers in the design of training session content, training activities and on-going training evaluation. This manual covers the first year's content of School-wide PBS team training. The manual can be accessed at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

Classroom Teacher Curriculum and Instruction Inventory

This survey taps into teachers perceptions of how their classroom practices and environment affects their students.

School-wide Postive Behavior Support: Action Planning Guide

This guide allows school faculty and administrators to give a coherent listing of the purpose, goals, and action plan for promoting an action plan needed for school-wide impovement.

Addressing the Needs of Schools Using Postive Behavior Support

This powerpoint presentation discusses the PBS program, how it is implemented in a school, and its beneficial properties.

School-Wide Postive Behavior Support

This powerpoint presentation discusses the positive behavior support project, its attributes, and its components

School Path

Allows for school administrators and faculty to brainstorm their school goals, potential for success, and barriers that may impede its completion.

District School-Wide PBS Checklist

This form allows for an organized way of keeping traack of mid-year and end of year items needed for reporting and assessment purposes.

Positive Behavior Support in our School: Frequently Asked Questions

This is offered in order to answer questions regarding positive behavior support and its benefits

Facilitating the Problem Solving Process

With the help of a group facilitator, this details the process that groups can use in order to engage in meaningful dialogue in order to reach a resolution to a problem.

Problem Solving Process

This worksheet includes a graphical (flow chart) representation of the problem solving process.

General Data Decision Rules

This worksheet is a tool used to give guidance in the implementation of an intervention with the referral process.

Ideas for Free Incentives

This is a tool for use in determining what school and community resources could be used as incentives for students.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Fast Facts!

This is a brief survey designed to assess what aspects of the school environment can best benefit from school-wide positive behavior support

Sample Reinforcer Inventory

This is a checklist of possible reinforcement tools that could be used within the school.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: District Readiness Checklist for Leadership Team (2-sided)

These worksheets provide a checklist that a district must complete prior to completing the school-wide PBS training.

Completing the Initial Benchmarks of Quality for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)

This is a checklist and summary of procedures needed in order to address a schools readiness prior to SWPBS training.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Training Readiness Checklist for Individual Schools

This checklist provides schools with a list of procedures that must be completed prior to the school-wide PBS training.

Coaches responsibilities

This gives a list of the responsibilities for coaches throughout the year of implementation.

Target Group Interventions for High and at-risk Students

This worksheet details a training that is available to schools to help with determining the appropriate intervention needed for high and at-risk students.

Anger Mangement Programs

The purpose of this resource is to provide a list of empirically-supported andger management programs.

Next Step Decision Checklist

This checklist should be used as a guide to determine whether your school meets the requirement for an effective school-wide PBS plan.

Taking School-Wide PBS to the next level

This powerpoint presentation describes how a school can use data to maintain their school-wide PBS, as well as identifying where to go next.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 11: Sustainability

This unit identifies the systemic structures necessary for sustainable high fidelity implementation of school-wide PBS. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Introduction

This section defines the purpose and intended users of the manual and provides a brief overview of the content and training schedule. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Resources, Forms

This section offers assessment, planning, and implementation tools for all three levels of PBS implementation. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 1: Overview of PBS

This unit provides an overview of school-wide, non-classroom behavior support strategies, introduces the importance of data for decision-making and offers general strategies for team-based planning. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 2: School-wide Discipline.

This unit briefly discusses effective discipline strategies and presents the core features of school-wide PBS implementation. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 3: Data-based decision making

This unit introduces basic guidelines for collecting and using ODR data for effective and regular decision-making. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 4: Specific Settings

This unit provides information on behavior management strategies designed to apply school-wide behavioral expectations in specific settings. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 5: Team Meetings

This unit provides strategies for conducting productive meetings and tools for assessing meeting effectiveness and efficiency. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 6: PBS Review

This unit provides a brief review of the critical features of school-wide PBS implementation. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 7: Classroom Implementation

This unit offers strategies for effective classroom management and provides steps for effective practice of these support strategies. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 8: Managing Escalating Behavior

This unit identifies the steps of recognizing and responding to escalating behaviors to defuse potentially dangerous situations and prevent recurrence of extreme behaviors. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 9: Individual Student Systems

This unit provides an introduction to functional behavioral assessment and the development of behavior intervention plans. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 10: Targeted Group Intervention

This unit identifies the critical components of targeted group interventions and offers strategies for incorporating targeted support into school-wide PBS. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

Classroom PBS Overview for Coaches

Provides an overview of application of PBS at the classroom level. The introduction is best used with experienced coaches to describe the possible next steps after establishing a school-wide behavior support system.

Coaches' Training - Individual Student Level

Provides an overview of application of PBS at the individual student level. The introduction is best used with experienced coaches to describe the possible next steps after establishing a school-wide behavior support system.

Coaches' Training - Targeted Groups

Provides an overview of application of PBS at the targeted group level. The introduction is best used with experienced coaches to describe the possible next steps after establishing a school-wide behavior support system.

Coaches' Training - Next Steps

Provides an overview of application of PBS at the secondary and tertiary levels. The introduction is best used with experienced coaches to describe the possible next steps after establishing a school-wide behavior support system.

Florida PBS Project Evaluation

This is a powerpoint presentation for coaches that describes the Florida PBS project evaluation froms and process.

Experienced Coaches Training - Coaching 101

This powerpoint is intended to cover the areas of: 1) Using your data effectively 2) Requesting technical assistance for your team 3) Problem solving with the team 4) Creating your yearly plan for training and implementation 5) Completing your product book 6) Establishing effective team meetings and team roles; and 7) Coaches' role and responsibilities

Experienced Coaches' Training - Coaching 102

Powerpoint presentation to experienced coaches covering the following topics: 1) Assisting with funding and fundraising efforts 2) Reaching beyond the school: Involving parents and the community 3) Changing the school climate (est. ratio of 4 to 1, adding teacher incentives, etc) 4) SW Booster training requirements 5) Using data to make necessary changes in procedures and systems 6) Keeping your process new, creative and interesting

MARYLAND’S POSITIVE BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS & SUPPORTS (PBIS)PLAN

This document explains the background and history of the Maryland PBIS Initiative and their five Year Implementation Time Line.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

This document explains the purpose of establishing a state-wide network of behavior support coaches and it also describes the prequisites skills required to be considered as a coach.

COACH’S Implementation Checklist Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

This is a checklist designed to be completed monthly by the PBIS Coach to monitor PBIS implementation activities in a school.

Application for New Team Training Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS)

This document provides the names of inidividuals on the PBIS team that will be representative of their school.

Phase I Planning Checklist/Timeline

This document provides a detailed timeline for completing task in Phase I ( March-July: Year 1).

Phase II Planning Checklist/Timeline

This document provides a detailed timeline for completing task in Phase II ( July 16- September 1).

Phase III Planning Checklist/Timeline

This document provides a detailed timeline for completing task in Phase III ( September- January).

Coaches Self-Assessment

This self-assessment is designed to assist coaches in identify current strengths and professional development goals.

Behavior Education Program Fidelity of Implementation Measure (BEP-FIM) Scoring Guide

This document is used in describing or reporting facts or details about the implementation of Behavioral Education Program (BEP).

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)-Powerpoint

This powerpoint presentation discusses the history of PBIS in Maryland, provides data on Maryland PBIS schools, and discusses project target.

Cost/ Benefit Analysis Worksheet

This is a spreadsheet that allows you to enter the number of referrals per academic year and then it provides you with a graphical representation.

End of year Report

This is a survey that coach team leader, and administrator complete to discuss the successes for the year.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

This document is designed to assess and evaluate the critical features of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) across each academic school year.

School-Based PBIS Implementation Phases Inventory (IPI) - Project Target

This is a survey that measures districts support and their investment in PBIS at the follwoing phases: preparation, initiation, implementation, and maintenance,

Draft Proposal for Implementation of PBIS in Baltimore City Public Schools

This document is a drafted implementation plan that describes procedures that could be used to implement PBIS in Baltimore Public Schools.

Maryland PBIS Newsletter 2005

This document provides information about the PBIS project and it also describes the effects on schools once implemented.

PBS STAFF Satisfaction Survey

This survey measures individuals level of agreement or disagreement with each statement.

PBS STUDENT Satisfaction Survey

This survey measures individual's level of agreement or disagreement with each statement.

Process for Providing Team Training/ Evaluation

This instrument provides an overview of the requirements for training.

District/State Implementation Phases

This document provides you with information and the district and the state role in phase 1, 2, and 3 of the implementation process.

Sample PBIS Exemplar School

This powerpoint provides information about the effect of PBIS at Indian Head school.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports-Powerpoint

This is a powerpoint presentation that discusses the elements of PBIS

Maryland School Site Visit Report Form

This document is used to report disciplinary information about a school that was visited.

State of Maryland Organization Chart

This is graphical depiction of the organization of the State of Maryland PBIS teams.

Building on Success: Developing a Model for System-Wide Implementation of PBIS

This powerpoint presentation discusses the History of PBIS in Maryland and Baltimore County Public Schools.

Team Training Manual

This is a manual that provide tips for working with a group.

Initial Training Activities for Core Elements of Wraparound from Illinois PBIS - PBIS Intensive Level: Integrating Wraparound in Schools

This is a training manual which provides information on how to integrate Wraparound Approaches in PBIS Schools.

Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Big Behavior Tool (BB-T)

This is a checklist which reflects the caregiver/facilitator/team's rating of a student's externalized, internalized and expressive behavior.

Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Educational Information Tool (EI-T)

This is a questionnaire in which a teacher rates a student's classroom functioning and his/her academic performance.

Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Family/Caregiver Satisfaction Tool (FS-T)

This is a checklist in which parent's/caregiver's rate their experience in working with teams (i.e., IEP Team).

Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Home, School, Community Tool (HSC-T)

This is a questionnaire in which a teacher, parent/caregiver, and youth's facilitator complete in order measure a student's needs and/or strengths.

Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Individual Student Evaluation System (ISES) Wraparound Integrity Tool (WIT)

This is a tool that describes activities involved in Phases I through IV of the Wraparound intervention.

Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Youth Satisfaction Tool (YS-T)

This survey is intended to reflect youth’s experience with a previous team (if any) such as a special education IEP team.

PBIS 2005 School Profile Form

Allows for a summary of your school’s PBIS activities this past year. It is broken down in sections so you can report specific interventions as well as results you have experienced.

Illinois PBIS Implementation Levels for 2005-2006

The following document is a list of criteria that will be used to guide assessment of implementation in schools.

Working Smarter with PBIS: Establishing School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavioral Support

This powerpoint presentation is used to train new PBS teams.

T-Chart of Behavior

This chart allows teachers and office administers to document behaviors that are being managed.

Problem Behavior Pathway – “Analysis of the Problem Behavior”

This is a pathway chart that allows individuals to the "A-B-C" of behavior.

Illinois PBIS Network Regional Team Targeted Level Action Plan

This document could be used to assist teams in developing their action plan for implementing PBIS.

Illinois PBIS Implementation

This is a checklist that allows schools to monitor the status of their PBIS program.

ABC Observation Form

This is a form that could be used to record the "A-B-C's" during a behavioral observation.

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

This chart shows how the universal, targeted, and intensive behavioral system pairs with the academic Response to Intervention (RTI) system.

PBIS Staff Kickoff

This form explains how PBIS helps staff to build a school-wide social-culture.

PBIS Problem Solving Steps

This document details the objectives of each step of the Problem Solving method.

Illinois PBIS Implementation Recommended Job Descriptions for EXTERNAL Coach

This document lists the job goal, qualifications requirement, and performance responsibilities of the PBIS external coach.

Illinois PBIS Implementation Recommended Job Descriptions for INTERNAL Coach

This document lists the job goal, qualifications requirement, and performance responsibilities of the PBIS internal coach.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): Behavioral Intervention Planning (BIP) Systems and Practices Targeted Level

This is a powerpoint presentation in which participants will be able to identify why a standing targeted team is needed, the skill capacities needed on the team, the mission of the targeted team, and referral process.

PBIS School-Wide Team Meeting Form

This form allows teams to formally document events that take place during PBIS meetings.

PBIS School-Wide Team “YEAR-AT-A-GLANCE"

This form provides a layout of when specific tasks should be completed.

Intensive Level PBIS: Integrating Wraparound Approaches in PBIS Schools

This is a powerpoint presentation that is a 2-Day training for schools implementing School-Wide PBIS. The goals of the training are to: proivide Understand about key features of wraparound value base and process, have participants Gain experience with components of the wraparound process, and Learn to apply data-based decision-making, self-assessment and monitoring procedures to ensure effectiveness of practices.

Four Phases of Wraparound Implementation

This document provides a description of what steps are involved in the Four Phases of Wraparound Implementation.

Impact of PCP and PBS Plan Tool

This tool is used to review the impact of the PCP and PBS plan on the student as reflected by the written report for intensive tertiary support. This could be considered as a more in depth analysis of a PBS plan for a very complex plan.

KIPBS Course Syllabus

This syllabus contains the training timelines and expectations for an online and onsite course supported through state human services resources. This intensive class takes 8 hours a week. However, school professionals are currently signed up to audit the course as part of a collaborative agreement through statewide PBS planning.

Onsite Observation Form for PCP and PBS Plan Facilitation (2 parts)

This tool is used onsite to observe professionals facilitating PCP and PBS plan processes. The observer is assumed to be a highly trained specialist who can provide feedback using part 2 as a scoring criteria and part 1 for the documentation. In KIPBS training, professionals have mentors sign off to indicate completion.

Illinois PBIS Coordinator Self-Assessment Tool

This self-assessment was developed to be a descriptive working tool for coordinators who are developing school-wide PBIS systems.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support:

This is a document that is used to ensure that school are ready to implement PBS.

Secondary Prevention: Targeted Interventions

This is a document which indicates how targeted interventions could decreas problem behavior in the classroom thereby increasing academic engagement and decrease office referrals.

Summary of Classroom Observation

This is an instrument which is used to observe a student's behavior in a classroom setting.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS

This is a powerpoint presentation that helps school with understanding challenging behavior and it also explains how to develop effective discipline practices.

Person-centered Positive Behavior Support Plan Scoring Criteria and Checklist

This tool is used to review and score intensive person centered and positive behavior support plans. The critical features met are summarized and reported for training and evaluation purposes

Discovering School-wide PBS: Moving Towards a Positive Future

This DVD contains a 24 minute awareness video on school-wide PBS that can be shared with districts and schools to solicit interest and buy-in. There are also 5 video segments on getting buy-in, using data for decision-making, teaching expectations and rules, providing effective consequences, and developing reward systems. The DVD can be ordered from the Florida DOE at: http://www.firn.edu/doe/bin00014/clermail.htm

Extending RTI to School-wide Behavior Support (Missouri PBS Conference)

Response to Intervention translates well into School-wide.

ABA and academic instruction.

 This article discusses the contributions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in effective instruction of students with autism spectrum disorders. Emphasis is on the use of antecedent interventions and curriculum-based assessment. It also notes that the principles and methods of ABA are being integrated into routine educational procedures, including recent mandates for functional behavioral assessments.

Family involvement in functional assessment and positive behavior support

Discussion of family involvement in functional assessment (FA) with individuals who have autism or related disabilities first provides a rationale for family involvement, then reviews the literature and offers guidelines including: recognize, respect, and accommodate families' individuality; create a context for family centered participation; take a comprehensive perspective; and develop and maintain a team partnership.

Check in/Check out: A Post-Hoc Evaluation of an Efficient, Secondary-Level Targeted Intervention for Reducing Problem Behaviors in Schools

The Check in/Check out (CICO) program was developed as a secondary-level, targeted behavioral intervention in a three-tier preventative model of behavior support and has received empirical support as an effective way to reduce problem behaviors (Hawken & Horner, 2003; March & Horner, 2002). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, post-implementation, the fidelity of implementation and effectiveness of the CICO program to reduce problem behavior when program training and implementation was managed by typical district personnel. Results indicate that the critical components of the program were implemented with fidelity across three elementary schools and that the program was effective in reducing the number of office discipline referrals for students who entered the program. Further, the program was perceived as being effective and efficient by district personnel. It is argued that the CICO program should be considered a viable targeted behavioral intervention with students for whom primary-level preventative measures are insufficient.

A celebration of the contributions of Montrose M. Wolf and Todd R. Risley

Montros M. Wolf and Todd R. Risley were instrumental in defining and creating the field of applied behavior analysis. Some of their major contributions to this field are discussed.

Vincent’s story: From Head Start to fourth grade

Positive behavior support is a longitudinal, team-based process. For
children with developmental and behavioral challenges, it is often
desirable to develop a dynamic milieu of support that involves school
and family, and that is continually adjusted to meet the needs to the
growing child in ever-changing environments. Functional behavioral
assessment and positive behavior interventions can be key elements in
support plans that enable children to benefit from appropriate, least
restrictive educational opportunities.

Early intervention, positive behavior support, and transition to school

This article describes positive behavior support as it is applied in the context of early intervention and as children progress into elementary school. Variables that contribute to effective interventions are discussed, as are issues that must be considered in order to construct optimally beneficial transitions for children with behavioral challenges.

Building Inclusive School Cultures Using School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is a systematic and effective approach for broadly improving student behavior across school environments. SWPBS includes data-based strategies for supporting all students along a continuum of need and intensity based on a three-tiered model of prevention. Students with the most significant behavioral challenges are provided with assessment-based, individualized supports. To date, considerable evaluation research has demonstrated the benefits of SWPBS, documenting behavioral improvements using the whole school as the unit of analysis. Notably, less evaluation research has focused on the effects of SWPBS on the behavior of individual students with the most significant disabilities. In this paper, we describe SWPBS with an emphasis on the conceptual and procedural elements that are intended to benefit the full range of students within a school, with a particular focus on those students with the most intense needs. We discuss the SWPBS process, provide case illustrations, and call for additional research on the inclusion of students with significant disabilities with all applications of SWPBS.

Including children with autism in general education classrooms

Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.

Decreasing children’s risk taking on the playground

Playground mishaps are some of the most common sources of injury and are the leading killer of children. The present study used a multiple baseline design across three classrooms (N = 379 children). With minimal teaching and rewards, children decreased and maintained decreased risky playground behaviors on slides. Floor effects on climbers prevented the demonstration of similar effects. The decreases seen in risky slide behavior are discussed within the context of preventive safety training for playground injuries.

Positive support strategies for students with behavioral disorders in general education settings

Although it has been argued that students with behavioral disorders benefit most from placement in general education classrooms, careful and systematic support is required to insure that their placement is successful. In this article, we review supports and interventions provided at multiple levels that together are known as "positive behavior support" (PBS). The levels include school-wide PBS, which involves the full student body; classroom-based PBS, focusing on the individual class as the unit of analysis; and individualized PBS, addressing the individualized needs of specific students. When relatively intense and chronic behavior problems exist, individualized PBS involves the use of functional behavioral assessments and proactive, educative interventions. In this article, we describe each of these levels with reference to the empirical literature and with an emphasis on practical applications.

Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based behavioral support: II. Assessing the relative importance of factor categories

This study was conducted to identify relative priorities among variables mediating the outcomes of community-based behavioral support for individuals with severe disabilities. Data were obtained through questionnaires completed by individuals representing three constituency groups: parents/guardians, direct service providers, and trainers/consultants. The questionnaire asked participants to rate and rank 12 factor categories that were identified in a previous phase of this investigation (Hieneman & Dunlap, 2000). The results showed that all 12 factor categories were considered at least "somewhat important;' and the factor labeled "buy-in with intervention" was identified as the most important category. Comparisons of relative priorities revealed considerable consistency across the three constituency groups. The results add support to the notion that effective community-based support is based on an array of variables related to the context, individuals, and systems involved.

Using school bus discipline referral data in decision making: Two case studies

Public schools are responsible for providing a safe, structured environment that is conducive to learning. This requirement encompasses a variety of settings, including school bus transportation. However, limited research exists to indicate best practices for designing and implementing behavior programs for school bus transportation. The availability of bus discipline referrals provides an ideal source of information on bus-related discipline needs. This article describes 2 examples of using bus discipline referrals to identify discipline concerns and possible support needs. First, a district-wide assessment of bus discipline referrals is presented. Second, the results of an assessment of school-wide needs of a single elementary school are presented. Additionally, the patterns from the district-wide assessment and school assessment are compared and contrasted to determine concerns specific to a school that may not be addressed through a district-based behavior intervention. Implications for data-based decision-making are discussed.

The school-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support

Presents data documenting the psychometric properties of the "School-Wide Evaluation Tool," a research instrument for measuring implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) procedures. Extent to which schools already use school-wide PBS; Determination if training and technical assistance efforts result in change in the use of school-wide PBS procedures.

School-wide positive behavior support: An alternative approach to discipline in schools

A book chapter in the book 'Positive Behavior Support.'

Validity of office discipline referral measures as indices of school-wide behavioral status and effects of school-wide behavioral interventions

Office discipline referrals (ODRs) are widely used by school personnel to evaluate student behavior and the behavioral climate of schools. In this article, the authors report the results of a review of the relevant literature to evaluate the validity of ODR data as indices of school-wide behavioral climate, the effects of school-wide behavioral interventions, and differ- ing behavior support needs across schools. They used Messick's unified approach to validity by focusing on examples of evidence for empirical and ethical foundations of interpretations, uses, and social consequences of ODR measures at the school-wide level. The authors also discuss ongoing issues, study limitations, and related recommendations for interpretations and uses of ODR measures as school-wide indices, based on the existing literature.

Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems

Comprehensive Classroom Management presents practical methods for creating a positive learning environment, working with behavior problems, and other challenges in the classroom. This text uses real-life examples to help pre-service and in-service teachers understand and apply the principles of classroom management in their own classroom situations.

The construction of adulthood and disability

The status of dental care for individuals with developmental disabilities in Kansas was examined. Dentists, family members, and case managers reported general, but partial, satisfaction with the availability, accessibility, appropriateness, and affordability of such care. Reasons for the results and recommendations for further improvement are discussed.

Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners

This popular book investigates the teaching, instruction and curricula required to meet the needs of diverse learners who by virtue of their experiential, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds, challenge traditional curriculum and instructional programs.

Improving the behavior of students with emotional and behavioral disorders using individualized curricular modifications

This study evaluated assessment-based curricular modifications designed to improve the classroom behavior of two elementary school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Functional assessment data led to individualized modifications of assignments. Evaluation indicated the modifications resulted in reduced problem behavior and increased task engagement by each boy. Results are related to new legal requirements for behavioral interventions.

Antecedent intervention: Recent developments in community focused behavior support

A book chapter in the book 'Antecedent intervention: Recent developments in community focused behavior support.'

Identifying Barriers and Facilitators in Implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support

As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used a systematic process to understand barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support by schools implementing at high and low levels of fidelity, and the degree to which the project could impact barriers and facilitators. Results indicate that schools implementing with low fidelity tend to identify practical, operational barriers, whereas schools implementing with high fidelity struggle with systems issues. Both high-implementing and low-implementing schools identified the same facilitators to implementation; however, they differed in their views of which facilitators the project could impact. Implications for state PBS project activities are discussed, along with suggestions for future data collection and providing a model of data-based decision making at a macro level.

Review of “Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum: Supervisory and Direct Support Editions

In the past several years, the values and practices of positive behavior support (PBS) have had a significant impact on services provided to adults and children with disabilities. Evidence of this impact can be seen in federal grants and laws such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA, 1997), a professional journal (the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions), and an established organization (the Association for Positive Behavior Support).With this emergence comes a continued need for clearly defining PBS, identifying the skills evident in a competent practitioner, and effectively teaching those skills to supervisors, teachers, direct support staff, and other professionals. It is with these concerns in mind that we will review the training materials Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum: Supervisory and Direct Support Editions (PBS-TC).

Person-centered planning

A book chapter in the book 'Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy.'

Measuring the impact of positive behavior support

Assesses the social validity of positive behavior support. Evaluation of behavioral and quality of life outcome; Details on the functional assessment of problem behavior; Development of multicomponent interventions.

Long-term supports and ongoing evaluation

A book chapter in the book 'Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing Positive Behavior Plans.'

Emerging challenges and opportunities: Introducing the Association for Positive Behavior Support.

We announce the creation of the Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS) to unite communities and assist in the promotion and continuing development of the discipline. This brief article provides an introduction to APBS and an invitation to prospective members of this new international association.

The Relationship of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to Academic Achievement in an Urban Middle School

An emerging literature on school-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) in urban settings suggests the utility of PBS in addressing student social development while decreasing the need for disciplinary actions (i.e., office disciplinary referrals [ODRs]). This research represents a significant addition to, and expansion of, this literature by examining the relationship of school-wide PBS-induced reductions in out-of-class referrals to student academic achievement. School-wide PBS was implemented in an urban, inner-city middle school in the Midwest over a 3-year period. Data on ODRs, suspensions, standardized test scores, and treatment fidelity were gathered and analyzed. Results demonstrated significant reductions in ODRs and suspensions and increases in standardized math and reading scores. Additionally, regression analyses suggested a significant relationship between student problem behavior and academic performance. Treatment adherence to PBS procedures was significantly correlated with reductions in problem behavior. These findings are discussed in terms of helping urban schools address challenging behavior.

Scientifically Supported Practices in EBD: A Proposed Approach and Brief Review of Current Practices

Both No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act require educators to use research-validated practices in classrooms. And yet education, special education, and the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) continue to show large gaps in the consistent use of best practices. The authors propose that the research-to-practice gap can be traced to the lack of clear, consistent criteria to determine what are research-based practices and the absence of support structures to assist educators in implementing such practices. A four-phase review process was developed based on current recommendations from the E/BD literature, and a brief review of classroom-based strategies was conducted. Four practices were identified as being research based. The authors discuss each of these practices and call for the field of special education, and E/BD in particular, to develop and adopt a universal set of standards to determine research-based practice and look to school systems to support their use.

Reducing problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of school-wide positive behavior supports

Investigated the efficacy of positive behavior support (PBS) prevention/early intervention strategies on the rate of problem behavior displayed by elementary schools students during recess. Specifically, this study examined the effects of directly teaching playground-related behaviors and the use of a group contingency to reinforce mastery in an elementary school.

Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts

The parents and professionals who wrote this book have remarkable stories, insights, and research to share - all about children with a range of disabilities who overcame difficult behavior challenges with the help of positive behavior support (PBS).

Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on student discipline problems and academic performance

Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour support on discipline problems and academic outcomes of students enrolled in an urban elementary school. The whole-school model was designed through technical assistance consultation with teachers that emphasized: (1) improving instructional methods; (2) formulating behavioural expectations; (3) increasing classroom activity engagement; (4) reinforcing positive performance; and (5) monitoring efficacy through data-based evaluation. As compared to a pre-intervention phase, the whole-school intervention was associated with decreased discipline problems (office referrals and school suspensions) over the course of several academic years. Student academic performance, as measured by standardized tests of reading and mathematics skills, improved contemporaneously with intervention. Issues related to whole-school approaches to student discipline and the contributions of positive behaviour support are discussed.

Improving discipline practices in public schools: Description of a whole-school and district-wide model of behavior analysis consultation

We describe the delivery of behavioral consultation services to improve discipline practices in public schools. The components of a whole-school and district-wide consultative model are discussed, with an emphasis on preventive interventions, multimethod measurement, and empirical outcome evaluation. Data from several consultation projects are presented to illustrate the types and scope of intervention.

Behavioral strategies to reduce school violence

Public schools that use punitive approaches toward student discipline can unwittingly promote violence and other antisocial behavior. This article reviews constructive and preventive methods to reduce school violence and vandalism. Various strategies are presented and discussed.

Positive behavior support in urban schools: Can we prevent the escalation of antisocial behavior

This article describes a case study of a school-wide positive behavior support model implemented in an ethnically and racially diverse inner-city elementary school. The project brought together school-based professionals with expert behavioral consultants from a local behavioral health-care agency to address the increasing rates of student disruptive behavior. Significant reductions were evident in both the overall level of office discipline referrals as well as the most serious offense, student assaults. Results are discussed within the context of the larger task of preventing antisocial behavior in urban schools.

Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions

This study investigated (a) the efficacy of using descriptive and experimental assessment methodologies to generate hypotheses regarding the function of problem behavior and (b) the efficiency and efficacy of function-based interventions compared to traditional intervention approaches that focus on the topography of behavior. Functional assessments were conducted with three elementary school students identified as at risk for failure due to problem behavior. Agreement among indirect measures, direct observation, and experimental manipulation of environmental variables supports the value of using convergent data from indirect assessment methods to develop valid hypotheses. In addition, behavioral interventions based on functional assessment were found to be more effective than alternative intervention approaches across all three case studies. Implications, study limitations, and future research directions are discussed.

The Social Lives of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Self-Contained Classrooms: A Descriptive Analysis

Social lives of 14 children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in segregated elementary school classrooms were compared with 14 typical students in general classrooms. Children with E/BD had little opportunity to engage in integrated school activities and their school social networks were dominated by individuals affiliated with special education.

Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention

We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-based lottery. Disruptive bus behaviors, as measured by discipline referrals and suspensions, decreased with intervention relative to baseline phases in an ABAB reversal design. These positive results were maintained over the long term, with school personnel assuming responsibility for intervention in the absence of ongoing consultation.

School demographic variables and out-of-school suspension rates: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of a large, ethnically diverse school district

Study examined out-of-school suspensions among elementary and secondary schools (N=97). Although student demographic variables were strongly related to a school's suspension rate, school comparisons showed that not all schools with a high percentage of at-risk students have a high suspension rate. Discusses results in terms of school discipline reform.

Framing positive behavior support in the ongoing discourse concerning the politics of knowledge

Examines the contributions of a progressive form of post-modern social theory to raising substantive issues about the politics of knowledge or the factors that govern decision processes regarding the nature of evidence from research. Basis for the reaction against postmodernism that has appeared in the special education literature; Confusion that occur in reactive positions between postmodernism on the one hand and subjectivism in the production of knowledge on the other.

Rethinking inclusion: Schoolwide applications

As a field, special education presents an excellent case study of the paradox of differentiation and integration, wherein we seek solutions through increased specialization but, in so doing, we redefine a problem in terms of discrete parts at the expense of the whole. As Thomas Skrtic pointed out more than a decade ago, a large and ever-widening gap exists between the purpose of special education -- to provide needed supports, services, adaptations, and accommodations to students with disabilities in order to preserve and enhance their educational participation in the least restrictive environment -- and its practice. And that practice has evolved over three decades into a parallel and highly differentiated educational structure, often with only loosely organized connections to the general education system. "Inclusion" is usually regarded as the placement of special education students in general education settings. In this article, the authors present a new vision of integrated education, in which previously specialized adaptations and strategies are used to enhance the learning of all students.

The relationship of inquiry to public policy

This article examines the nature of inquiry and how it has evolved in American culture. Issues of "evidence" are examined, both for inquiry and for its application in public policy. It considers the role of policy in inquiry and the implications of altering the traditional relationship of policy to inquiry.

Anchoring Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in Structural School Reform

 Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) exemplifies a longitudinal research program originating in the fields of special education and school psychology that has produced an extensive national database encompassing an evidence-based set of practices applicable to general education as well as special education students including those with severe disabilities. Schoolwide applications of evidence-based practices, however, are at some risk of falling victim to the ongoing bifurcation of education into the general and special education parallel and often noninteractive, professional systems of instruction. One potential solution to bifurcated practice is to embed (or contextualize) SWPBS in a broader, universal school reform agenda that coordinates and evaluates all educational intervention services and supports for the benefit of all students. A structural school reform process called the Schoolwide Applications Model (SAM) is described, which includes SWPBS as 1 of 15 critical features. Results from a 3-year, ongoing research project in a low-income, multicultural, urban school district in Northern California suggests that SWPBS, with its three levels of student support, guided by teams of general as well as special educators, can be an important contributor to academic as well as social achievement among students with and without disabilities and, as grounded within systematic school reform, can help to mitigate against the bifurcation of general and special education practices.

A research synthesis of social story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders

Recent trends in the frequency of diagnoses and special education referrals for children with autism spectrum disorders necessitate the demand for evidence-based educational practices. Specifically, information related to improving social communication and social behavior domains in classrooms is needed. One method that is increasingly suggested for teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders is the use of Social Stories. Although the rationale behind Social Stories is strong, little research exists examining the effectiveness of Social Story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. This article offers a synthesis of the available research regarding Social Stories and their effectiveness for educating children with autism spectrum disorders. In addition, future directions for research and implications for educators are provided.

Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS

Presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support. Descriptions of how PBS efforts were initiated in the school; Time and money spent preparing for and implementing PBS; Use of changes in behavior referrals and suspension to evaluate the effect of PBS on the larger system.

Team-Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers

Although functional behavior assessment (FBA) has been widely recognized as a promising practice for providing proactive interventions with students exhibiting challenging behaviors in typical schools, questions persist as to how FBA should best be trained and used in such public settings. Debate has balanced the issue of what is practical for public school personnel and whether FBA can ever reach that level of practicality while maintaining a level of integrity necessary to be a valid technology for behavior intervention. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the perceptions and practices of 13 school-based FBA teams that included one or more members who received a 1-day workshop on FBA. Teams were asked to respond to a brief questionnaire regarding their perceptions of the process, what information they found useful, and how that information was used. Results indicate several problem issues and barriers that must be addressed before team-based FBA is widely advocated and practiced in public school settings. Sample team responses and discussion of future directions are included.

Toward a Structural Assessment: Analyzing the Merits of an Assessment Tool for a Student with E/BD

The past decade has given rise to a resurgence of interest in the investigation of antecedent events that "set the stage" for the occurrence of problem behaviors and, correspondingly, the role of these antecedents in developing preventative interventions. A growing literature supports the impact of teacher interactions and classroom structure on the overall classroom environment, specifically student behavior. Due to the complexity of natural settings, current protocols for assessing these setting factors for effective development of preventative strategies present limitations in external validity. The current investigation piloted a structural assessment tool (Setting Factors Assessment Tool-SFAT) designed to measure varying types of, as well as concurrent, classroom setting factors in a classroom context. The SFAT was employed to address the problem behaviors of a student with emotional/ behavioral disorders whose primary placement was in a general education second-grade classroom. The results of a traditional school-based functional assessment (descriptive assessment), an analog-based structural analysis, and the SFAT were compared. SFAT assessment results were provided to the teacher in the form of environmental and instructional recommendations. Results indicated that classroom-based environmental and instructional modifications were successful in reducing the student's problem behavior. Further, two-month follow-up data indicated maintenance of the original reductions. Implications for a school-based structural assessment protocol as well as directions for future research are discussed.

An Analysis of Trends Regarding Proactive and Ecologically Valid Interventions in Applied Research

Over the last two decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the potential of functional assessment and antecedent-based interventions, as well as to the importance of ecological validity in the evaluation of intervention practices. However, despite this increased interest, it is not clear to what degree trends in intervention research over the past two decades have mirrored this discussion. The current investigation was derived from a database of intervention research from the last 22 years across developmental as well as behavioral disabilities. The study was designed to ascertain to what degree the research literature is reflecting the increased interest in assessment and antecedent-based interventions, and to what extent it is achieving ecological validity by including the participation of typical intervention agents and settings. The results confirm anticipated increases in assessment and antecedent-based interventions, but fail to show evidence of overall increases in ecological validity. Potential implications of these findings, and future research directions, are explored in the discussion.

School-wide positive behavior supports: Achieving and sustaining effective learning environments for all students

A book chapter in the book "Focus on behavior analysis in education: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities."

Behaviorally effective school environments

A book chapter in the book "Interventions for academic and behavior problems: Preventive and remedial approaches."

IDEA, Positive Behavioral Supports, and School Safety

A five-part article describes and analyzes the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and a behavioral intervention technique called "positive behavioral interventions, supports, and strategies" (PBS). Suggests guidelines for applying PBS within the framework of IDEA, especially as it applies to discipline of students covered by the Act.

Positive behavior support and urban school improvement: A special section of the Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions

Discusses urban school improvement and positive behavior support as the focus of the special edition of the 'Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions' in fall 2002. Themes discussed during a Behavior Summit in Washington, D.C. as inspiration for the journal edition.

Positive behavior support as a family-centered endeavor

This article presents information related to positive behavior support as a family-centred endeavor. Many authors have noted that optimal positive behavior support is conducted with sensitivity to the family's need, goals and circumstances. Such family-centered positive behavior support (PBS) has the potential to produce substantial and durable improvements in a child's behavior and, importantly, to yield lifestyle benefits for other family members. Although a number of authors have advanced these positions, there remains a need for more research and practical reports regarding the process and outcomes of family-centered PBS.

Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence-based practices (2nd Ed.)

This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Addressing Behavior Problems that Impede Student Learning

The school-wide application of positive behavior support (PBS) is a prevention-oriented approach to student discipline that is characterized by its focus on defining and teaching behavioral expectations, rewarding appropriate behaviors, continual evaluation of its effectiveness, and the integration of supports for individuals, groups, the school as a whole, and school/family/community partnerships. Although school-wide PBS has been implemented in hundreds of schools thus far, many professionals in education and psychology remain, for the most part, unfamiliar with this proactive alternative for increasing positive student behavior. This article reviews the foundations and core components of school-wide PBS, provides a case example of the implementation and preliminary evaluation of school-wide PBS in an urban middle school, and summarizes critical issues and future research directions in this area of considerable importance to professionals in educational psychology and related fields.

Urban applications of school-wide positive behavior support: Critical issues and lessons learned

Researchers and educators have recognized that typical school-wide approaches to discipline and the prevention and management of problem behavior are often insufficient to address the needs of many students in inner-city schools with high base rates of problem behavior. This article outlines critical issues and lessons learned in the planning and implementation of effective and self-sustaining Positive Behavior Support (PBS) efforts in inner-city schools. Among these issues are methods for the facilitation of school-university partnerships, the incorporation of PBS into existing comprehensive school improvement efforts, the maintenance of school-wide PBS efforts, and the formalization of exit strategies and arrangements for subsequent technical assistance. The importance of service integration, family support, youth development, and community development are emphasized in ensuring the effectiveness and sustainability of school-wide PBS efforts in inner-city settings.

Promoting Inclusion and Peer Participation through Assessment-Based Intervention

In the current investigation, the processes of functional assessment and function-based intervention were used to resolve the severe challenging behaviors of a boy with autism and mental retardation in an inclusive kindergarten in South Korea. A multicomponent intervention was developed in collaboration with classroom personnel and was implemented entirely by the teacher and an aide in the context of a multiple-baseline-across-activities experimental design. Results were empirical validation of hypotheses derived from the functional assessment, as well as lower levels of challenging behaviors and increased rates of appropriate behaviors associated with the intervention. Positive interactions with a designated classroom peer and with the teacher also increased. The findings are discussed as contributions to the growing literature on functional assessment and function-based supports and the importance of promoting successful inclusive experiences for young children with disabilities.

Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support programs

The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating educational programs. The authors also describe the specific data and measurement and analytic procedures that cost analysis evaluation requires. The concepts are then applied in a case study showing a cost analysis of SWPBS. Implications are provided for extending the cost analysis case study into evaluation of cost-effectiveness and/or cost-benefit economic analyses of program success.

School-wide application of positive behavior support in an urban high school: A case study

The nuances of the application of schoolwide positive behavior supports (PBS) in an urban high school setting were investigated. Impact of implementation was measured using qualitative interviews and observations, including the School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET), Effective Behavior Support Survey, Student Climate Survey, and office disciplinary referrals. The results indicated that schoolwide PBS was implemented in an urban high school setting with some success. The overall level of implementation of PBS reached 80% as measured by the SET. Staff and teachers increased their level of perceived priority for implementing PBS in their school. A decrease in monthly discipline referrals to the office and the proportion of students who required secondary and tertiary supports was noted. These findings seem to indicate that PBS may be an important process for improving outcomes for teachers and students in urban high school settings.

An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements

Faced with limited resources, schools require tools that increase the accuracy and efficiency of functional behavioral assessment. Yarbrough and Carr (2000) provided evidence that informant confidence ratings of the likelihood of problem behavior in specific situations offered a promising tool for predicting the accuracy of function-based hypotheses developed from staff interviews. The current study evaluated conditions in which a similar rating of informant confidence was effective in predicting the accuracy of functional assessment hypothesis statements. Nine students with problem behavior were identified, and functional behavioral assessment interviews with confidence scores were completed with 58 staff members. Between five and eight adults were interviewed about each student. The adults were selected based on their range of contact with the student (0 to 10+ hours per week) and their self-assessed knowledge about behavioral theory (no knowledge to extensive knowledge). Functional analyses were conducted to assess agreement with functional assessment hypotheses and the predictive value of confidence ratings. Results suggested limitations to the general use of confidence ratings in distinguishing accurate from inaccurate functional hypotheses across school staff with a broad range of contact with the target student. The study did find that informants who were both highly confident and who identified accurate functional assessment hypotheses had significantly higher levels of contact with the student in the target routine than those informants who had low confidence ratings and/or identified an incorrect function for the problem behavior.

The Efficacy of Function-Based Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Exhibit Escape-Maintained Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Results from a Single-Case Experiment

A study explored the use of functional behavioral assessment (FBA) to develop an intervention plan for a third-grader with learning disabilities who exhibited high rates of problem behaviors during reading instruction. Results provide preliminary evidence to support the use of FBA to influence instructional planning.

Importance of Student Social Behavior in the Mission Statements, Personnel Preparation Standards, and Innovation Efforts of State Departments of Education

We examined the extent to which state departments of education are including (a) goals for student social behavior in their mission statements; (b) criteria for individual student, classroom, and schoolwide behavior support in certification standards for general education teachers, special education teachers, and principals; and (c) state initiatives focused on improving student social behavior. Web-based information from state departments of education from all 50 states and from the District of Columbia were reviewed in the fall of 2004. Results indicated that only 16 states (31%) include a focus on student social behavior in their mission statements. Individual student behavior support practices were identified in the curriculum for general educators in 30 (59%) states and for special educators in 39 (76%) states. Classroom behavior support practices were required for general education teachers in 39 (76%) states and for special educators in 40 (78%) states. Schoolwide behavior support practices were most likely to be required for principal certification, and they were formally identified in 20 (39%) of the states surveyed. Character education was the most common state initiative cited for improving social behavior in schools.

Essential components for effective educational programs

A book chapter from the book "Effective practices for children with autism: Educational and behavior support interventions that work."

Response to Intervention: Examining Classroom Behavior Support in Second Grade

This article reports on 2 studies investigating a response-to-intervention (RTI) approach to behavior support in 2 second-grade classrooms. The results suggest that a slightly more intensive but efficient targeted intervention ("check in and check out") was effective in supporting the social behavior success of 4 students whose problem behaviors were unresponsive to general classroom management practices. For 4 other students whose problem behaviors continued to be unresponsive to the "check-in and check-out" intervention, more individualized and function-based interventions were indicated and proved to be effective. The results from this research suggest that RTI logic can be applied to the social behavior support of students who present interfering problem behaviors in the classroom. Implications and recommendations for research and practice are discussed.

Promoting implementation success through the use of continuous systems-level assessment strategies

Successful implementation of school-wide positive behavior support requires a continuous evaluation of program data. It also requires an ongoing review of how those data relate to organizational strengths, needs, professional development concerns, and the larger community. Accomplishing these tasks can be a formidable undertaking, particularly when school staff members have limited training in data-based decision making. This article will describe how a continuous systems-level assessment process is being implemented in one urban middle school to address behavioral and academic objectives.

Building district-level capacity for positive behavior support

As more and more schools adopt school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a model for school improvement and the success of initial demonstration sites becomes evident, districts are faced with expansion and sustainability issues. Careful planning of these implementation efforts requires district personnel to be familiar with the resources and supports needed to implement and sustain such district-wide systems change efforts and build an infrastructure to support SWPBS initiatives. The purpose of this article is to expand upon School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Implementers' Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai et al., 2005) by describing the how-to of the SWPBS implementation process with specific activities and providing user-friendly tools that can assist a district in "going to scale." Obstacles to and future considerations for expanding the practice of SWPBS are also presented.

Practical Considerations in Creating School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Public Schools

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills. It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. There are many practical and systemic factors that school personnel should examine before they consider themselves ready for systemic school-wide changes, including those associated with the (a) leadership team, (b) staff, (c) administration, (d) coach/facilitator, and (e) district. Practical considerations in each of these areas will be identified and discussed so that practitioners can anticipate their needs as they create effective SWPBS, particularly in low performing urban schools.

Trans-Situational Interventions: Generalization of Behavior Support across School and Home Environments

Individualized trans-situational interventions (TSIs) were implemented with three middle-school students at risk for school failure. Problem behaviors in school were reduced and linked to problem behavior reduction in the home when concurrent behavior support was established in the home and at school.

Positive behavior support for individuals with severe disabilities

A book chapter in the book "Instruction of students with severe disabilities."

Positive support for behavioral, mental health, communication, and crisis needs

A book chapter in the book "National goals and research for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities."

Toward a technology of “nonaversive” behavior support

A book chapter in the book "Positive behavior support:  Critical articles on improving practice for individuals with severe disabilities."

School-wide positive behavior support

A book chapter in the book "Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing positive behavior plans."

Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA: Indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) has been suggested for facilitating the development and effectiveness of behavior intervention plans. In this study, the researchers examined whether behavior intervention plans based on FBA information (function-based) were more effective than behavior intervention plans not based on FBA information (non-function- based) in affecting rates of problem behaviors displayed by two middle school students. Single- subject ABCBC designs were used to demonstrate a functional relationship between student responding and function-based and non-function-based behavior intervention plans. Results indicated that the use of FBA-based intervention plans was associated with greater improvements in lowering the number of problem behaviors. Implications and limitations for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

Using office discipline referral data for decision-making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical investigation of validity

In this evaluation we used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral (ODR) measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools. The Messick approach provided a rubric for testing the fit of our theory of use of ODR measures with empirical data on reported and actual use. It also facilitated our demonstration of Messick's principle that validation is both a developmental and an ongoing collaborative process among developers of educational and psychological measures, researchers interested in theories underlying such measures, and educators who use these measures in professional practice. We used a single-group, nonexperimental evaluation design to survey users of ODR measures from the standardized School Wide Information System in 22 elementary and 10 middle schools; respondents included school staff involved exclusively with data entry and staff actively involved in data-based decision making. Results were highly consistent across 2 independent data sources—electronic database records of actual access of summaries of ODR measures and self-report survey responses regarding frequencies and types of uses of ODR measures for decision making. Results indicated that ODR measures are regularly used for a variety of types of data-based decision making and are regarded as both efficient and effective for those purposes. We discuss implications of our SWIS ODR validity evaluation results within the context of the Messick framework.

Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom

Through research-based content coupled with practical examples, this book prepares teachers to effectively manage the behaviors of students with emotional and behavior disorders.

Districtwide System for Providing Individual Student Support

Although schools generally provide safe environments, teachers, staff, parents, and students are concerned with the rising level of disruptive, antisocial behavior (Horner, Sugai, Lewis-Palmer, & Todd, 2001). Only a relatively small number of students in a school building engage in the most serious and/or chronic problem behaviors. However, these students account for about 50% of the incidents handled by office staff and dominate a majority of staff time (Lewis & Sugai, 1999; Sugai & Horner, 1994). Recent research recommends addressing individual student needs within a schoolwide discipline system. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of individual student systems, identify guidelines for implementing a function-based model, and describe a case study of a district's attempts to build a comprehensive district-based individual student support systems cadre.

Classroom-level supports for students with learning and behavioral problems

A book chapter in the book "Effective interventions for classrooms, schools, and communities: Making a difference in the lives of students with learning and behavioral problems."

Applied behavior analysis and the education and treatment of students with emotional and behavioral disorders

A book chapter in the book "Handbook of research in behavioral disorders."

School-wide positive behavior support: Building systems to develop and maintain appropriate social behavior

A book chapter in the book "Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues."

Family Implementation of Positive Behavior Support with a Child with Autism: A Longitudinal, Single Case Experimental and Descriptive Replication and Extension

As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used a systematic process to understand barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support by schools implementing at high and low levels of fidelity, and the degree to which the project could impact barriers and facilitators. Results indicate that schools implementing with low fidelity tend to identify practical, operational barriers, whereas schools implementing with high fidelity struggle with systems issues. Both high-implementing and low-implementing schools identified the same facilitators to implementation; however, they differed in their views of which facilitators the project could impact. Implications for state PBS project activities are discussed, along with suggestions for future data collection and providing a model of data-based decision making at a macro level.

Social Skills Assessment and Intervention Review and Recommendations for School Practitioners

We present a "practitioner's guide" to social skills assessment and intervention with students attending public schools. Important characteristics of assessment instruments are discussed, including psychometric properties and strategies applicable to school settings. We then review several social skills assessment protocols and rating scales that can be used efficiently by school psychologists, teachers, and other related professionals. The process of assessment-derived intervention planning is covered, with a description of social skills curricula/training programs and presentation of an illustrative case study. We conclude with a summary of salient issues and recommendations to facilitate the routine assessment and teaching of social skills by school practitioners.

Focus, Scope, and Practice of Behavioral Consultation to Public Schools

Overviews the focus, scope, and practice of behavioral consultation to public schools. A four-stage process of behavioral intervention is described, followed by a discussion on the expanding role of behavior support intervention. The involvement of consultants in the design of individual-student, classroom-wide, and whole-school programs is considered.

Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff FBA intervention measure

With the recent increase in the use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) in school settings, there has been an emphasis in practice on the development and use of effective, efficient methods of conducting FBAs, particularly indirect assessment tools such as interviews. There are both benefits and drawbacks to these tools, and their technical adequacy is often unknown. This article presents a framework for assessing the measurement properties of FBA interview tools and uses this framework to assess evidence for reliability and validity of one interview tool, the Functional Assessment Checklist. Teachers and Staff (FACTS; March et al., 2000). Results derived from 10 research studies using the FACTS indicate strong evidence of test-retest reliability and interobserver agreement, moderate to strong evidence of convergent validity with direct observation and functional analysis procedures, strong evidence of treatment utility, and strong evidence of social validity. Results are discussed in terms of future validation research for FBA methods and tools.

Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades

This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support. Students in the district are provided a continuum of reading and/or behavioral support based on screening measures that indicate response to universal, targeted, and intensive support. This combined approach may be more successful due to the number of shared critical features in both systems. Results document positive outcomes in prevalence of students needing additional reading and/or behavior support (in comparison to national figures) and are reported with recommendations for future experimental analyses.

The Use of Reading and Behavior Screening Measures to Predict Nonresponse to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Longitudinal Analysis

This study involved a longitudinal analysis of academic skills and problem behavior through elementary school. The purposes of the study were (a) to explore the interactions between reading skills and problem behavior, and (b) to determine the value of regular screening assessments in predicting which students would not respond to school-wide behavior support in fifth grade. The participants were elementary school students who entered kindergarten in 1998 and completed fifth grade in a school district with school-wide reading and behavior support systems. Analyses consisted of logistic regressions to predict the number of discipline contacts in fifth grade. Results indicated that both reading and behavior variables (including kindergarten reading variables) significantly predicted the number of discipline referrals received in fifth grade. Results are discussed in terms of determining pathways to problem behavior and implications for a combined approach to academic and behavior problems. 

Behavior management

A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy: Vol.3, Educational applications."

Active supervision

A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and therapy: Educational Applications (Volume III)."

Longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school

Reports on a longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school. Study design and methods; Number of detentions recorded for the three behavior categories; Decreasing trend in the number of detentions each year for vandalism and substance use; Percentage of student attendance and earning a lottery drawing per term.

Cost-Efficacy Analysis of Out-of-District Special Education Placements: An Evaluative Measure of Behavior Support Intervention in Public Schools

Evaluation of out-of-district special education placement costs in the 15 largest Massachusetts public school districts found the criterion school district (which had developed a system-wide approach to behavioral intervention) had the lowest per capita cost, lowest percentage of total school budget consumed by out-of-district placements, and the highest proportion of special needs students in inclusive educational classrooms.

Teacher outcomes of School-wide Positive Behavior Support

Thousands of Schools throughout the country are now implementing school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a way to improve school culture, safety, and climate. Research is needed to assess the effects of implementing SWPBS on (a) teacher stress and (b) and teacher efficacy. The present pilot study provides a preliminary study of these variables by analyzing self-report measures conducted by 20 teachers within schools of differing levels of SWPBS implementation. Results indicated a statistically significant relationship between SWPBS implementation and teacher perception of educational efficacy. Results did not indicate a significant relationship, but rather a trend in the anticipated direction between SWPBS implementation and reduced perception of teacher stress. Limitations of the study are discussed and directions for future research are recommended.

The quest for ordinary lives: A legacy and a challenge to the status quo

The article offers a commentary on the article "The Quest for Ordinary Lives: A Legacy and a Challenge to the Status Quo," by Betsy Shiraga, Kim Kessler and Lou Brown. It offers some useful insights beyond those traditionally encountered in personnel preparation programs in transition from school to adult living. It suggests that there may well be another side to the protectionist-feel good ethic in our society. The authors reported anecdotal data from coworkers in these typical community work settings suggesting that their jobs became enriched and more satisfying and fulfilling for had the experience of working alongside coworkers.

Making behavior intervention planning decisions in a school-wide system of positive behavior support

Although rates of crime and serious or violent behaviors are decreasing in schools, more common behaviors such as disrespect, simple noncompliance, tardiness, and truancy have remained a major concern for teachers (Furlong, Morrison, & Dear, 1994; Zabel & Zabel, 2002). Administrators, too, see these behaviors as requiring constant attention (Heaviside, Rowland, Williams, & Farris, 1998). As early as kindergarten, some students exhibit challenging behaviors that require increased teacher attention (Sawka, McCurdy, & Mannella, 2002; Sprague & Walker, 2000) and set the occasion for more chronic and pervasive problems in school and life (Fox, Dunlap, & Powell, 2002; Loeber & Farrington, 2000; Snyder, 2001; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995). To be effective, intervention with these students must occur as early as possible in a pattern of failure--using practices that represent an individual student's best chance for success.

Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple and realistic team-driven assessment and intervention strategies aimed at students with mildly challenging behaviors. As tertiary prevention, FBA is complex, time-consuming, and rigorous--aimed at students for whom all previous intervention attempts have been unsuccessful. Whereas the concepts of prediction, function, and prevention remain constant at all levels of positive behavior support, the considerations for and form of FBA may vary greatly. The authors present the application of FBA practices at each of the three levels of a system of positive behavior support.

Using Functional Behavior Assessment in General Education Settings: Making a Case for Effectiveness and Efficiency

Under the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, schools have a legal obligation to conduct functional behavior assessments (FBAs) when developing intervention plans for students with disabilities whose behaviors lead their individualized education program teams to consider a change in educational placement, including suspension and expulsion. However, FBA also holds significant promise as a procedure to be used proactively with students with behavioral challenges who are educated in part, or wholly, in general education classrooms. Unfortunately, current conceptualizations of FBA as a methodologically rigorous procedure pose significant and possibly insurmountable barriers to proactive implementation in general education settings. The authors analyze these barriers through a targeted review of the literature, an examination of how the characteristics of general education settings promote the use of less demanding FBA methodologies, and a consideration of situations in which certain FBA procedures generally are contraindicated. Finally, they advocate an active research agenda that is responsive to the particular challenges of public school settings and FBA students with and at risk for mild disabilities.

An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies with School-Based Teams

Although functional behavior assessment (FBA) is widely advocated as best practice in developing effective behavior intervention plans for students with challenging behaviors, there is no compelling evidence supporting the ability of school-based personnel to use the outcomes of FBA to develop effective interventions. In this study, selected staff members from four elementary schools were trained in how to use the outcomes of an FBA to develop function-based intervention plans. They then formed school-based intervention teams and served as facilitators for a total of 31 cases. The same cases also were distributed to three national FBA experts who selected interventions based on the identified function for each case. The number and type of selected intervention strategies were recorded and analyzed across cases. Comparisons between team and expert intervention strategy selection revealed that school-based personnel in this study were more likely to select punitive and exclusionary strategies, regardless of function. Thus, in real-world school settings, the link between FBA and intervention is far more complex than has been recognized or discussed in the literature. Discussion focuses on possible explanations for the finding that school-based teams tend to gravitate toward more negative and exclusionary strategies, even when mediated by a trained FBA facilitator.

Coaching positive behavior support in school settings: Tactics and data-based decision-making

Systems of positive behavior support (PBS) that positively affect student performance involve consensus among stakeholders, the development of environments that facilitate student success, effective teaching of rules and procedures, and consistent consequences for behavior. Evaluation of such systems requires schools to collect data to assess performance and to use that information to make data-based decisions. However, surveys indicate that data collection and data-based decision making are among the most difficult components of PBS for school personnel to tackle. This article examines in-person coaching strategies and data use. Individual school results are analyzed in relation to the school's School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) scores. A discussion of how coaches may more efficiently assess schools' readiness for coaching styles and content includes suggestions for how coaches might use a range of available assessment tools.

Issues of personal dignity and social validity in school-wide systems of positive behavior support

This article provides an analysis of issues related to personal dignity and social validity in schools. Specifically, dignity is defined in terms of individual success and independence, while social validity is defined in terms of the system as a whole. These definitions are explored in the context of schoolwide systems of positive behavior support (PBS). Descriptions of schoolwide systems of PBS are used to analyze and detail procedures that maintain respect for personal dignity and social validity. In addition, processes for engaging persons in this discussion are critically analyzed. Future development and growth of PBS as a technology-based approach to developing self-determined, independent, and successful persons is discussed. Direction is suggested in the way we consider issues, define our values, and engage others in systemic change efforts.

Supporting Successful Transition to Kindergarten: General Challenges and Specific Implications for Students with Problem Behavior

The purpose of this review is to present factors that impede and promote successful transition to kindergarten, with a focus on the specific needs of students with problem behavior. The review addresses competencies that teachers report are critical for success in kindergarten, traditional transition practices, and challenges in implementing transition practices. Suggestions are provided to begin to attend to some of the issues affecting successful transition for children with challenging behavior and include an overarching framework to better support transition practices and specific suggestions for appropriate supports.

Commentary: Establishing efficient and durable systems of school-based support

Part of a special section on linking systems for prevention and intervention in emerging models for promoting children's mental health. A commentary on an article by Atkins, Graczyk, Frazier, and Abdul-Adil that appeared in this issue on pp. 503-514 is presented. In their article, Atkins et al. described three studies that are part of an ongoing program of research focused on school-based models for urban children's mental health. The writer commends Atkins et al. for promoting a "new model" of school-based mental health services. He seeks to expand Atkins et al.'s article by discussing the role of primary prevention, the importance of a function-based approach to behavior support, and an organizational and systems approach to sustainability.

Promoting behavioral success in schools: Commentary on exemplary practices

The articles in this special Practitioner's Edition of Psychology in the Schools share the application of sound educational and behavioral practices in real school and classroom contexts. Given this emphasis in these articles on the applied use of behavioral practices, the purpose of this brief commentary is to highlight and comment on some of the big ideas that link these practitioner-focused articles. Specifically, three main questions are addressed: (a) Where did the trianglecome from? (b) Why are schools increasing their use of local data to guide decision making? (c) What is school-wide positive behavior support?

Educational applications (Volume III)

A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and therapy."

A Promising Approach for Expanding and Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

Educators and psychologists are concerned about problem behavior. Fortunately, effective interventions and practices have been documented for addressing this problem behavior. However, sustained and expanded uses of these interventions and practices have not been consistent or widespread. One promising approach to the systemic and sustained implementation of these practices is school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). The SWPBS effort emphasizes an integration of measurable outcomes, data-based decision making, evidence-based practices, and overt support systems for implementers. This behaviorally based, comprehensive systems approach is suggested as a means of achieving durable implementation of effective school-based interventions. Although the SWPBS approach is conceptually sound and comprised of supportable behavioral practices, further systems-level demonstrations and validations of efficacy, effectiveness, and expansion are recommended.

Overview of a Function-Based Approach to Behavior Support within Schools

While the majority of students in schools tend to respond to effective general academic instruction and proactive schoolwide discipline systems, some continue to exhibit intense and chronic problem behaviors, even in the best schools. For these students, schools are highly variable in their ability and capacity to provide accurate and durable specialized academic and behavioral supports. In these schools, frequent requests are made for assistance to address the specialized needs of these students. The intent of this article is twofold: (a) to provide an overview of the features that characterize a function-based approach to student support, and (b) to introduce the main articles within this special issue, which offer a variety of perspectives and practices related to function-based support at the classroom, school, and district level.

Social skills instruction in the classroom

A book chapter in the book "Instructional classroom management."

Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools

A book chapter in the book "Positive behavior support:  Critical articles on improving practice for individuals with severe disabilities."

School-wide discipline and instructional classroom management: A systems approach

A book chapter in the book "Instructional classroom management (2nd ed.)"

Antisocial behavior

A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of school psychology."

Completing the Initial Benchmarks of Quality for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)

This is a checklist and summary of procedures needed in order to address a schools readiness prior to SWPBS training.

Advanced SWIS Facilitator Training (Chicago Forum- 07)

SWIS training with new features. This session includes: 1) New features of SWIS, 2) Individual Student Reports & FBA, and 3) Roles & Responsibilities.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for Leadership (Chicago Forum- 07)

The presentation is about SW-PBS system and administrative leadership. It describes rationales, features, and implementation of SW-PBS.

SWIS Update (Chicago Forum- 07)

The presentation is about new features of SWIS (check-in/check-out data module) and district integration using SWIS.

Focus on High Schools I: Secondary Level Supports Within a School-Wide Framework (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describes secondary level support in high school PBS system.

Cultural Fit Within a SW System of PBS: Universal & Secondary Examples (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describes SW PBS system for culturally diverse children and youth.

The Behavior Education Program (BEP): Basic Steps of Check In/Check Out (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation is about Behavior Education Program (BEP), which is an evidence-based tier 2 intervention.

Evaluating Systems of Support for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation is about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and PBS system. It includes: 1) Quick overview of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 2) ASD and Schools: Challenges for Systems, 3) Some Issues for Systems Change, and 4) Some Evaluation Issues.

Wraparound as a Tertiary Level Process (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation session is about individualized wraparound service within SW PBS. It describes general features of wraparound and examples of implementation.

Using Rewards Effectively within PBIS (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation focuses on: 1) challenges faced in many schools, 2) research foundations, and 3) examples of reward use at all grade levels.

Team Driven Tertiary Process: The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describe an individual positive behavior support process for use in the classroom and list factors impacting the effectiveness of an individual behavior support process.

Developing Effective State/District Coaches Network (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation introduces: 1) essential components of infrastructure needed to provide a supportive context for implementation at the local level and 2) systemic support building for multiple schools.

RtI Model of Continuum of Support: Kansas-Illinois Tertiary Demo Center (Chicago Forum-07)

General overreview of K-I tertiary demo project using RtI model and current implementation status.

Assessing Secondary/Tertiary Fidelity Using the Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (I-SSET) (Chicago Forum-07)

Overview of newly developed the individual student systems evaluation tool (I-SSET)

Strategies for Reluctant Learners (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares current research, readiness tools, and successful activities with reluctant to change or low performers.

Changing the Data, Changing Our Minds: Disproportionality and School-wide PBS (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares various school discipline data and discusses effective discipline systems.

Interagency/Community-Based Planning: State & District Level Planning for Tertiary Support (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describes assessment and action planning for community involvement at the state and district level and provides an example of interagency collaboration in Kansas.

Building Effective Coaches to Expand & Sustain PBIS Implementation (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares information about: 1) How do we change individual behavior in schools? 2) How do we create school environments that sustain change? and 3) What system-level mechanisms and infrastructure are necessary to sustain and bring to scale interventions that create desired change?

Developing Feasible & Effective Interventions Based on Functional Behavior Assessment (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation focuses on: 1) Current updates on guidelines for conducting functional behavioral assessments, 2) Use of the Competing Behavior Model as a framework for moving from FBA to Behavior Support Plan, and 3) Elements and format for writing, monitoring and adapting behavior support plans.

School-wide Reading and Behavior Support (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation introduces 'Behavior and reading improvement center (BRIC)' and discusses critical features of academic and behaviro support.

Designing and Implementing Evaluation of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation provides a framework for building state-level evaluation of school-wide PBIS.

The Behavior Education Program (BEP): Advanced Training on a Check In/Check Out Intervention for Students at Risk (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares practical and critical features of check in/check out intervention for students at risk.

Instructional Technology and PBS- Dissemination & Visibility (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares various resources for instructional technology which can be incorporated in PBS.

From 60 to 600:The Perfect Storm (APBS 08)

The presentation describes the features and procedures for moving evidence-based educational practices from demonstrations to large-scale adoptions. This includes state and district examples, lessons learned, and future steps.

Using Implementers' Blueprint to Guide District Leadership Teams (APBS 08)

The presentation provides: 1) brief overview of blueprint, 2) various examples about job descriptions, action plan, marketing strategies, ledgers, protocols.

Effectiveness Of The Continuum Of All Levels Of SWPBS In Classroom (APBS 08)

The presentation shares a research case about individual students. It shows that the effectiveness of behavior support can be maximized when all three levels of PBS are inplace and balanced well.

Establishing a System to Appropriately Identify, Assess, and Evaluate PBS Model/Exemplar Schools (APBS 08)

The presentation is about establishing a system to appropriately
identify, assess, and evaluating implementation outcomes of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (universal level/tier 1) in order to recognize model or exemplar schools in your state or district.

SWPBS and Urban High Schools: Results and Issues Realized Across Implementation Years (APBS 08)

The presentation provides research-based strategies on systems-change efforts utilized at the high school level from addressing administrator buy-in, overcoming faculty reluctance, motivating young adults, and increasing parent participation across these settings.

Data-based Decision Making Across the Continuum for State, District, and School Planning (APBS 08)

The presentation shares various issues on data and data-based decision making.

The Effects of School-wide PBS within a Randomized Control Effectiveness Trial (APBS 08)

The presentation shares SW-PBS implementation research results and discusses students' academic benefit and safe learning environment from the results.

School-wide PBS:Building Sustainable Systems (APBS 08)

The presentation shares current status SWPBS, core features of SW-PBS, research on feasibility, impact and sustainability of SWPBS.

Building School-Based Systems to Support Small Group/ Targeted Interventions for At-risk Students (APBS 08)

The presentation describes small group intervention/targeted intervention strategies within SWPBS system.

Interventions for Children with ADHD (APBS 08)

This additional resource shares various tips and tools for children with ADHD.

Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans Using Functional Behavior Assessments (APBS 08)

The presentation provides critical features and practices of behavior intervention plans based on FBA.

Implementation of the Three-Tiered Prevention Approach to School-wide Behavior Support (APBS 08)

The presentation describes Elementary School-Wide Prevention Models and shares real models implementation and real lessons learned.

Impacting Classrooms for Students with EBD (APBS 08)

The presentation introduces effective classroom management and a model for students with EBS.

Working Toward Lasting Change: Sustaining Practices in a Changing World (APBS 08)

The presentation discusses: 1) what is sustainability in SWPBS, 2) a plan for sustainability, and 3) key players.

Reaching All Students: Implications of an RtI Approach (OSEP Project Directors Meeting-08)

The presentation describes Responsiveness-to-Intervention (RtI) and its relationship with SWPBS. It especially focuses on: 1) personnel preparation context & implementation, 2) critical features & developmental influences, and 3) SWPBS example and outcomes.

Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

This document is a 52 page handbook focusing on giving students the tools to reduce bullying behavior through the blending of school-wide positive behavior support, explicit instruction, and a redefinition of the bullying construct.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Implementers’ Blueprint and Self-Assessment

The purpose of this blueprint is to provide implementers with definitions, descriptions, and guidelines that allow for accurate and durable implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SW-PBS) practices and systems.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Discipline & Beyond (Virginia Effective SW Discpline: Implementer's Forum-Charlottesville, VA)

The presentation describes rationale, features, outcomes of SWPBS (PBIS), & connection between RtI and School-wide Positive Behavior Support. It especially focuses on: 1) prevention, 2) continuum of evidence-based practices, 3) academic-behavior link, and 4) systems capacity.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Linking Social and Academic Gains (Washington Association of School Administrators)

The presentation discusses the relationship between SW-PBS and academic gains. It focuses on: 1) the importance of social behavior to achieve academic gains, 2) SW-PBS to build positive behavior social culture and to promote both academic and social success, and 3) coordinated focus to implement evidence-based practice (SW-PBS).

Using an RTI model to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment (Washington Association of School Administrators)

The presentation describes: 1) a summary of an integrated model for behavior support systems within a school, 2) the role of function-based support, and 3) a clarification of protocol for moving from functional behavioral assessment to behavior support plan design/implementation.

IL PBIS 2008: Leadership (IL Coodinator's Networking Meeting-Rosemont, IL)

The presentation provides overview of SW-PBS implementation with data. It focuses on: 1) effective behavioral interventions, 2) academic & social behavior outcomes, 3) RtI application, and 4) SWIS summary 07-08.

DW Leadership: Sustainable & Scalable SWPBS (IL Leadership Forum-Rosemont, IL)

The presentation describes critical features of district level system change and coordination for sustainable implementation.

Is PBIS Evidence-based? (IL Leadership Forum-Rosemont, IL)

The presentation focuses on PBIS as an evidence-based practice. It provides overview of PBIS, determination of evidence-based practice, and evidence of PBIS.

Evidence Base for PBS and District Wide Leadership (IL Coodinator's Networking Meeting-Rosemont, IL)

Illinois implementation results and notes from Leadership Meeting for Coordinator's in the state. The presentation includes 'Evidence Base for PBS,' 'District Wide Leadership,' and Illinois Leadership.

New Team Action Planning and SWPBS Getting Started in MS/HS (MN PBS New Team Training-St. Paul, MN)

Overview of New Team Action Planning and action planning for starting SWPBS in the MS and HS Setting.

Implementing Innovation in Education (Oregon Education Enterprise Steering Committee)

New Presentation on managing innovation in education and Response to Intervention (RtI) in the field.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Rationale, Readiness, Features (CT New Team Principal's-UConn and Hartford)

Critical features of PBIS Overview geared for principals. The presentation describes SWPBS rationale, features, & examples and reviews readiness commitments & agreements.

SWPBS Review and Function-based Support: SWPBS Rationale, Readiness, Features (Colchester Leadership Teams-Colchester School District, CT)

Review of School-wide Behavior and Function Based Support for Schools in Colchester School District.

Implementing Evidence-based Practices at Scales of Social Significance (ABA International-Virginia)

The presentation describes: 1) considerations for the emergence of “evidence-based practices”, 2) six features for taking EBP technology to scale, 3) definition of “implementation” as a unique technology, and 4) use School-wide Positive Behavior Support as one example.

Active Decision-making and Using Data within Individual Student Support (Lincoln Nebraska)

The presentation describes: 1) collection and use of data for decision making and 2) extension of data-based decision making logic to individual student supports.

SWPBS & Inclusion: Features, Examples, and Data (Global Summit on Disabilities and Inclusion-Washington DC)

It describes Positive Behavior Support as it relates to inclusion in school for children with disabilities.

SWPBS & RTI for All (CT Developmental Disabilities Conference-Cromwell, CT)

The presentation provides brief overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support & Response-to-Intervention for EVERYONE in school.

PBS, RtI, and Targeted Group Support (Iowa Positive Behavior Support Conference)

The presentations include: 1) Skill Building for Small Group / Targeted Interventions, 2) Systems to Support Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Supports Meets Response to Intervention, and 3) Building School-based Systems to Support Small Group / Targeted Interventions for At-risk Students.

Tier 3/Tertiary Series Training Resource Guide from Illinois PBIS

This training resource guide provides: 1) training course materials, 2) initial & advanced training activities, 3) evaluation tools, 4) wraparound, 5) team development and action planning strategies, 6) crisis planning, and 7) team planning tools for tertiary level support.

Responding to Norm Violating Behaviors (CT SWPBS Team Training- Uconn, Storrs, CT)

The presentation provides information on creating systems for responding to norm violating behaviors. It includes discipline & best practices, understanding behavior escalations, and action planning for the team.

Reaching All Students: RtI & SWPBS (IL SASED February Institute - Lombard, IL)

The presentation describes how RtI logic relates to positive behavioral interventions & supports for EVERYONE in school. The content includes RtI context, SWPBS basics, secondary/tertiary tier systems, and examples of PBS implementation.

School-wide Evaluation Tool Implementation Manual

The SET Implementation Manual was developed to provide guidance and technical assistance to those who would like to use the School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) to assess a school’s fidelity of implementation of school-wide positive behavior support.