Primary Level

What is Primary Prevention?

This description of Primary Prevention in School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) details the process and practices for those visitors who are first learning about this topic.

Core Principles of PBIS

  1. We can effectively teach appropriate behavior to all children. All PBIS practices are founded on the assumption and belief that all children can exhibit appropriate behavior. As a result, it is our responsibility to identify the contextual setting events and environmental conditions that enable exhibition of appropriate behavior. We then must determine the means and systems to provide those resources.
  2. Intervene early. It is best practices to intervene before targeted behaviors occur. If we intervene before problematic behaviors escalate, the interventions are much more manageable. Highly effective universal interventions in the early stages of implementation which are informed by time sensitive continuous progress monitoring, enjoy strong empirical support for their effectiveness with at-risk students.
  3. Use of a multi-tier model of service delivery. PBIS uses an efficient, needs-driven resource deployment system to match behavioral resources with student need. To achieve high rates of student success for all students, instruction in the schools must be differentiated in both nature and intensity. To efficiently differentiate behavioral instruction for all students. PBIS uses tiered models of service delivery.
  4. Use research-based, scientifically validated interventions to the extent available. No Child Left Behind requires the use of scientifically based curricula and interventions. The purpose of this requirement is to ensure that students are exposed to curriculum and teaching that has demonstrated effectiveness for the type of student and the setting. Research-based, scientifically validated interventions provide our best opportunity at implementing strategies that will be effective for a large majority of students.
  5. Monitor student progress to inform interventions. The only method to determine if a student is improving is to monitor the student's progress. The use of assessments that can be collected frequently and that are sensitive to small changes in student behavior is recommended. Determining the effectiveness (or lack of) an intervention early is important to maximize the impact of that intervention for the student.
  6. Use data to make decisions. A data-based decision regarding student response to the interventions is central to PBIS practices. Decisions in PBIS practices are based on professional judgment informed directly by student office discipline referral data and performance data. This principle requires that ongoing data collection systems are in place and that resulting data are used to make informed behavioral intervention planning decisions.
  7. Use assessment for three different purposes. In PBIS, three types of assessments are used: 1) screening of data comparison per day per month for total office discipline referrals, 2) diagnostic determination of data by time of day, problem behavior, and location and 3) progress monitoring to determine if the behavioral interventions are producing the desired effects.

Primary prevention is significant- in that it -moves the structural framework of each educational unit from reactive approaches to proactive systems change performance. This effort cohesively unites all the adults in using 1) common language, 2) common practices, and 3) consistent application of positive and negative reinforcement. There are many caveats to the training, planning, and implementation of PBIS. Just a few of the features are listed below:

Behavioral Expectations

The primary prevention of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) consists of rules, routines, and physical arrangements that are developed and taught by school staff to prevent initial occurrences of behavior the school would like to target for change. For example, a school team may determine that disrespect for self, others, and property is a set of behaviors they would like to target for change. They may choose the positive reframing of that behavior and make that one of their behavioral expectations. Respect Yourself, Others, and Property would be one of their behavioral expectations. Research indicates that 3-5 behavioral expectations that are positively stated, easy to remember, and significant to the climate are best. At the end of the year, a researcher should be able to walk into the school and ask ten random students to name the behavioral expectations and 80% or better of the students should be able to tell the researcher what they are and give examples of what they look like in action.

Behavior expectation examples (see Sample Behavior Expectations under student)

Labeling Appropriate Behavior in Actions

The school team would then build a matrix (graph) listing the behavioral expectation in a horizontal row. (click here for an example) There would be column labels above the behavioral expectations listing all the areas in the school where this behavior could be: 1) taught, 2) modeled, 3) practiced, and 4) observed. For example, in a middle school the columns might include: 1) commons area, 2) cafeteria, 3) gymnasium, 4) bus, 5) hallway, 6) restroom, and 7) sidewalks. The building leadership team would choose two or three examples of what respecting self, others, and property would look like in each of these areas. For example, respecting property in the bathroom would be to "Use the amount of paper towels needed. A good amount would be two." Another example of showing respect for others in the bathroom might include "Be sure to flush the toilet when finished."

Matrix examples (see Sample Matrices and Guidelines under student)

Teaching Appropriate Behavioral Actions

The building leadership team would then decide how they were going to teach these behaviors to the students. Some schools choose to have stations and rotate all the children through various locations where the adults act out the appropriate behaviors relevant to each area. Some schools choose to show a non-example first and then the appropriate example last. After adults model the appropriate behavior, students emulate the new behavior before they rotate to the next learning station. Adults give feedback to the students on their performance during the training, to alleviate any misrules they may begin. For example, some schools place hula hoops on the floor in front of the entrance to the cafeteria tray area. Adults model for students that only one person stands in each hula hoop and the line only advances as a hula hoop becomes empty. The hula hoops allow the children to visualize personal space better than just telling them "don't push and crowd".

Lesson plan examples (see Lesson Plans under student)

Observing and Praising Appropriate Behavioral Actions

The building leadership team would also determine how they intended to "catch" students exhibiting the appropriate behaviors. Specific praise is extremely important in increasing the reoccurrence of appropriate behavior. Some schools decide to give out small pieces of paper labeled as "gotchas". All staff hand the gotchas with specific praise to students as they witness appropriate behaviors in the common areas.

Gotcha resource (see Gotcha Resources - gotcha reward schedules, free rewards for students- etc. under student)

Conclusion

These are just a few examples of the procedures and practices that occur during the initial training for primary prevention. Precise facets of the training make it specific to each building. The important features are: 1) most schools realize similar results; 2) implementation looks completely different at each site, based on the needs of their specific unit and 3) ongoing decisions are made based on data driven results.

It goes without saying that we want to prevent the major "upsurges in targeted behaviors" that we hear about in the news: violent acts against teachers or other students, theft, bullying behavior, drug use, and the like. However, research has taught us that efforts to prevent these serious problems are more successful if the "host environment"—the school as a whole—supports the adoption and use of evidence-based practices. Practices that meet these criteria include teaching and rewarding students for complying with a small set of basic rules for conduct, such as "be safe," be responsible," and "be respectful." These rules translate into sets of expectations that differ according to various settings in the school. Thus, on the playground "be safe" means stay within boundaries and follow the rules of the game. In hallways and on stairs, it means to keep your hands and feet to yourself and to walk on the right side. Some parents and educators believe that students come to school knowing these rules of conduct, and that those who don't follow them simply should be punished. However, research and experience has taught us that systematically teaching behavioral expectations and rewarding students for following them is a much more positive approach than waiting for misbehavior to occur before responding. It also establishes a climate in which appropriate behavior is the norm. Finally, the use of Primary Prevention strategies has been shown to result in dramatic reductions in the number of students being sent to the office for discipline in elementary and middle schools across the United States and Canada. In effect, by teaching and encouraging positive student behavior (i.e., positive behavior support), we reduce the "white noise" of common but constant student disruption that distracts us from focusing intervention expertise on the more serious problems mentioned above.

Primary Prevention, through positive behavior support, works for over 80% of all students in a given school (based on a criterion of the number of students who have one or fewer office discipline referrals per month). But obviously, no intervention works across the board for all students. For a variety of reasons, some students do not respond to the kinds of efforts that make up Primary Prevention, just as some children do not respond to initial teaching of academic subjects. Some children need booster shots and some children need intensive interventions.

Putting into place systematic Primary Prevention strategies offers two advantages: First, it reduces the "water torture" caused by large numbers of office discipline referrals for minor problems. As we suggested earlier, this volume of referrals obscures and distracts our attention from more serious problems. Second, having a system for documenting the occurrence of targeted behaviors (e.g., office discipline referrals) provides a way to determine which students need more intensive intervention. For example, the criterion for considering the need for moving into secondary prevention for a student or group of students might be 4 or more office discipline referrals in a month. Without Primary Prevention, of course, the number of students meeting this criteria and needing additional help will be much larger.

Move to Frequently Asked Questions

Resources

Reframing mental health in schools and expanding school reform

Explored in this article are (a) the long-standing relation between mental health and schools, (b) the current status of mental health programs and services in schools, (c) efforts to establish school-community collaboration, and (d) work related to reframing the approach to mental health in schools.

Applying Behavior Analysis to School Violence and Discipline Problems: School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

School discipline is a growing concern in the United States. Educators frequently are faced with discipline problems ranging from infrequent but extreme problems (e.g., shootings) to less severe problems that occur at high frequency (e.g., bullying, insubordination, tardiness, and fighting). Unfortunately, teachers report feeling ill prepared to deal effectively with discipline problems in schools. Further, research suggests that many commonly used strategies, such as suspension, expulsion, and other reactive strategies, are not effective for ameliorating discipline problems and may, in fact, make the situation worse. The principles and technology of behavior analysis have been demonstrated to be extremely effective for decreasing problem behavior and increasing social skills exhibited by school children. Recently, these principles and techniques have been applied at the level of the entire school, in a movement termed "schoolwide positive behavior support". In this paper we review the tenets of schoolwide positive behavior support, demonstrating the relation between this technology and applied behavior analysis.

Best practices in school discipline

A book chapter from the book 'Best Practices in School Psychology-II.'

Measuring school-wide positive behavior support implementation: development and validation of the benchmarks of quality

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been implemented in more than 4,000 schools as a means of addressing problem behavior in a systemic fashion. Preliminary outcomes (e.g., office discipline referrals, suspensions) indicate the effectiveness of SWPBS in decreasing school-wide behavior problems and creating a positive school climate. Although the results of a majority of the program evaluations yielded significant findings, there has been a lack of measurement of treatment fidelity, possibly due to the absence of expedient, effective assessment tools. This article describes the theoretical background and development, including a qualitative pilot study and psychometric properties, of the School-wide Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ; Kincaid, Childs, & George, 2005), a tool intended to measure the implementation of SWPBS. Descriptive data on the instrument, including internal consistency, test-retest reliability, interrater reliability, and concurrent validity, were collected and analyzed. Results indicate that the BoQ for SWPBS is a reliable, valid, efficient, and useful instrument for measuring the fidelity of implementation of the primary or universal level of PBS application in individual schools. Future considerations for evaluating the psychometric properties of the BoQ include extending the data collection and analysis to many more schools across multiple states.

Responding to problem behavior in schools: The behavior education program

The purpose of this book is to describe a targeted system of positive behavior support called the Behavior Education Program (BEP): what it is, how it works, who can benefit from it, and how it is implemented in a school.

School-wide behavior support: Legal implications and requirements

Examines laws and policies that support the use of school-wide discipline programs. Presents a brief overview of the primary components of these policies and examines laws and court cases that address school-wide discipline policies and procedures. Also discusses the legal implications when developing school-wide policies.

The IDEA amendments of 1997: A school-wide model for conducting functional behavioral assessments and developing behavior intervention plans

This article presents Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requirements on functional behavioral assessments (FBAs), describes the process of conducting an FBA, explains the legal requirements for developing measurable goals and benchmarks or short-term objectives, describes the development of a behavior intervention plan, and presents a school model.

An Experimental Evaluation of Positive Behavior Support in a Community Preschool Program

Athough positive behavior support (PBS) has been established as an effective approach for resolving the challenging behaviors of many populations, little research has evaluated PBS with children under the age of 4 years. In addition, few studies have considered the effectiveness of PBS delivered via consultation in typical childcare and preschool settings. This study was conducted to examine the effects of PBS implemented by typical classroom staff for two 3-year-old girls in a community-based preschool accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Within the context of A-B-A-B designs, the data indicated reductions in challenging behaviors and increases in engagement for both girls in two separate group contexts. Fidelity data indicated that some components of the PBS plans were implemented but others were not. The findings support the efficacy of PBS with young children in natural settings while raising questions for future research regarding the utilization and efficiency of PBS support plans.

PBIS for Youth Involved in Juvenile Corrections

EDJJ (Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice) professional development series. General overview of Schoolwide positive behavior support implementation. The video describes what PBIS is, how PBIS is working at the public schools, and why PBIS makes sense. It also shows school examples and interviews with school administrators and teachers.

Discovering School-Wide PBIS: Moving Towards a Positive Future

Overview of Florida's School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) project funded by Florida state department of education. The video describes essential elements of SWPBS with actual school implementation examples.

Creating the Culture of Positive Behavior Supports

A film by Gray Olsen and Paula Baumann. This video clip includes lots of successful stories and examples on school-wide positive behavior support implementation at schools.

School-Wide Reading Model

The video clip is about reading and behavior improvement program from the Behavior and Reading Improvement Center at the University of North Carolina. The video shows critical components of reading model and process of comprehensive school model for reading.

Positive Unified Behavior Support: A Model of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

The behavior and reading improvement center at the University of North Carolina provides examples of positive unified behavior system (PUBS) in the video clip. The PUBS implies 1) unified positive attitude, 2) unified clear expectations, 3) unified positive corrective teaching, and 4) unified team approach.

The Implementation of Behavior Instruction in the Total School

The video describes 'Behavior Instruction in Total School' program. The Behavior and Reading Improvement Center at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte is now implementing positive behavior approach for 7 elementary schools in Mecklenburg, Charlotte. The video clips shows practical implementation examples and success stories from school staff.

Talking Points on Positive Behavior Support and Mental Health

SIGNetwork Teleconference Talking Points and Sustainability PPTs. The purpose of this document is to describe the context, guiding principles, and features of a school-wide approach to positive behavior support that reinforce the objectives and activities of the reauthorization of ESEA and NCLB. A case study example and selected supporting references also are provided.

Lessons Learned in SWPBS Implementation: Sustainability & Scaling Up

 Overview of what we've learned about taking SWPBS implementation "to scale," & Discuss state implementation experiences & lessons learned.

SWPBS: Coaching (Bridgeport Public Schools Coaches Meeting)

The presentation was made to 1) discuss importance of coaching capacity, 2) review coaching basics, 3) provide guidelines for effective coaching, and 4) discuss coaching experiences with teams.

Embedding Social Skills Instruction Throughout the Day (Oregon Positive Behavior Support training)

The presentation focused on 1) when and why you would teach social skills and 2) critical features of a social skills curriculum.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support (Iowa SWPBS)

The presentation describes general overview of school-wide PBS and progress in Iowa state. The goals of the presentation were 1) Review core features of School-wide PBS, 2) Update on current status of SWPBS nationally, 3) Update on SWPBS in Iowa, and 4) New Developments and Findings.

Linking Behavior Support and Literacy Support (Iowa SWPBS)

The presentation focused on 1) defining logic that links behavior support and academic supports and 2) providing summary of recent research.

Building a Realistic Pyramid of Instructional and Behavioral Supports for Prevention and Intervention

The presentation is about critical features of linking academic and behavioral support using positive, proactive, and research based interventions.

SWPBS: National Perspective & Updates (NY Coaches Forum)

The presentation focused on overview, current progress, and national perspectives for SWPBS. It includes lessons from practical implementation, application examples, and data.

CT SWPBS: Coaching

The presentation was made for coach training and follow-up of CT public school work. Critical information for coaches such as self-assessment plan, activity guide, and school-wide systems for school staff are included.

“WORKING SMARTER” Problem Solving & Decision Making (CT SWPBS)

The presentation was made to provide guidelines for improving efficiency & effectiveness of decision making & problem solving. Common challenges and development of successful action plans are illustrated with examples.

SW PBS at Nonclassroom Settings (CT PBIS Leadership training)

The slides show non-classroom setting behavior support strategies, examples, and critical features.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Follow-up #2 (Cohort 2) (MN PBIS team follow-up Training)

The presentation was made to help staff 1) establish leadership team, 2) establish staff agreements, 3) build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems, 4) develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS (using data: discipline data, EBS self-assessment survey, team implementation checklist), 5) organize for upcoming school year.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started Follow-up (Bridgeport SWPBS Leadership Team Training)

The presentation was made to provide critical features of school-wide PBS for getting started with PBIS. The content includes behavior support system building at all three levels, rationale of PBS, general implementation process and so on.

Sustaining School-wide Positive Behavior Support (NC PBS- Keynote Presentation)

The presentation was made to provide information on 1) current status of SWPBS, 2) what we are learning about sustaining SWPBS over time, 3) linking Behavior Support and Academic Supports, and 4) updates on current research. The content also includes recommendations, important themes, effective implementation of SWPBS, lessons from current implementation cases.

Sustaining School-wide PBS: Self-Assessment

A tool for SWPBS self-assessing admin support, team-based system, use of data, policies, products (e.g., handbook), district support, family involvement, budget, and visibility.

A School Improvement Framework for Promoting Evidence-Based Academic and Behavior Supports (Closing the Achievement Gap Conference)

The slides describe critical features of getting started with school-wide PBS. The content includes 1) academic & behavior framework, 2) early literacy, 3) adolescent literacy, 4) social behavior, and 5) data driven decision making.

School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (Western NSW PBS)

The presentation describes all levels of SWPBS implementation strategies. Essential elements and practical resources of SWPBS are presented with data and case examples.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview (UConn Administrators Preparation Program)

The presentation focused on overview of SW-PBS including critical features, challenges, outcome objectives, and practical examples.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started- Secondary Schools (Maryland SWPBS New Team Training)

The presentation was made to provide critical features of school-wide PBS for getting started with PBIS. The content especially focuses on secondary school behavior support system building including rationale of PBS, general SWPBS implementation process, function-based approach, and so on.

Scaling & Sustaining Evidence-Based Practices (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation provides information on 1) defining the features and procedures for moving evidence-based educational practices from demonstrations to large-scale adoptions, 2) school-wide Positive Behavior Support as one example of large-scale implementation.

Evidence-based Practices: A Technical Assistance Perspective (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation provides information on SWPBS as a evidence-based Practice. The content includes SWPBS system, implementation process of SWPBS, lessons learned in providing technical assistance, and so on.

Scaling up and Sustaining Evidence-based Practices (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation discussed 1) defining the features and procedures for moving evidence-based educational practices from demonstrations to large-scale adoptions and 2) school-wide Positive Behavior Support as one example of large-scale implementation.

Policy Brief: Scaling up Effective Educational Innovations (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

This document is prepared at the request of the US Department of Education to outline considerations in the development of policy that will promote large scale implementation of evidence-based practices in education.

“Lessons learned” regarding Michigan’s state-wide implementation of schoolwide behavior and reading support (OSEP Project Directors Meeting)

The presentation shows general SWPBS implementation process and results from MiBLSi (Michigan's integrated behavior and learning support initiative). The content includes student outcomes, coaching support, team process, and so on.

SW-PBS & RtI:Lessons Being Learned (Southern Region PBIS Institute)

The presentation was made to 1) discuss "big ideas" & "lessons learned" about SWPBS & RtI, 2) define RtI & features, 3) describe SWPBS v. RtI, adn 4) show applied research examples. The content includes RtI logic, SWPBS and RtI features, application of behavior and academic system, and so on.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: What Is It? (School Administrators of Iowa Annual Conference)

The presentation was made to provide overview of SWPBS. The content includes general elements and concepts of SWPBS system, action plan examples, data-based decision making, case examples and so on.

Oregon SWIS Summary (Oregon Coaches' Training)

Oregon SWIS summary showing student behavior improvement with SWPBS. ODR data is sorted by various data items.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started (Minnesota new team training)

The presentation was made to provide critical features of school-wide PBS for getting started with PBIS. The content includes behavior support system building at all three levels, rationale of PBS, general implementation process and so on.

Positive & Responsive School Environments: Getting Started (Opening day training in Conventry & Willimantic)

The presentation was made to provide critical features of school-wide PBS for getting started with PBIS. The content includes behavior support system building at all three levels, rationale of PBS, general SWPBS implementation process, function-based approach, and so on.

Issues in Sustainability: Integrating Competing Initiatives (Iowa Behavioral Alliance Third Annual Conference)

The presentation focused on four major areas affecting sustainability of school-wide PBIS and process for dealing with "competing initiatives" using "bully-proofing" and "early literacy" as examples.

Implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBIS in Costa Mesa, CA)

The slides provide information on 1) key activities in implementation of SWPBS, 2) SWPBS tools to move individual implementation forward, 3) specific issues facing teams, and 4) overview of implementation process.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Annual Outcomes (Ver. May 7, 2006)- SWPBS Team Monthly Planning Guide

The purpose of this guide is to give SWPBS leadership teams a supplemental organizational tool for reviewing and planning their implementation activities. A self-assessment is provided to guide teams in their action planning.

SWPBS: Leadership Team Guidelines (Making Connections Conference)

The presentation was made to give SWPBS leadership teams extra organizational tool for reviewing & planning their current & future implementation activities and provide information on self-assessment to guide teams in their action planning.

Data-based decision-making (Making Connections Conference)

The presentation focused on 1) an approach for using data in the development of decisions, 2) establishing standards for building Òproblem statements," 3) data sources needed for effective decision-making, and 4) a process and outline for defining solutions.

Embedding Bully-Proofing in School-wide PBS (Making Connections Conference)

The presentation describes 1) a set of core features for Bully Proofing, 2) strategies to embed Bully Proofing into existing School-wide Expectations, 3) current update from one research effort.

Universal Systems Overview- CMA PBS Team Training

The presentation was made to help school staff 1) establish leadership team, 2) establish staff agreements, 3) build working knowledge of SWPBS practices and systems, 4) develop individualized action plan for SWPBS, and 5) organize upcoming school year plan.

SWPBS: Leadership Team Follow-up (Rhode Island PBIS Cohort 3 Team Training #2)

The presentation provides overview of SWPBS w/ focus on rationale, guiding principles, implementation features, and outcome data for schools.

Making School-wide PBS: Effective for All Students: Closing Keynote (New England PBS)

Wrap up session of the training. Final themes to take from the training are listed.

SWPBS Overview: Establishing Continuum of Support for All(Fairfax/Loudoun Contries)

The presentation was made to provide information on SWPBS. The slides show 1) rationale for adopting proactive systems approach to improving school climate, 2) features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support, 3) examples of SWPBS implementation, and 4) samples of outcome data.

Increasing Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Support meets Response to Intervention (Region XI, Ft. Worth Texas)

The slides show essential features of SWPBS and RtI. The content includes SWPBS overview, implementation examples, prevention & supports for identified and as-risk students, Maryland PBS case examples, small group intervention, individual support, and Rtl.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Evaluation Template (Oct. 05)

This document is prepared for individuals who are implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) in Districts, Regions or States. The purpose of the document is to provide a formal structure for evaluating if School-wide PBS implementation efforts are (a) occurring as planned, (b) resulting in change in schools, and (c) producing improvement in student outcomes.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Implementers’ Blueprint and Self-Assessment

The purpose of this blueprint is to provide implementers with definitions, descriptions, and guidelines that allow for accurate and durable implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) practices and systems.

The Team Implementation Checklists (v 3.1)

This self-assessment tool has been designed to serve as a multi-level guide for (a) creating school-wide PBS action plans and evaluating the status of implementation activities on a quarterly basis.

PBS Leadership Team Self-Assessment and Planning Tool

This self-assessment has been designed to serve as a multi-level guide for creating action plans and evaluating implementation at the school, state and/or district level.

Effective Behavior Support (EBS) Survey (v 2.0)

The EBS Survey is used by school staff for initial and annual assessment of effective behavior support systems in their school. The survey examines the status and need for improvement of three behavior support systems: (a) school-wide discipline, (b) non-classroom management systems, and (c) systems for individuals students engaging in chronic behaviors.

PBS Leadership Team Self-Assessment and Planning Tool (Spanish Version)

The EBS Survey is used by school staff for initial and annual assessment of effective behavior support systems in their school. The survey examines the status and need for improvement of three behavior support systems: (a) school-wide discipline, (b) non-classroom management systems, and (c) systems for individuals students engaging in chronic behaviors.

School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET) - v 2.1

The School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) is designed to assess and evaluate the critical features of school-wide effective behavior support across each academic school year. The SET results are used to: 1) assess features that are in place, 2) determine annual goals for school-wide effective behavior support, 3) evaluate on-going efforts toward school-wide behavior support, 4) design and revise procedures as needed, and 5) compare efforts toward school-wide effective behavior support from year to year. Information necessary for this assessment tool is gathered through multiple sources including review of permanent products, observations, and staff (minimum of 10) and student (minimum of 15) interviews or surveys.

Benchmarks of Quality for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) - Scoring Guide

Scoring guide for Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS.

The Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS has been developed in Florida's Positive Behavior Support project. The tool is designed to access and monitor PBS team activities.

School-wide Benchmarks of Quality- Team Member Rating Form

Team Member Rating Form of the Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS. The Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS has been developed in Florida's Positive Behavior Support project. The tool is designed to access and monitor PBS team activities.

School-wide Benchmarks of Quality: SCORING FORM

Scoring Form of the Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS. The Benchmarks of Quality for SWPBS has been developed in Florida's Positive Behavior Support project. The tool is designed to access and monitor PBS team activities.

School-wide Evaluation Tool Implementation Manual Training

School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) implementation guide.

Oregon School Safety Survey v 2.0

The Oregon School Safety Survey is an instrument developed to obtain an efficient index of perceived school safety. This survey provides a summary of "risk factors" and "protective factors" that can be useful in determining training and support needs related to school safety and violence prevention.

Oregon School Safety Survey - Spanish version (Encuesta sobre Seguridad Escolar)

The Oregon School Safety Survey is an instrument developed to obtain an efficient index of perceived school safety. This survey provides a summary of "risk factors" and "protective factors" that can be useful in determining training and support needs related to school safety and violence prevention.

Self-Assessment of Contextual Fit in Schools

The purpose of this interview is to assess the extent to which the elements of a behavior support plan fit the contextual features of your school environment. The interview asks you to rate (a) your knowledge of the elements of the plan, (b) your perception of the extent to which the elements of the behavior support plan are consistent with your personal values, and skills, and (c) the school's ability to support implementation of the plan.

Using Information in State or District Level Implementation of School-wide PBS

 The newsletter article provides information on how School-wide PBS can be implemented, not just within a few “demonstration schools,” but across large numbers of schools within a state/district.

Academic Achievement and the Implementation of School-wide Behavior Support

The newsletter article examined the relationship between school-wide behavior support and improved academic performance via 1) reviewing the relationship between academic achievement and problem behavior, 2) considering relationships between school-wide positive behavior support and improved academic performance as measured by grades and standardized test performance, 3) exploring why school-wide positive behavior support should improve academic performance.

Program-wide Positive Behavior Support for Young Children

The newsletter describes the key elements of PW-PBS and discuss some adaptations from SW-PBS that have been made in order to address the characteristics of young children and the settings in which they are served. We also discuss some directions that would benefit the further establishment of PW-PBS and, more generally, the entire enterprise of preventing challenging behaviors and promoting the desirable social-emotional development of young children.

SWPBS: Establishing District & Community Capacity: Beyond Classroom Management (Virgin Island PBIS)

The slides show general overview of SW-PBS including classroom and individual support system, application of continuum of instructional and PBS, family involvement, and outcome data from SWPBS schools.

PBS Team Training (Bridgeport PBS Team Training Follow-up)

General overview of SWPBS. The presentation provides 1) rationale, context, & features of SWPBS, 2) universal recap: evaluating implementation, 3) data for action plan, and 4) classroom vs. office referrals.

Evolution of RtI & SWPBS (CO PBIS- administrators breakfast meeting)

The presentation describes 1) general description of RtI, 2) overview of SWPBS and the relationship between RtI & SWPBS, and 3) outcome data of SWPBS.

RtI & SWPBS (CT Phi Delta Kappan Meeting)

The presentation shows critical features of RtI and SWPBS through prevention logic, school-wide system for student success, and continuum of support for all students. RtI application examples and outcome data are included.

Example Letter to Parents (Colorado Department of Education)

A sample letter to parents for PBS program. The letter explains schoolwide expectations and school rules for safe environment to Arvada middle school parents in Colorado.

Example Letter to Parents (Explaining SW expectations)

A sample letter to parents to explain schoolwide expectations and acknowledgement system.

Example Letter to Parents (Explaining SW expectations: Spanish version)

A Spanish version of sample letter to parents for PBS program. The letter explains schoolwide expectations and school rules for safe environment to Arvada middle school parents in Colorado.

Example Letter to Parents- 2 (Colorado Department of Education)

A sample letter explaining SWPBS system to parents. The letter provides parents with detailed behavior expectations at each school setting such as hallway, gym, and library.

Example Letter to Parent- Elementary School Example (North Carolina)

A sample letter explaining SWPBS system, school behavior rules, and behavior consequences to parents.

Behavioral Strategies To Reduce School Violence

Public schools that use punitive approaches toward student discipline can unwittingly promote violence and other antisocial behavior. This article reviews constructive and preventive methods to reduce school violence and vandalism. Various strategies are presented and discussed. (Contains 62 references.)

A Blueprint for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: Implementation of Three Components

This article provides a case study (an eighth-grader with autism) within a case study (an urban middle school) in terms of the implementation of positive behavioral support (PBS). Information is provided on the characteristics of three key components of schoolwide PBS, universal support, group support, and individual support. (Contains references.) (CR)

Cost-Efficacy Analysis of Out-of-District Special Education Placements: An Evaluative Measure of Behavior Support Intervention in Public Schools

Evaluation of out-of-district special education placement costs in the 15 largest Massachusetts public school districts found the criterion school district (which had developed a system-wide approach to behavioral intervention) had the lowest per capita cost, lowest percentage of total school budget consumed by out-of-district placements, and the highest proportion of special needs students in inclusive educational classrooms.

The Effects of Setting Clear Standards on Students' Social Behavior in Common Areas of the School

Assessed the effects of a proactive instructional approach to school-wide discipline in common areas of an urban elementary school of 555 students on the social interactions of students and referrals for disciplinary action. Results show a clear improvement in social behavior that was maintained throughout the experiment.

Evaluation of a Comprehensive Behavior Management Program To Improve School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

A study evaluated a consultative approach to assisting a middle school (n=617 students) in implementing empirically based school-wide behavior management practices. The effective behavior support program resulted in increased positive reinforcement for appropriate social behavior and decreased aggressive social behavior among students. Discipline referrals were significantly decreased for 7th graders.

The Evolution of Discipline Practices: School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports

Proposes that the current problem behavior of students in elementary and middle schools requires a preventive, whole-school approach based on positive behavior support. The features of positive behavior support are defined, and the application to whole-school intervention articulated. The steps used to implement school-wide positive behavior support in over 500 schools are described.

Examining the Efficacy of School-Based Consultation: Recommendations for Improving Outcomes

Proposes that effective implementation of school-wide systems of positive behavior support will require moving the consultation process from individual cases to working teams of educators. Key skills and possible measurement strategies to develop and sustain school-wide consultation efforts are described.

Integrating Services, Collaborating, and Developing Connections with Schools

This article discusses the history of integrating services for students with disabilities and modern service integration initiatives. Examples of requirements for service integration are listed and interprofessional collaboration is described. The complexity, difficulties, and opportunities associated with school-related integration and collaboration are addressed, along with emerging challenges.

Maximizing Student Learning: The Effects of a Comprehensive School-Based Program for Preventing Problem Behaviors

A study evaluated a comprehensive school-wide program based on an effective behavioral support approach for preventing disruptive behaviors implemented in seven elementary schools. The program included a school-wide discipline program, tutoring, conflict resolution, and functional behavioral intervention plans. Schools showed positive effects on student discipline and academic performance.

Positive Behavior Supports: Can Schools Reshape Disciplinary Practices?

The role of archival data in planning intervention priorities is examined and efficacy research focusing on the three types of positive behavioral support (PBS) is evaluated: schoolwide (universal), specific setting, and individual student levels. Overall, findings were positive across all types of PBS, validating implementation of these research-based practices.

Reducing Problem Behavior through a School-Wide System of Effective Behavioral Support: Investigation of a School-Wide Social Skills Training Program and Contextual Interventions

Explores the effects of a proactive school-wide discipline approach on the frequency of problem behavior displayed by elementary students. Study was designed to explore the impact of a social skill instruction program and direct intervention on problem behaviors in three school settings (cafeteria, recess, and hallway transition). Results indicate that educators reduced the rate of problem behavior across targeted settings.

School Effectiveness Findings 1979-2002

The London studies of school effectiveness in the 1970s provided evidence that the qualities of schools made a significant difference to pupil progress. This article reviews the further evidence that has accumulated since then in order to assess how far the findings have been confirmed or refuted, what new questions have arisen and what key challenges remain.

Translating Research into Effective Practice: The Effects of a Universal Staff and Student Intervention on Indicators of Discipline and School Safety

The implementation of a school-wide discipline plan based on the Effective Behavior Support model in nine elementary and middle schools, in addition to the Second Step violence prevention curriculum, resulted in reductions of discipline referrals, improved social skill knowledge, improved school operations, and motivation to continue with the intervention.

Working Together To Make Change: An Example of Positive Behavioral Support for a Student with Traumatic Brain Injury

A case study of a sixth-grade boy with traumatic brain injury and behavior problems illustrates the use of an in-school action team to provide behavioral support. The team included special and regular educators, parents, a vice principal, and a member of a school-wide team with behavioral expertise.

Arizona Behavioral Initiative Lake Valley Video

An on-line video (real player format) in which an elementary school's personnel describe the impact of PBIS. To view the video click on the following link. http://abi.ed.asu.edu/basics/video.htm

Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: An Overview

Very comprehensive overview of schoolwide PBS, reviews levels of PBS, PBS teams and member roles, discusses faculty buy-in, establishing data-based decision making, establishing rules and expectations, developing lesson plans, creating rewards, refining consequences, and monitor/evaluate effectiveness.

Becoming Swift at SWIS

Preview of SWIS III user's manual, license agreement and confidentiality, preview SWIS account, data entry in practice account, basic report generation, customized reporting, and building fluency activities.

SWIS: Reviewing the 8-step process

Goes over: Conducting SWIS readiness tasks, submitting license agreement and school info form, setting up for SWIS taining, conducting SWIS training, follow-up, maintenance, facilitator boosters, license renewal process.

Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project Training Preparation Manual

Manual has been developed to assist local community contacts in coordinating community-based training in PBS within their area. Refer to page 3 of document for materials.

PBS Summary: Safe and Drug Free

Defines PBS and provides research validated evidence for use of PBS. Provides specific PBS data from schools in Florida.

Positive Behavior Support: Comprehensive Assessment Tool. Assessing the level of need for PBS in your school.

Assessment tool which assists in determining the level of intervention needed for implementing PBs in your school and to develop an action based plan bated on your results.

Coaches Strategies

For coaches to reference regarding: keeping PBS team motivated, buy-in, interfacing more effectively with team, handling philosophical differences on team, providing effective staff training, identify effective rewards, getting administrative support, clarifying coaches role.

School-wide PBS: PBS Coaches Training

Gives overview of PBS, role of a coach, teaming and collaboration, responsibilities of coaches, details about PBS team meetings, SWIS readiness, problem solving process.

Action Planning Guide for School-wide PBS

This is an initial action plan for implementing SW-PBS based on results of PBS-CAT.

Facilitator's Guide for School-wide PBS

The Facilitator's Guide supplements the three-day training provided to school teams in Florida. The guide is intended to provide additional references and support to coaches and teams when they go back to their school to begin the development and implementation of their school-wide system. The guide is in PDf format and links to additional forms and resources. http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/pdf/OriginalFacilitatorGuideComplete11.25.03.pdf

School-wide Postive Behavior Support: Action Planning Guide

This guide allows school faculty and administrators to give a coherent listing of the purpose, goals, and action plan for promoting an action plan needed for school-wide impovement.

Addressing the Needs of Schools Using Postive Behavior Support

This powerpoint presentation discusses the PBS program, how it is implemented in a school, and its beneficial properties.

School-Wide Postive Behavior Support

This powerpoint presentation discusses the positive behavior support project, its attributes, and its components

School Path

Allows for school administrators and faculty to brainstorm their school goals, potential for success, and barriers that may impede its completion.

Positive Behavior Support in our School: Frequently Asked Questions

This is offered in order to answer questions regarding positive behavior support and its benefits

Facilitating the Problem Solving Process

With the help of a group facilitator, this details the process that groups can use in order to engage in meaningful dialogue in order to reach a resolution to a problem.

General Data Decision Rules

This worksheet is a tool used to give guidance in the implementation of an intervention with the referral process.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Fast Facts!

This is a brief survey designed to assess what aspects of the school environment can best benefit from school-wide positive behavior support

Sample Reinforcer Inventory

This is a checklist of possible reinforcement tools that could be used within the school.

Completing the Initial Benchmarks of Quality for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)

This is a checklist and summary of procedures needed in order to address a schools readiness prior to SWPBS training.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Training Readiness Checklist for Individual Schools

This checklist provides schools with a list of procedures that must be completed prior to the school-wide PBS training.

Coaches responsibilities

This gives a list of the responsibilities for coaches throughout the year of implementation.

Taking School-Wide PBS to the next level

This powerpoint presentation describes how a school can use data to maintain their school-wide PBS, as well as identifying where to go next.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 1: Overview of PBS

This unit provides an overview of school-wide, non-classroom behavior support strategies, introduces the importance of data for decision-making and offers general strategies for team-based planning. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 2: School-wide Discipline.

This unit briefly discusses effective discipline strategies and presents the core features of school-wide PBS implementation. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 3: Data-based decision making

This unit introduces basic guidelines for collecting and using ODR data for effective and regular decision-making. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 4: Specific Settings

This unit provides information on behavior management strategies designed to apply school-wide behavioral expectations in specific settings. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 5: Team Meetings

This unit provides strategies for conducting productive meetings and tools for assessing meeting effectiveness and efficiency. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 6: PBS Review

This unit provides a brief review of the critical features of school-wide PBS implementation. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

Florida PBS Project Evaluation

This is a powerpoint presentation for coaches that describes the Florida PBS project evaluation froms and process.

Experienced Coaches Training - Coaching 101

This powerpoint is intended to cover the areas of: 1) Using your data effectively 2) Requesting technical assistance for your team 3) Problem solving with the team 4) Creating your yearly plan for training and implementation 5) Completing your product book 6) Establishing effective team meetings and team roles; and 7) Coaches' role and responsibilities

Experienced Coaches' Training - Coaching 102

Powerpoint presentation to experienced coaches covering the following topics: 1) Assisting with funding and fundraising efforts 2) Reaching beyond the school: Involving parents and the community 3) Changing the school climate (est. ratio of 4 to 1, adding teacher incentives, etc) 4) SW Booster training requirements 5) Using data to make necessary changes in procedures and systems 6) Keeping your process new, creative and interesting

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

This document explains the purpose of establishing a state-wide network of behavior support coaches and it also describes the prequisites skills required to be considered as a coach.

COACH’S Implementation Checklist Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)

This is a checklist designed to be completed monthly by the PBIS Coach to monitor PBIS implementation activities in a school.

Application for New Team Training Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS)

This document provides the names of inidividuals on the PBIS team that will be representative of their school.

Coaches Self-Assessment

This self-assessment is designed to assist coaches in identify current strengths and professional development goals.

Behavior Education Program Fidelity of Implementation Measure (BEP-FIM) Scoring Guide

This document is used in describing or reporting facts or details about the implementation of Behavioral Education Program (BEP).

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS)-Powerpoint

This powerpoint presentation discusses the history of PBIS in Maryland, provides data on Maryland PBIS schools, and discusses project target.

Cost/ Benefit Analysis Worksheet

This is a spreadsheet that allows you to enter the number of referrals per academic year and then it provides you with a graphical representation.

End of year Report

This is a survey that coach team leader, and administrator complete to discuss the successes for the year.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

This document is designed to assess and evaluate the critical features of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) across each academic school year.

School-Based PBIS Implementation Phases Inventory (IPI) - Project Target

This is a survey that measures districts support and their investment in PBIS at the follwoing phases: preparation, initiation, implementation, and maintenance,

Draft Proposal for Implementation of PBIS in Baltimore City Public Schools

This document is a drafted implementation plan that describes procedures that could be used to implement PBIS in Baltimore Public Schools.

PBS STAFF Satisfaction Survey

This survey measures individuals level of agreement or disagreement with each statement.

Process for Providing Team Training/ Evaluation

This instrument provides an overview of the requirements for training.

Sample PBIS Exemplar School

This powerpoint provides information about the effect of PBIS at Indian Head school.

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports-Powerpoint

This is a powerpoint presentation that discusses the elements of PBIS

Building on Success: Developing a Model for System-Wide Implementation of PBIS

This powerpoint presentation discusses the History of PBIS in Maryland and Baltimore County Public Schools.

Team Training Manual

This is a manual that provide tips for working with a group.

Illinois PBIS Implementation Levels for 2005-2006

The following document is a list of criteria that will be used to guide assessment of implementation in schools.

Working Smarter with PBIS: Establishing School-Wide Systems of Positive Behavioral Support

This powerpoint presentation is used to train new PBS teams.

Illinois PBIS Implementation

This is a checklist that allows schools to monitor the status of their PBIS program.

Before Students Return

This document provides a task list that should be completed before students return to school.

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

This chart shows how the universal, targeted, and intensive behavioral system pairs with the academic Response to Intervention (RTI) system.

PBIS Staff Kickoff

This form explains how PBIS helps staff to build a school-wide social-culture.

PBIS Problem Solving Steps

This document details the objectives of each step of the Problem Solving method.

Illinois PBIS Implementation Recommended Job Descriptions for INTERNAL Coach

This document lists the job goal, qualifications requirement, and performance responsibilities of the PBIS internal coach.

PBIS School-Wide Team Meeting Form

This form allows teams to formally document events that take place during PBIS meetings.

PBIS School-Wide Team “YEAR-AT-A-GLANCE"

This form provides a layout of when specific tasks should be completed.

Illinois PBIS Coordinator Self-Assessment Tool

This self-assessment was developed to be a descriptive working tool for coordinators who are developing school-wide PBIS systems.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support SW-PBS

This is a powerpoint presentation that helps school with understanding challenging behavior and it also explains how to develop effective discipline practices.

Discovering School-wide PBS: Moving Towards a Positive Future

This DVD contains a 24 minute awareness video on school-wide PBS that can be shared with districts and schools to solicit interest and buy-in. There are also 5 video segments on getting buy-in, using data for decision-making, teaching expectations and rules, providing effective consequences, and developing reward systems. The DVD can be ordered from the Florida DOE at: http://www.firn.edu/doe/bin00014/clermail.htm

Building Inclusive School Cultures Using School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) is a systematic and effective approach for broadly improving student behavior across school environments. SWPBS includes data-based strategies for supporting all students along a continuum of need and intensity based on a three-tiered model of prevention. Students with the most significant behavioral challenges are provided with assessment-based, individualized supports. To date, considerable evaluation research has demonstrated the benefits of SWPBS, documenting behavioral improvements using the whole school as the unit of analysis. Notably, less evaluation research has focused on the effects of SWPBS on the behavior of individual students with the most significant disabilities. In this paper, we describe SWPBS with an emphasis on the conceptual and procedural elements that are intended to benefit the full range of students within a school, with a particular focus on those students with the most intense needs. We discuss the SWPBS process, provide case illustrations, and call for additional research on the inclusion of students with significant disabilities with all applications of SWPBS.

Using school bus discipline referral data in decision making: Two case studies

Public schools are responsible for providing a safe, structured environment that is conducive to learning. This requirement encompasses a variety of settings, including school bus transportation. However, limited research exists to indicate best practices for designing and implementing behavior programs for school bus transportation. The availability of bus discipline referrals provides an ideal source of information on bus-related discipline needs. This article describes 2 examples of using bus discipline referrals to identify discipline concerns and possible support needs. First, a district-wide assessment of bus discipline referrals is presented. Second, the results of an assessment of school-wide needs of a single elementary school are presented. Additionally, the patterns from the district-wide assessment and school assessment are compared and contrasted to determine concerns specific to a school that may not be addressed through a district-based behavior intervention. Implications for data-based decision-making are discussed.

The school-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support

Presents data documenting the psychometric properties of the "School-Wide Evaluation Tool," a research instrument for measuring implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (PBS) procedures. Extent to which schools already use school-wide PBS; Determination if training and technical assistance efforts result in change in the use of school-wide PBS procedures.

School-wide positive behavior support: An alternative approach to discipline in schools

A book chapter in the book 'Positive Behavior Support.'

Validity of office discipline referral measures as indices of school-wide behavioral status and effects of school-wide behavioral interventions

Office discipline referrals (ODRs) are widely used by school personnel to evaluate student behavior and the behavioral climate of schools. In this article, the authors report the results of a review of the relevant literature to evaluate the validity of ODR data as indices of school-wide behavioral climate, the effects of school-wide behavioral interventions, and differ- ing behavior support needs across schools. They used Messick's unified approach to validity by focusing on examples of evidence for empirical and ethical foundations of interpretations, uses, and social consequences of ODR measures at the school-wide level. The authors also discuss ongoing issues, study limitations, and related recommendations for interpretations and uses of ODR measures as school-wide indices, based on the existing literature.

Identifying Barriers and Facilitators in Implementing School-wide Positive Behavior Support

As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used a systematic process to understand barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support by schools implementing at high and low levels of fidelity, and the degree to which the project could impact barriers and facilitators. Results indicate that schools implementing with low fidelity tend to identify practical, operational barriers, whereas schools implementing with high fidelity struggle with systems issues. Both high-implementing and low-implementing schools identified the same facilitators to implementation; however, they differed in their views of which facilitators the project could impact. Implications for state PBS project activities are discussed, along with suggestions for future data collection and providing a model of data-based decision making at a macro level.

Review of “Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum: Supervisory and Direct Support Editions

In the past several years, the values and practices of positive behavior support (PBS) have had a significant impact on services provided to adults and children with disabilities. Evidence of this impact can be seen in federal grants and laws such as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Amendments of 1997 (IDEA, 1997), a professional journal (the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions), and an established organization (the Association for Positive Behavior Support).With this emergence comes a continued need for clearly defining PBS, identifying the skills evident in a competent practitioner, and effectively teaching those skills to supervisors, teachers, direct support staff, and other professionals. It is with these concerns in mind that we will review the training materials Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum: Supervisory and Direct Support Editions (PBS-TC).

Measuring the impact of positive behavior support

Assesses the social validity of positive behavior support. Evaluation of behavioral and quality of life outcome; Details on the functional assessment of problem behavior; Development of multicomponent interventions.

Emerging challenges and opportunities: Introducing the Association for Positive Behavior Support.

We announce the creation of the Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS) to unite communities and assist in the promotion and continuing development of the discipline. This brief article provides an introduction to APBS and an invitation to prospective members of this new international association.

The Relationship of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to Academic Achievement in an Urban Middle School

An emerging literature on school-wide Positive Behavior Support (PBS) in urban settings suggests the utility of PBS in addressing student social development while decreasing the need for disciplinary actions (i.e., office disciplinary referrals [ODRs]). This research represents a significant addition to, and expansion of, this literature by examining the relationship of school-wide PBS-induced reductions in out-of-class referrals to student academic achievement. School-wide PBS was implemented in an urban, inner-city middle school in the Midwest over a 3-year period. Data on ODRs, suspensions, standardized test scores, and treatment fidelity were gathered and analyzed. Results demonstrated significant reductions in ODRs and suspensions and increases in standardized math and reading scores. Additionally, regression analyses suggested a significant relationship between student problem behavior and academic performance. Treatment adherence to PBS procedures was significantly correlated with reductions in problem behavior. These findings are discussed in terms of helping urban schools address challenging behavior.

Scientifically Supported Practices in EBD: A Proposed Approach and Brief Review of Current Practices

Both No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act require educators to use research-validated practices in classrooms. And yet education, special education, and the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) continue to show large gaps in the consistent use of best practices. The authors propose that the research-to-practice gap can be traced to the lack of clear, consistent criteria to determine what are research-based practices and the absence of support structures to assist educators in implementing such practices. A four-phase review process was developed based on current recommendations from the E/BD literature, and a brief review of classroom-based strategies was conducted. Four practices were identified as being research based. The authors discuss each of these practices and call for the field of special education, and E/BD in particular, to develop and adopt a universal set of standards to determine research-based practice and look to school systems to support their use.

Reducing problem behaviors on the playground: An investigation of the application of school-wide positive behavior supports

Investigated the efficacy of positive behavior support (PBS) prevention/early intervention strategies on the rate of problem behavior displayed by elementary schools students during recess. Specifically, this study examined the effects of directly teaching playground-related behaviors and the use of a group contingency to reinforce mastery in an elementary school.

Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on student discipline problems and academic performance

Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour support on discipline problems and academic outcomes of students enrolled in an urban elementary school. The whole-school model was designed through technical assistance consultation with teachers that emphasized: (1) improving instructional methods; (2) formulating behavioural expectations; (3) increasing classroom activity engagement; (4) reinforcing positive performance; and (5) monitoring efficacy through data-based evaluation. As compared to a pre-intervention phase, the whole-school intervention was associated with decreased discipline problems (office referrals and school suspensions) over the course of several academic years. Student academic performance, as measured by standardized tests of reading and mathematics skills, improved contemporaneously with intervention. Issues related to whole-school approaches to student discipline and the contributions of positive behaviour support are discussed.

Improving discipline practices in public schools: Description of a whole-school and district-wide model of behavior analysis consultation

We describe the delivery of behavioral consultation services to improve discipline practices in public schools. The components of a whole-school and district-wide consultative model are discussed, with an emphasis on preventive interventions, multimethod measurement, and empirical outcome evaluation. Data from several consultation projects are presented to illustrate the types and scope of intervention.

Positive behavior support in urban schools: Can we prevent the escalation of antisocial behavior

This article describes a case study of a school-wide positive behavior support model implemented in an ethnically and racially diverse inner-city elementary school. The project brought together school-based professionals with expert behavioral consultants from a local behavioral health-care agency to address the increasing rates of student disruptive behavior. Significant reductions were evident in both the overall level of office discipline referrals as well as the most serious offense, student assaults. Results are discussed within the context of the larger task of preventing antisocial behavior in urban schools.

Prevention and intervention for the challenging behaviors of toddlers and preschoolers

An early manifestation of atypical social-emotional development is the occurrence of challenging behaviors. While some challenging behaviors dissipate during and following the early years, others persist and even escalate, marking increasingly problematic developmental trajectories, school failure, and social maladjustment. Increasing attention has begun to focus on the early identification and prevention of challenging behaviors and on strategies for resolving such behaviors at their earliest appearance. In this article, the authors discuss what is known about challenging behaviors in the repertoires of toddlers and preschoolers, and present a model of prevention and intervention. Although research in this area is limited, there are encouraging signs that a coordinated adoption of validated practices could substantially reduce challenging behaviors and thereby enhance the social and emotional well-being of children in today's society.

Expanding Technical Assistance Consultation to Public Schools: District-Wide Evaluation of Instructional and Behavior Support Practices for Students with Developmental Disabilities

Describes consultation to a public school district in the form of a systems-wide evaluation of instructional and behavior support practices for students with developmental disabilities. The format of the evaluative model, respective findings, suggested remedies, and implications for large-scale public school consultation are provided.

School demographic variables and out-of-school suspension rates: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of a large, ethnically diverse school district

Study examined out-of-school suspensions among elementary and secondary schools (N=97). Although student demographic variables were strongly related to a school's suspension rate, school comparisons showed that not all schools with a high percentage of at-risk students have a high suspension rate. Discusses results in terms of school discipline reform.

Framing positive behavior support in the ongoing discourse concerning the politics of knowledge

Examines the contributions of a progressive form of post-modern social theory to raising substantive issues about the politics of knowledge or the factors that govern decision processes regarding the nature of evidence from research. Basis for the reaction against postmodernism that has appeared in the special education literature; Confusion that occur in reactive positions between postmodernism on the one hand and subjectivism in the production of knowledge on the other.

Rethinking inclusion: Schoolwide applications

As a field, special education presents an excellent case study of the paradox of differentiation and integration, wherein we seek solutions through increased specialization but, in so doing, we redefine a problem in terms of discrete parts at the expense of the whole. As Thomas Skrtic pointed out more than a decade ago, a large and ever-widening gap exists between the purpose of special education -- to provide needed supports, services, adaptations, and accommodations to students with disabilities in order to preserve and enhance their educational participation in the least restrictive environment -- and its practice. And that practice has evolved over three decades into a parallel and highly differentiated educational structure, often with only loosely organized connections to the general education system. "Inclusion" is usually regarded as the placement of special education students in general education settings. In this article, the authors present a new vision of integrated education, in which previously specialized adaptations and strategies are used to enhance the learning of all students.

The relationship of inquiry to public policy

This article examines the nature of inquiry and how it has evolved in American culture. Issues of "evidence" are examined, both for inquiry and for its application in public policy. It considers the role of policy in inquiry and the implications of altering the traditional relationship of policy to inquiry.

Anchoring Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support in Structural School Reform

 Schoolwide positive behavior support (SWPBS) exemplifies a longitudinal research program originating in the fields of special education and school psychology that has produced an extensive national database encompassing an evidence-based set of practices applicable to general education as well as special education students including those with severe disabilities. Schoolwide applications of evidence-based practices, however, are at some risk of falling victim to the ongoing bifurcation of education into the general and special education parallel and often noninteractive, professional systems of instruction. One potential solution to bifurcated practice is to embed (or contextualize) SWPBS in a broader, universal school reform agenda that coordinates and evaluates all educational intervention services and supports for the benefit of all students. A structural school reform process called the Schoolwide Applications Model (SAM) is described, which includes SWPBS as 1 of 15 critical features. Results from a 3-year, ongoing research project in a low-income, multicultural, urban school district in Northern California suggests that SWPBS, with its three levels of student support, guided by teams of general as well as special educators, can be an important contributor to academic as well as social achievement among students with and without disabilities and, as grounded within systematic school reform, can help to mitigate against the bifurcation of general and special education practices.

Using staff and student time engaged in disciplinary procedures to evaluate the impact of school-wide PBS

Presents an example of how school time was monitored to facilitate a cost analysis of school-wide systems of positive behavior support. Descriptions of how PBS efforts were initiated in the school; Time and money spent preparing for and implementing PBS; Use of changes in behavior referrals and suspension to evaluate the effect of PBS on the larger system.

Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples

This article proposes a framework for expanding the traditional presentation of wraparound and FBA to (a) view wraparound and FBA as concepts that are inextricably linked at the core of each level of the proactive systemic process of PBS and (b) understand how wraparound and FBA are critical features of prevention as well as intervention for creating safer schools for all students.

Positive behavior support systems: Applying key features in preschool settings

The differences between positive behavior support (PBS) at the preschool level and at the elementary school level are discussed and a method is presented for implementing features of PBS in preschool programs.

Behavior support strategies in early childhood settings: Teachers’ importance and feasibility ratings

The current study investigated early childhood professionals' opinions regarding the use of behavioral supports for children with challenging behavior. Participants included early childhood special education teachers, Title I teachers, speech and language pathologists, instructional aids and paraprofessionals, physical therapists, and school psychologists. Participants rated 24 behavioral support strategies on both their importance and their feasibility. Overall, results indicated that early childhood professionals rated the majority of the behavior support items in the mostly important range. Participants did not rate as many items as mostly feasible, and statistical analyses documented a significant difference between overall importance of the items and overall feasibility. Early childhood professionals' characteristics were analyzed to investigate whether groups differed in their perceptions of the importance and feasibility of the behavioral support items. Findings indicated that early childhood special education and Title I teachers rated the support items as more important than did paraprofessionals and instructional aids. Educational level also differentiated groups on importance ratings; professionals with either undergraduate degrees or graduate-level educational experiences rated items as more important than professionals with high school-level educations or some college. Years of teaching experience was not associated with ratings, and no teacher characteristic was associated with the feasibility of behavior supports. The implications of these findings are discussed.

A not so good job with “Good Job”: A response to Kohn 2001

Comments on the article "Five Reasons to Stop Saying, 'Good Job'," by Kohn (2001). Involvement of the field of early intervention in the debate between proponents of behavioral teaching strategies and professionals against it; Argument that saying "good job" manipulates children in order to maximize adult convenience.

School-wide positive behavior supports: Achieving and sustaining effective learning environments for all students

A book chapter in the book "Focus on behavior analysis in education: Achievements, challenges, and opportunities."

Behaviorally effective school environments

A book chapter in the book "Interventions for academic and behavior problems: Preventive and remedial approaches."

IDEA, Positive Behavioral Supports, and School Safety

A five-part article describes and analyzes the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and a behavioral intervention technique called "positive behavioral interventions, supports, and strategies" (PBS). Suggests guidelines for applying PBS within the framework of IDEA, especially as it applies to discipline of students covered by the Act.

Positive behavior support and urban school improvement: A special section of the Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions

Discusses urban school improvement and positive behavior support as the focus of the special edition of the 'Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions' in fall 2002. Themes discussed during a Behavior Summit in Washington, D.C. as inspiration for the journal edition.

Antisocial behavior in school: Evidence-based practices (2nd Ed.)

This classic in the literature of child violence and antisocial behavior has been updated to include coverage of the most recent and important school safety, prevention, and universal intervention programs.

Urban applications of school-wide positive behavior support: Critical issues and lessons learned

Researchers and educators have recognized that typical school-wide approaches to discipline and the prevention and management of problem behavior are often insufficient to address the needs of many students in inner-city schools with high base rates of problem behavior. This article outlines critical issues and lessons learned in the planning and implementation of effective and self-sustaining Positive Behavior Support (PBS) efforts in inner-city schools. Among these issues are methods for the facilitation of school-university partnerships, the incorporation of PBS into existing comprehensive school improvement efforts, the maintenance of school-wide PBS efforts, and the formalization of exit strategies and arrangements for subsequent technical assistance. The importance of service integration, family support, youth development, and community development are emphasized in ensuring the effectiveness and sustainability of school-wide PBS efforts in inner-city settings.

Effects of Behavior Support Team Composition on the Technical Adequacy and Contextual Fit of Behavior Support Plans

This study examined how the composition of a behavior support team affected use of assessment information in the design of behavior support plans. Specifically, we examined if typical teams designed behavior support plans that differed in (a) technical adequacy and/or (b) contextual fit when (1) teams did not include behavior specialists, (2) teams included behavior specialists, or (3) behavior specialists worked alone. Fifty-eight school personnel on 12 behavior support teams from typical elementary schools and 6 behavior specialists participated in the study. Vignettes describing hypothetical students with functional behavior assessment outcome information were used to develop 36 behavior support plans (12 by teams alone, 12 by specialists alone, and 12 by teams with specialists). Results were assessed by 3 expert behavior analysts for technical adequacy and by all 64 team members for contextual fit. Technical adequacy tended to be rated high if specialists alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Contextual fit tended to be rated high when teams alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Team members ranked plans developed by the team alone and plans developed by the team with a specialist as preferred for implementation over plans developed by a specialist alone. Implications for the selection of behavior support team membership are discussed.

Assessment and Implementation of Positive Behavior Support in Preschools

There is increasing concern over the number of young children who exhibit challenging behaviors in early childhood settings. Comprehensive prevention models are needed to support teachers' management of challenging behaviors and to avert the development of such behaviors within at-risk populations. One approach utilizes a three-tier prevention model called positive behavior support (PBS). The present research first assessed one region's implementation of PBS in 15 early childhood settings and found that on average, few features of PBS (30.79%) were implemented. Next, the impact of PBS consultation on teachers' use of universal PBS practices and children's behavior was evaluated in a multiple baseline design across four classrooms. A functional relationship was established between PBS consultation and teachers' implementation of universal PBS practices, but overall low levels of problem behavior prevented assessment of the impact of these changes on child problem behavior. Implications for future applications of PBS to early childhood settings are discussed.

Application of economic analysis to school-wide positive behavior support programs

The authors discuss how to use economic techniques to evaluate educational programs and show how to apply basic cost analysis to implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). A description of cost analysis concepts used for economic program evaluation is provided, emphasizing the suitability of these concepts for evaluating educational programs. The authors also describe the specific data and measurement and analytic procedures that cost analysis evaluation requires. The concepts are then applied in a case study showing a cost analysis of SWPBS. Implications are provided for extending the cost analysis case study into evaluation of cost-effectiveness and/or cost-benefit economic analyses of program success.

School-wide application of positive behavior support in an urban high school: A case study

The nuances of the application of schoolwide positive behavior supports (PBS) in an urban high school setting were investigated. Impact of implementation was measured using qualitative interviews and observations, including the School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET), Effective Behavior Support Survey, Student Climate Survey, and office disciplinary referrals. The results indicated that schoolwide PBS was implemented in an urban high school setting with some success. The overall level of implementation of PBS reached 80% as measured by the SET. Staff and teachers increased their level of perceived priority for implementing PBS in their school. A decrease in monthly discipline referrals to the office and the proportion of students who required secondary and tertiary supports was noted. These findings seem to indicate that PBS may be an important process for improving outcomes for teachers and students in urban high school settings.

A descriptive analysis of intervention research published in the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions: 1999-2005

The Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions (JPBI) has been publishing reports of empirical intervention research since 1999, with a commitment to serve as a vehicle for dissemination of data and perspectives pertinent to positive behavior support (PBS). PBS is distinguished by an emphasis on certain features of interventions, such as ecological and social validity. The current analysis was undertaken as an effort to describe the characteristics of intervention research published in JPBI from 1999 through 2005 and to provide a comparison with other peer-reviewed journals that publish a large number of articles reporting intervention research with children and youth with disabilities. The data indicate that JPBI has been publishing research with comparatively high levels of ecological validity, social validity, and assessment-based interventions. The authors note other distinctive aspects of JPBI's publication record and discuss the data with respect to the current and future character of PBS research.

Importance of Student Social Behavior in the Mission Statements, Personnel Preparation Standards, and Innovation Efforts of State Departments of Education

We examined the extent to which state departments of education are including (a) goals for student social behavior in their mission statements; (b) criteria for individual student, classroom, and schoolwide behavior support in certification standards for general education teachers, special education teachers, and principals; and (c) state initiatives focused on improving student social behavior. Web-based information from state departments of education from all 50 states and from the District of Columbia were reviewed in the fall of 2004. Results indicated that only 16 states (31%) include a focus on student social behavior in their mission statements. Individual student behavior support practices were identified in the curriculum for general educators in 30 (59%) states and for special educators in 39 (76%) states. Classroom behavior support practices were required for general education teachers in 39 (76%) states and for special educators in 40 (78%) states. Schoolwide behavior support practices were most likely to be required for principal certification, and they were formally identified in 20 (39%) of the states surveyed. Character education was the most common state initiative cited for improving social behavior in schools.

Essential components for effective educational programs

A book chapter from the book "Effective practices for children with autism: Educational and behavior support interventions that work."

Prevention and Intervention with Young Children's Challenging Behavior: Perspectives Regarding Current Knowledge

Challenging behavior exhibited by young children is becoming recognized as a serious impediment to social-emotional development and a harbinger of severe maladjustment in school and adult life. Consequently, professionals and advocates from many disciplines have been seeking to define, elaborate, and improve on existing knowledge related to the prevention and resolution of young children's challenging behaviors. Of particular concern for the field of behavioral disorders is the lack of correspondence between what is known about effective practices and what practices young children with challenging behavior typically receive. To increase the likelihood that children receive the best of evidence-based practices, the current analysis was conducted to provide a concise synthesis and summary of the principal evidence pertaining to the presence and impact, prevention, and intervention of challenging behaviors in young children. A consensus building process involving review and synthesis was used to produce brief summary statements encapsulating core conclusions from the existing evidence. This article presents these statements along with descriptions of the strength of the supporting evidence. The discussion addresses directions and priorities for practice and future research.

Response to Intervention: Examining Classroom Behavior Support in Second Grade

This article reports on 2 studies investigating a response-to-intervention (RTI) approach to behavior support in 2 second-grade classrooms. The results suggest that a slightly more intensive but efficient targeted intervention ("check in and check out") was effective in supporting the social behavior success of 4 students whose problem behaviors were unresponsive to general classroom management practices. For 4 other students whose problem behaviors continued to be unresponsive to the "check-in and check-out" intervention, more individualized and function-based interventions were indicated and proved to be effective. The results from this research suggest that RTI logic can be applied to the social behavior support of students who present interfering problem behaviors in the classroom. Implications and recommendations for research and practice are discussed.

Promoting implementation success through the use of continuous systems-level assessment strategies

Successful implementation of school-wide positive behavior support requires a continuous evaluation of program data. It also requires an ongoing review of how those data relate to organizational strengths, needs, professional development concerns, and the larger community. Accomplishing these tasks can be a formidable undertaking, particularly when school staff members have limited training in data-based decision making. This article will describe how a continuous systems-level assessment process is being implemented in one urban middle school to address behavioral and academic objectives.

Building district-level capacity for positive behavior support

As more and more schools adopt school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a model for school improvement and the success of initial demonstration sites becomes evident, districts are faced with expansion and sustainability issues. Careful planning of these implementation efforts requires district personnel to be familiar with the resources and supports needed to implement and sustain such district-wide systems change efforts and build an infrastructure to support SWPBS initiatives. The purpose of this article is to expand upon School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Implementers' Blueprint and Self-Assessment (Sugai et al., 2005) by describing the how-to of the SWPBS implementation process with specific activities and providing user-friendly tools that can assist a district in "going to scale." Obstacles to and future considerations for expanding the practice of SWPBS are also presented.

Practical Considerations in Creating School-Wide Positive Behavior Support in Public Schools

School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) has been identified as an effective and efficient method to teach students prosocial skills. It requires both effective behavior support practices and systems that will support these changes, including data-based decision making among the school leadership team. There are many practical and systemic factors that school personnel should examine before they consider themselves ready for systemic school-wide changes, including those associated with the (a) leadership team, (b) staff, (c) administration, (d) coach/facilitator, and (e) district. Practical considerations in each of these areas will be identified and discussed so that practitioners can anticipate their needs as they create effective SWPBS, particularly in low performing urban schools.

School-wide positive behavior support

A book chapter in the book "Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing positive behavior plans."

Using office discipline referral data for decision-making about student behavior in elementary and middle schools: An empirical investigation of validity

In this evaluation we used Messick's construct validity as a conceptual framework for an empirical study assessing the validity of use, utility, and impact of office discipline referral (ODR) measures for data-based decision making about student behavior in schools. The Messick approach provided a rubric for testing the fit of our theory of use of ODR measures with empirical data on reported and actual use. It also facilitated our demonstration of Messick's principle that validation is both a developmental and an ongoing collaborative process among developers of educational and psychological measures, researchers interested in theories underlying such measures, and educators who use these measures in professional practice. We used a single-group, nonexperimental evaluation design to survey users of ODR measures from the standardized School Wide Information System in 22 elementary and 10 middle schools; respondents included school staff involved exclusively with data entry and staff actively involved in data-based decision making. Results were highly consistent across 2 independent data sources—electronic database records of actual access of summaries of ODR measures and self-report survey responses regarding frequencies and types of uses of ODR measures for decision making. Results indicated that ODR measures are regularly used for a variety of types of data-based decision making and are regarded as both efficient and effective for those purposes. We discuss implications of our SWIS ODR validity evaluation results within the context of the Messick framework.

Social Skills Assessment and Intervention Review and Recommendations for School Practitioners

We present a "practitioner's guide" to social skills assessment and intervention with students attending public schools. Important characteristics of assessment instruments are discussed, including psychometric properties and strategies applicable to school settings. We then review several social skills assessment protocols and rating scales that can be used efficiently by school psychologists, teachers, and other related professionals. The process of assessment-derived intervention planning is covered, with a description of social skills curricula/training programs and presentation of an illustrative case study. We conclude with a summary of salient issues and recommendations to facilitate the routine assessment and teaching of social skills by school practitioners.

Focus, Scope, and Practice of Behavioral Consultation to Public Schools

Overviews the focus, scope, and practice of behavioral consultation to public schools. A four-stage process of behavioral intervention is described, followed by a discussion on the expanding role of behavior support intervention. The involvement of consultants in the design of individual-student, classroom-wide, and whole-school programs is considered.

Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades

This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support. Students in the district are provided a continuum of reading and/or behavioral support based on screening measures that indicate response to universal, targeted, and intensive support. This combined approach may be more successful due to the number of shared critical features in both systems. Results document positive outcomes in prevalence of students needing additional reading and/or behavior support (in comparison to national figures) and are reported with recommendations for future experimental analyses.

The Use of Reading and Behavior Screening Measures to Predict Nonresponse to School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Longitudinal Analysis

This study involved a longitudinal analysis of academic skills and problem behavior through elementary school. The purposes of the study were (a) to explore the interactions between reading skills and problem behavior, and (b) to determine the value of regular screening assessments in predicting which students would not respond to school-wide behavior support in fifth grade. The participants were elementary school students who entered kindergarten in 1998 and completed fifth grade in a school district with school-wide reading and behavior support systems. Analyses consisted of logistic regressions to predict the number of discipline contacts in fifth grade. Results indicated that both reading and behavior variables (including kindergarten reading variables) significantly predicted the number of discipline referrals received in fifth grade. Results are discussed in terms of determining pathways to problem behavior and implications for a combined approach to academic and behavior problems. 

Longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school

Reports on a longitudinal evaluation of behavior support intervention in a public middle school. Study design and methods; Number of detentions recorded for the three behavior categories; Decreasing trend in the number of detentions each year for vandalism and substance use; Percentage of student attendance and earning a lottery drawing per term.

Teacher outcomes of School-wide Positive Behavior Support

Thousands of Schools throughout the country are now implementing school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a way to improve school culture, safety, and climate. Research is needed to assess the effects of implementing SWPBS on (a) teacher stress and (b) and teacher efficacy. The present pilot study provides a preliminary study of these variables by analyzing self-report measures conducted by 20 teachers within schools of differing levels of SWPBS implementation. Results indicated a statistically significant relationship between SWPBS implementation and teacher perception of educational efficacy. Results did not indicate a significant relationship, but rather a trend in the anticipated direction between SWPBS implementation and reduced perception of teacher stress. Limitations of the study are discussed and directions for future research are recommended.

The quest for ordinary lives: A legacy and a challenge to the status quo

The article offers a commentary on the article "The Quest for Ordinary Lives: A Legacy and a Challenge to the Status Quo," by Betsy Shiraga, Kim Kessler and Lou Brown. It offers some useful insights beyond those traditionally encountered in personnel preparation programs in transition from school to adult living. It suggests that there may well be another side to the protectionist-feel good ethic in our society. The authors reported anecdotal data from coworkers in these typical community work settings suggesting that their jobs became enriched and more satisfying and fulfilling for had the experience of working alongside coworkers.

Making behavior intervention planning decisions in a school-wide system of positive behavior support

Although rates of crime and serious or violent behaviors are decreasing in schools, more common behaviors such as disrespect, simple noncompliance, tardiness, and truancy have remained a major concern for teachers (Furlong, Morrison, & Dear, 1994; Zabel & Zabel, 2002). Administrators, too, see these behaviors as requiring constant attention (Heaviside, Rowland, Williams, & Farris, 1998). As early as kindergarten, some students exhibit challenging behaviors that require increased teacher attention (Sawka, McCurdy, & Mannella, 2002; Sprague & Walker, 2000) and set the occasion for more chronic and pervasive problems in school and life (Fox, Dunlap, & Powell, 2002; Loeber & Farrington, 2000; Snyder, 2001; Walker, Colvin, & Ramsey, 1995). To be effective, intervention with these students must occur as early as possible in a pattern of failure--using practices that represent an individual student's best chance for success.

Coaching positive behavior support in school settings: Tactics and data-based decision-making

Systems of positive behavior support (PBS) that positively affect student performance involve consensus among stakeholders, the development of environments that facilitate student success, effective teaching of rules and procedures, and consistent consequences for behavior. Evaluation of such systems requires schools to collect data to assess performance and to use that information to make data-based decisions. However, surveys indicate that data collection and data-based decision making are among the most difficult components of PBS for school personnel to tackle. This article examines in-person coaching strategies and data use. Individual school results are analyzed in relation to the school's School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) scores. A discussion of how coaches may more efficiently assess schools' readiness for coaching styles and content includes suggestions for how coaches might use a range of available assessment tools.

Issues of personal dignity and social validity in school-wide systems of positive behavior support

This article provides an analysis of issues related to personal dignity and social validity in schools. Specifically, dignity is defined in terms of individual success and independence, while social validity is defined in terms of the system as a whole. These definitions are explored in the context of schoolwide systems of positive behavior support (PBS). Descriptions of schoolwide systems of PBS are used to analyze and detail procedures that maintain respect for personal dignity and social validity. In addition, processes for engaging persons in this discussion are critically analyzed. Future development and growth of PBS as a technology-based approach to developing self-determined, independent, and successful persons is discussed. Direction is suggested in the way we consider issues, define our values, and engage others in systemic change efforts.

Schoolwide positive behavioral supports

A book chapter in the book "The handbook of school violence and school safety."

Commentary: Establishing efficient and durable systems of school-based support

Part of a special section on linking systems for prevention and intervention in emerging models for promoting children's mental health. A commentary on an article by Atkins, Graczyk, Frazier, and Abdul-Adil that appeared in this issue on pp. 503-514 is presented. In their article, Atkins et al. described three studies that are part of an ongoing program of research focused on school-based models for urban children's mental health. The writer commends Atkins et al. for promoting a "new model" of school-based mental health services. He seeks to expand Atkins et al.'s article by discussing the role of primary prevention, the importance of a function-based approach to behavior support, and an organizational and systems approach to sustainability.

Promoting behavioral success in schools: Commentary on exemplary practices

The articles in this special Practitioner's Edition of Psychology in the Schools share the application of sound educational and behavioral practices in real school and classroom contexts. Given this emphasis in these articles on the applied use of behavioral practices, the purpose of this brief commentary is to highlight and comment on some of the big ideas that link these practitioner-focused articles. Specifically, three main questions are addressed: (a) Where did the trianglecome from? (b) Why are schools increasing their use of local data to guide decision making? (c) What is school-wide positive behavior support?

Educational applications (Volume III)

A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and therapy."

A Promising Approach for Expanding and Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

Educators and psychologists are concerned about problem behavior. Fortunately, effective interventions and practices have been documented for addressing this problem behavior. However, sustained and expanded uses of these interventions and practices have not been consistent or widespread. One promising approach to the systemic and sustained implementation of these practices is school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS). The SWPBS effort emphasizes an integration of measurable outcomes, data-based decision making, evidence-based practices, and overt support systems for implementers. This behaviorally based, comprehensive systems approach is suggested as a means of achieving durable implementation of effective school-based interventions. Although the SWPBS approach is conceptually sound and comprised of supportable behavioral practices, further systems-level demonstrations and validations of efficacy, effectiveness, and expansion are recommended.

Overview of a Function-Based Approach to Behavior Support within Schools

While the majority of students in schools tend to respond to effective general academic instruction and proactive schoolwide discipline systems, some continue to exhibit intense and chronic problem behaviors, even in the best schools. For these students, schools are highly variable in their ability and capacity to provide accurate and durable specialized academic and behavioral supports. In these schools, frequent requests are made for assistance to address the specialized needs of these students. The intent of this article is twofold: (a) to provide an overview of the features that characterize a function-based approach to student support, and (b) to introduce the main articles within this special issue, which offer a variety of perspectives and practices related to function-based support at the classroom, school, and district level.

School-wide discipline and instructional classroom management: A systems approach

A book chapter in the book "Instructional classroom management (2nd ed.)"

Antisocial behavior

A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of school psychology."

Completing the Initial Benchmarks of Quality for School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)

This is a checklist and summary of procedures needed in order to address a schools readiness prior to SWPBS training.

Advanced SWIS Facilitator Training (Chicago Forum- 07)

SWIS training with new features. This session includes: 1) New features of SWIS, 2) Individual Student Reports & FBA, and 3) Roles & Responsibilities.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for Leadership (Chicago Forum- 07)

The presentation is about SW-PBS system and administrative leadership. It describes rationales, features, and implementation of SW-PBS.

SWIS Update (Chicago Forum- 07)

The presentation is about new features of SWIS (check-in/check-out data module) and district integration using SWIS.

Cultural Fit Within a SW System of PBS: Universal & Secondary Examples (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describes SW PBS system for culturally diverse children and youth.

Bully-Proofing in Elementary Schools (Chicago Forum-07)

Bully prevention in Positive Behavior Support (PBS) system.

Developing Effective State/District Coaches Network (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation introduces: 1) essential components of infrastructure needed to provide a supportive context for implementation at the local level and 2) systemic support building for multiple schools.

Changing the Data, Changing Our Minds: Disproportionality and School-wide PBS (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares various school discipline data and discusses effective discipline systems.

Taking Positive Behavior Support to Scale in Juvenile Justice Settings (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation discusses what “going to scale” means in public schools and juvenile justice settings and provides exemplars (NC Department of Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention).

Building Effective Coaches to Expand & Sustain PBIS Implementation (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares information about: 1) How do we change individual behavior in schools? 2) How do we create school environments that sustain change? and 3) What system-level mechanisms and infrastructure are necessary to sustain and bring to scale interventions that create desired change?

School-wide Reading and Behavior Support (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation introduces 'Behavior and reading improvement center (BRIC)' and discusses critical features of academic and behaviro support.

Designing and Implementing Evaluation of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation provides a framework for building state-level evaluation of school-wide PBIS.

From 60 to 600:The Perfect Storm (APBS 08)

The presentation describes the features and procedures for moving evidence-based educational practices from demonstrations to large-scale adoptions. This includes state and district examples, lessons learned, and future steps.

Using Implementers' Blueprint to Guide District Leadership Teams (APBS 08)

The presentation provides: 1) brief overview of blueprint, 2) various examples about job descriptions, action plan, marketing strategies, ledgers, protocols.

Establishing a System to Appropriately Identify, Assess, and Evaluate PBS Model/Exemplar Schools (APBS 08)

The presentation is about establishing a system to appropriately
identify, assess, and evaluating implementation outcomes of School-wide Positive Behavior Supports (universal level/tier 1) in order to recognize model or exemplar schools in your state or district.

SWPBS and Urban High Schools: Results and Issues Realized Across Implementation Years (APBS 08)

The presentation provides research-based strategies on systems-change efforts utilized at the high school level from addressing administrator buy-in, overcoming faculty reluctance, motivating young adults, and increasing parent participation across these settings.

Data-based Decision Making Across the Continuum for State, District, and School Planning (APBS 08)

The presentation shares various issues on data and data-based decision making.

The Effects of School-wide PBS within a Randomized Control Effectiveness Trial (APBS 08)

The presentation shares SW-PBS implementation research results and discusses students' academic benefit and safe learning environment from the results.

School-wide PBS:Building Sustainable Systems (APBS 08)

The presentation shares current status SWPBS, core features of SW-PBS, research on feasibility, impact and sustainability of SWPBS.

Using Technology to Sustain and Build Capacity (APBS 08)

The presentation describes how to use the web for implementation, public relations, dissemination of data, and sharing.

Implementation of the Three-Tiered Prevention Approach to School-wide Behavior Support (APBS 08)

The presentation describes Elementary School-Wide Prevention Models and shares real models implementation and real lessons learned.

Working Toward Lasting Change: Sustaining Practices in a Changing World (APBS 08)

The presentation discusses: 1) what is sustainability in SWPBS, 2) a plan for sustainability, and 3) key players.

Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support

This document is a 52 page handbook focusing on giving students the tools to reduce bullying behavior through the blending of school-wide positive behavior support, explicit instruction, and a redefinition of the bullying construct.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Implementers’ Blueprint and Self-Assessment

The purpose of this blueprint is to provide implementers with definitions, descriptions, and guidelines that allow for accurate and durable implementation of school-wide positive behavior support (SW-PBS) practices and systems.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Discipline & Beyond (Virginia Effective SW Discpline: Implementer's Forum-Charlottesville, VA)

The presentation describes rationale, features, outcomes of SWPBS (PBIS), & connection between RtI and School-wide Positive Behavior Support. It especially focuses on: 1) prevention, 2) continuum of evidence-based practices, 3) academic-behavior link, and 4) systems capacity.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support: Linking Social and Academic Gains (Washington Association of School Administrators)

The presentation discusses the relationship between SW-PBS and academic gains. It focuses on: 1) the importance of social behavior to achieve academic gains, 2) SW-PBS to build positive behavior social culture and to promote both academic and social success, and 3) coordinated focus to implement evidence-based practice (SW-PBS).

IL PBIS 2008: Leadership (IL Coodinator's Networking Meeting-Rosemont, IL)

The presentation provides overview of SW-PBS implementation with data. It focuses on: 1) effective behavioral interventions, 2) academic & social behavior outcomes, 3) RtI application, and 4) SWIS summary 07-08.

Is PBIS Evidence-based? (IL Leadership Forum-Rosemont, IL)

The presentation focuses on PBIS as an evidence-based practice. It provides overview of PBIS, determination of evidence-based practice, and evidence of PBIS.

Samples of Three to Five Behavioral Expectations

These are pictures and samples of what different schools have used as their 3-5  behavioral expectations.

New Team Action Planning and SWPBS Getting Started in MS/HS (MN PBS New Team Training-St. Paul, MN)

Overview of New Team Action Planning and action planning for starting SWPBS in the MS and HS Setting.

Implementing Innovation in Education (Oregon Education Enterprise Steering Committee)

New Presentation on managing innovation in education and Response to Intervention (RtI) in the field.

School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Rationale, Readiness, Features (CT New Team Principal's-UConn and Hartford)

Critical features of PBIS Overview geared for principals. The presentation describes SWPBS rationale, features, & examples and reviews readiness commitments & agreements.

Implementing Evidence-based Practices at Scales of Social Significance (ABA International-Virginia)

The presentation describes: 1) considerations for the emergence of “evidence-based practices”, 2) six features for taking EBP technology to scale, 3) definition of “implementation” as a unique technology, and 4) use School-wide Positive Behavior Support as one example.

SWPBS & Inclusion: Features, Examples, and Data (Global Summit on Disabilities and Inclusion-Washington DC)

It describes Positive Behavior Support as it relates to inclusion in school for children with disabilities.

SWPBS & RTI for All (CT Developmental Disabilities Conference-Cromwell, CT)

The presentation provides brief overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support & Response-to-Intervention for EVERYONE in school.

Responding to Norm Violating Behaviors (CT SWPBS Team Training- Uconn, Storrs, CT)

The presentation provides information on creating systems for responding to norm violating behaviors. It includes discipline & best practices, understanding behavior escalations, and action planning for the team.

Reaching All Students: RtI & SWPBS (IL SASED February Institute - Lombard, IL)

The presentation describes how RtI logic relates to positive behavioral interventions & supports for EVERYONE in school. The content includes RtI context, SWPBS basics, secondary/tertiary tier systems, and examples of PBS implementation.

School-wide Evaluation Tool Implementation Manual

The SET Implementation Manual was developed to provide guidance and technical assistance to those who would like to use the School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) to assess a school’s fidelity of implementation of school-wide positive behavior support.