Secondary Level

Secondary Level Prevention

Positive behavior support is an application of a behaviorally-based systems approach to enhance the capacity of schools, families, and communities to design effective environments that improve the fit or link between research-validated practices and the environments in which teaching and learning occurs. Attention is focused on creating and sustaining primary (school-wide), secondary (targeted group or simple individual plans), and tertiary (individual) systems of support that improve lifestyle results (personal, health, social, family, work, recreation) for all children and youth by making problem behavior less effective, efficient, and relevant, and desired behavior more functional

Resources

First Step to Success: An early intervention for elementary children at risk for antisocial behavior

The increased prevalence and seriousness of antisocial behavior displayed by today's youths have become serious concerns for parents, educators, and community members. Antisocial behavior has a developmental course that starts with minor offenses in preschool (e.g., whining, teasing, noncompliance) and develops into major offenses (e.g., vandalism, stealing, assault, homicide) in older children and adolescents. Research results suggest that if interventions are implemented in the early elementary years, the likelihood of preventing future antisocial behavior is improved. Furthermore, interventions are said to be more successful if family members and teachers are involved. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an early intervention strategy, First Step to Success, involving (a) teacher-directed and (b) a combination of teacher- and parent-directed strategies on the behaviors of elementary school children at risk for antisocial behavior. The results suggest that interventions involving teachers and parents were associated with decreases in problem behavior in the classroom that maintained over 1 academic school year after intervention. Implications and recommendations are presented based on the outcomes and limitations of the study. (Contains 4 tables and 6 figures.)

Instructional classroom management: A proactive approach to behavior management

This comprehensive book presents a proactive behavior management system for decreasing behavior problems in the classroom and the school, plus a full range of strategies for correcting disruptive behavior once it has occurred. Coverage is based on the authors' belief that effective management strategies for any age or ability level must begin with an instructional analysis of the problem and be followed with a solution grounded in instructional principles and built on solid research.

An Experimental Evaluation of Positive Behavior Support in a Community Preschool Program

Athough positive behavior support (PBS) has been established as an effective approach for resolving the challenging behaviors of many populations, little research has evaluated PBS with children under the age of 4 years. In addition, few studies have considered the effectiveness of PBS delivered via consultation in typical childcare and preschool settings. This study was conducted to examine the effects of PBS implemented by typical classroom staff for two 3-year-old girls in a community-based preschool accredited by the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Within the context of A-B-A-B designs, the data indicated reductions in challenging behaviors and increases in engagement for both girls in two separate group contexts. Fidelity data indicated that some components of the PBS plans were implemented but others were not. The findings support the efficacy of PBS with young children in natural settings while raising questions for future research regarding the utilization and efficiency of PBS support plans.

How is My Classroom Management? (Rhode Island training)

Review of critical features & essential practices of behavior management in classroom settings. The presentation describes basics & context for self-assessment & SW action planning.

Universal Systems in Depth: Classroom Systems (CT PBIS Leadership training)

The slide shows classroom setting behavior support strategies, examples, and critical features. It includes evidence based practices in classroom management, action plan examples, resource for tools.

Preparing for & Responding to Crises & Emergencies (MN PBIS team follow-up Training)

The presentation was about critical features for classroom management and preparing for those inevitable crises that occur. It includes examples, generic sequence, guiding principals, and so on.

Classroom Management Self-Assessment

Classroom Management Self-Assessment measures extent to which effective classroom management practices are in place. The assessment consists of 10 items to check.

SWPBS: Sustainability, Classroom Management, Interventions for Individual Students (Washington, DC School Improvement Grants(SIG) on PBIS)

The presentation was made to provide information on 1) implementation sustainability, 2) review of classroom management practices, and 3) individual student behavior support.

Classroom Management: Self-Assessment Revised (version: April 7, 2006)

Revised version of classroom management checklist. Classroom Management Self-Assessment measures extent to which effective classroom management practices are in place. The assessment consists of 10 items to check.

Check In Check Out: A Targeted Intervention (PBIS in Costa Mesa, CA)

The presentation was made to provide information on 1) the logic and core features of Targeted Interventions, and the specifics of the Check-in/Check-out (CICO) approach, 2) empirical evidence supporting CICO, and practical examples from local schools, and 3) self-assess strategies if CICO is appropriate for your school.

Classroom Checklists, Effective Classroom Plan, Environmental Inventory Checklist

The document includes 1) Top 17 Classroom Management Strategies that should be emphasized in every classroom, 2) Effective Teaching Strategies, 3) Promoting Positive & Effective Learning Environments Classroom Checklist, 4) Effective Classroom Plan, and 5) ENVIRONMENTAL INVENTORY Checklist.

Advanced Topics in PBS: Secondary/Tertiary Interventions (New England PBS)

The presentation was about efficient strategies for secondary or targeted interventions. The content includes common secondary intervention features, overview of check-in check-out (CICO) system, evidence of CICO, and so on.

Effective Behavior Support (EBS) Survey (v 2.0)

The EBS Survey is used by school staff for initial and annual assessment of effective behavior support systems in their school. The survey examines the status and need for improvement of three behavior support systems: (a) school-wide discipline, (b) non-classroom management systems, and (c) systems for individuals students engaging in chronic behaviors.

How is My Classroom Management? (Bridgeport PBS Team Training Follow-up)

Review of critical features & essential practices of behavior management in classroom settings. The presentation describes basics & context for self-assessment & SW action planning.

Basics of Classroom Management (Bridgeport PBS Team Training Follow-up)

This additional material for the PBS team training provides information on 1) maximizing academic achievement and outcomes, 2) effective instructional and behavioral management, 3) effective classroom teachers approach, and 4) basic consideration of classroom and behavior management. The document includes 'classroom management: self-assessment' tool.

School-Wide Discipline and Classroom Ecology

Shortages of teachers with specialized skills, coupled with increased difficulty accommodating students with problem behaviors in general education classrooms, create pressures for performance and accountability in schools. Describes improvements in classroom ecology after implementation of a school-wide discipline model. These outcomes were positive and provide support for continuing efforts to improve discipline within the schools.

PBS for At-Risk Students: The Behavior Education Program

Refresh on At-Risk populations-Overview of BEP, Example BEP, BEP foundations, BEP processes.

PBS for At-Risk Students: An Overview

This is an introduction to working with At-Risk populations-how to identify giving examples and non-examples and using data-based decisions to select appropriate interventions.

PBS for At-Risk Students: Intervention Decision Sheet

Is a checklist that is intended to help a team determine which (behavioral) intervention would be most appropriate for their students needs from looking at their school's data.

Best Practice: Initial Classroom Assessment

Helps to analyze classroom environment for management of student behavior by addressing the following area: physical setting of classroom, scheduling, instructional planning and delivery, classroom discipline plan.

Classroom Student Interview (use for functional assessment)

This is an interview of student to aid school professionals in identifying antecedents, consequences that might be contributing to the maintenance of problem behavior.

Classroom PBS Training Modules

This is a series of 15 training modules for use of postive behavioral support at a classroom-wide level.

Targeted Interventions Training Manual

Training curriculum for PBIS school-based targeted teams.

Classroom Teacher Curriculum and Instruction Inventory

This survey taps into teachers perceptions of how their classroom practices and environment affects their students.

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 7: Classroom Implementation

This unit offers strategies for effective classroom management and provides steps for effective practice of these support strategies. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual Unit 10: Targeted Group Intervention

This unit identifies the critical components of targeted group interventions and offers strategies for incorporating targeted support into school-wide PBS. The zip files are available at http://pbismanual.uoecs.org/

Classroom PBS Overview for Coaches

Provides an overview of application of PBS at the classroom level. The introduction is best used with experienced coaches to describe the possible next steps after establishing a school-wide behavior support system.

Illinois PBIS Network Regional Team Targeted Level Action Plan

This document could be used to assist teams in developing their action plan for implementing PBIS.

Secondary Prevention: Targeted Interventions

This is a document which indicates how targeted interventions could decreas problem behavior in the classroom thereby increasing academic engagement and decrease office referrals.

Summary of Classroom Observation

This is an instrument which is used to observe a student's behavior in a classroom setting.

Check in/Check out: A Post-Hoc Evaluation of an Efficient, Secondary-Level Targeted Intervention for Reducing Problem Behaviors in Schools

The Check in/Check out (CICO) program was developed as a secondary-level, targeted behavioral intervention in a three-tier preventative model of behavior support and has received empirical support as an effective way to reduce problem behaviors (Hawken & Horner, 2003; March & Horner, 2002). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, post-implementation, the fidelity of implementation and effectiveness of the CICO program to reduce problem behavior when program training and implementation was managed by typical district personnel. Results indicate that the critical components of the program were implemented with fidelity across three elementary schools and that the program was effective in reducing the number of office discipline referrals for students who entered the program. Further, the program was perceived as being effective and efficient by district personnel. It is argued that the CICO program should be considered a viable targeted behavioral intervention with students for whom primary-level preventative measures are insufficient.

The Teaching Pyramid: A Model for Supporting Social Competence and Preventing Challenging Behavior in Young Children

This article describes a framework for addressing the social and emotional development and challenging behaviors of young children. This pyramid framework includes four levels of practice to address the needs of all children, including children with persistent challenging behavior. An example is provided demonstrating how to implement this model in a preschool classroom.

Including children with autism in general education classrooms

Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.

Decreasing children’s risk taking on the playground

Playground mishaps are some of the most common sources of injury and are the leading killer of children. The present study used a multiple baseline design across three classrooms (N = 379 children). With minimal teaching and rewards, children decreased and maintained decreased risky playground behaviors on slides. Floor effects on climbers prevented the demonstration of similar effects. The decreases seen in risky slide behavior are discussed within the context of preventive safety training for playground injuries.

Comprehensive classroom management: Creating communities of support and solving problems

Comprehensive Classroom Management presents practical methods for creating a positive learning environment, working with behavior problems, and other challenges in the classroom. This text uses real-life examples to help pre-service and in-service teachers understand and apply the principles of classroom management in their own classroom situations.

Effective teaching strategies that accommodate diverse learners

This popular book investigates the teaching, instruction and curricula required to meet the needs of diverse learners who by virtue of their experiential, cultural, and socioeconomic backgrounds, challenge traditional curriculum and instructional programs.

Scientifically Supported Practices in EBD: A Proposed Approach and Brief Review of Current Practices

Both No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act require educators to use research-validated practices in classrooms. And yet education, special education, and the field of emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) continue to show large gaps in the consistent use of best practices. The authors propose that the research-to-practice gap can be traced to the lack of clear, consistent criteria to determine what are research-based practices and the absence of support structures to assist educators in implementing such practices. A four-phase review process was developed based on current recommendations from the E/BD literature, and a brief review of classroom-based strategies was conducted. Four practices were identified as being research based. The authors discuss each of these practices and call for the field of special education, and E/BD in particular, to develop and adopt a universal set of standards to determine research-based practice and look to school systems to support their use.

Whole-School Positive Behaviour Support: Effects on student discipline problems and academic performance

Many students attending public schools exhibit discipline problems such as disruptive classroom behaviour, vandalism, bullying, and violence. Establishing effective discipline practices is critical to ensure academic success and to provide a safe learning environment. In this article, we describe the effects of whole-school positive behaviour support on discipline problems and academic outcomes of students enrolled in an urban elementary school. The whole-school model was designed through technical assistance consultation with teachers that emphasized: (1) improving instructional methods; (2) formulating behavioural expectations; (3) increasing classroom activity engagement; (4) reinforcing positive performance; and (5) monitoring efficacy through data-based evaluation. As compared to a pre-intervention phase, the whole-school intervention was associated with decreased discipline problems (office referrals and school suspensions) over the course of several academic years. Student academic performance, as measured by standardized tests of reading and mathematics skills, improved contemporaneously with intervention. Issues related to whole-school approaches to student discipline and the contributions of positive behaviour support are discussed.

Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention

We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-based lottery. Disruptive bus behaviors, as measured by discipline referrals and suspensions, decreased with intervention relative to baseline phases in an ABAB reversal design. These positive results were maintained over the long term, with school personnel assuming responsibility for intervention in the absence of ongoing consultation.

Behavior support strategies in early childhood settings: Teachers’ importance and feasibility ratings

The current study investigated early childhood professionals' opinions regarding the use of behavioral supports for children with challenging behavior. Participants included early childhood special education teachers, Title I teachers, speech and language pathologists, instructional aids and paraprofessionals, physical therapists, and school psychologists. Participants rated 24 behavioral support strategies on both their importance and their feasibility. Overall, results indicated that early childhood professionals rated the majority of the behavior support items in the mostly important range. Participants did not rate as many items as mostly feasible, and statistical analyses documented a significant difference between overall importance of the items and overall feasibility. Early childhood professionals' characteristics were analyzed to investigate whether groups differed in their perceptions of the importance and feasibility of the behavioral support items. Findings indicated that early childhood special education and Title I teachers rated the support items as more important than did paraprofessionals and instructional aids. Educational level also differentiated groups on importance ratings; professionals with either undergraduate degrees or graduate-level educational experiences rated items as more important than professionals with high school-level educations or some college. Years of teaching experience was not associated with ratings, and no teacher characteristic was associated with the feasibility of behavior supports. The implications of these findings are discussed.

A not so good job with “Good Job”: A response to Kohn 2001

Comments on the article "Five Reasons to Stop Saying, 'Good Job'," by Kohn (2001). Involvement of the field of early intervention in the debate between proponents of behavioral teaching strategies and professionals against it; Argument that saying "good job" manipulates children in order to maximize adult convenience.

Promoting Inclusion and Peer Participation through Assessment-Based Intervention

In the current investigation, the processes of functional assessment and function-based intervention were used to resolve the severe challenging behaviors of a boy with autism and mental retardation in an inclusive kindergarten in South Korea. A multicomponent intervention was developed in collaboration with classroom personnel and was implemented entirely by the teacher and an aide in the context of a multiple-baseline-across-activities experimental design. Results were empirical validation of hypotheses derived from the functional assessment, as well as lower levels of challenging behaviors and increased rates of appropriate behaviors associated with the intervention. Positive interactions with a designated classroom peer and with the teacher also increased. The findings are discussed as contributions to the growing literature on functional assessment and function-based supports and the importance of promoting successful inclusive experiences for young children with disabilities.

Importance of Student Social Behavior in the Mission Statements, Personnel Preparation Standards, and Innovation Efforts of State Departments of Education

We examined the extent to which state departments of education are including (a) goals for student social behavior in their mission statements; (b) criteria for individual student, classroom, and schoolwide behavior support in certification standards for general education teachers, special education teachers, and principals; and (c) state initiatives focused on improving student social behavior. Web-based information from state departments of education from all 50 states and from the District of Columbia were reviewed in the fall of 2004. Results indicated that only 16 states (31%) include a focus on student social behavior in their mission statements. Individual student behavior support practices were identified in the curriculum for general educators in 30 (59%) states and for special educators in 39 (76%) states. Classroom behavior support practices were required for general education teachers in 39 (76%) states and for special educators in 40 (78%) states. Schoolwide behavior support practices were most likely to be required for principal certification, and they were formally identified in 20 (39%) of the states surveyed. Character education was the most common state initiative cited for improving social behavior in schools.

Response to Intervention: Examining Classroom Behavior Support in Second Grade

This article reports on 2 studies investigating a response-to-intervention (RTI) approach to behavior support in 2 second-grade classrooms. The results suggest that a slightly more intensive but efficient targeted intervention ("check in and check out") was effective in supporting the social behavior success of 4 students whose problem behaviors were unresponsive to general classroom management practices. For 4 other students whose problem behaviors continued to be unresponsive to the "check-in and check-out" intervention, more individualized and function-based interventions were indicated and proved to be effective. The results from this research suggest that RTI logic can be applied to the social behavior support of students who present interfering problem behaviors in the classroom. Implications and recommendations for research and practice are discussed.

Strategies for addressing behavior problems in the classroom

Through research-based content coupled with practical examples, this book prepares teachers to effectively manage the behaviors of students with emotional and behavior disorders.

Classroom-level supports for students with learning and behavioral problems

A book chapter in the book "Effective interventions for classrooms, schools, and communities: Making a difference in the lives of students with learning and behavioral problems."

School-wide positive behavior support: Building systems to develop and maintain appropriate social behavior

A book chapter in the book "Handbook of Classroom Management: Research, Practice, and Contemporary Issues."

Active supervision

A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and therapy: Educational Applications (Volume III)."

Social skills instruction in the classroom

A book chapter in the book "Instructional classroom management."

School-wide discipline and instructional classroom management: A systems approach

A book chapter in the book "Instructional classroom management (2nd ed.)"

Focus on High Schools I: Secondary Level Supports Within a School-Wide Framework (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describes secondary level support in high school PBS system.

The Behavior Education Program (BEP): Basic Steps of Check In/Check Out (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation is about Behavior Education Program (BEP), which is an evidence-based tier 2 intervention.

The Behavior Education Program (BEP): Advanced Training on a Check In/Check Out Intervention for Students at Risk (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation shares practical and critical features of check in/check out intervention for students at risk.

Effectiveness Of The Continuum Of All Levels Of SWPBS In Classroom (APBS 08)

The presentation shares a research case about individual students. It shows that the effectiveness of behavior support can be maximized when all three levels of PBS are inplace and balanced well.

Building School-Based Systems to Support Small Group/ Targeted Interventions for At-risk Students (APBS 08)

The presentation describes small group intervention/targeted intervention strategies within SWPBS system.

Impacting Classrooms for Students with EBD (APBS 08)

The presentation introduces effective classroom management and a model for students with EBS.

PBS, RtI, and Targeted Group Support (Iowa Positive Behavior Support Conference)

The presentations include: 1) Skill Building for Small Group / Targeted Interventions, 2) Systems to Support Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Supports Meets Response to Intervention, and 3) Building School-based Systems to Support Small Group / Targeted Interventions for At-risk Students.

Responding to Non-Responsive Behavior: Basic Practices and Systems (Rhode Island PBIS)

This document provides core components, tips, recommendations, and assessment tools for all levels of SWPBS implementation.

Bridging Primary & Secondary/Tertiary Tier Practices & Systems: Responding to Unresponsive Behavior (Rhode Island PBIS)

This presentation focuses on responding to norm-violating behavior and individualized behavior intervention plans as well as general overview of SWPBS.