What are Student-Level Tier 3 Systems?

What are the Critical Student-Level Tier 3 Systems that Support Practices?


A. Teaming

PBIS Tier 3 Individual Student teams have multi-disciplinary/cross-department membership that includes Tier 3 systems coordinator and individuals who can provide (a) applied behavioral expertise, (b) administrative authority, (c) multi-agency supports (e.g., person centered planning, wraparound) expertise, (d) knowledge of students, and (e) knowledge about the operations of the school across grade levels and programs. The individual student teams, are formed uniquely around students, one at a time. PBIS Student Teams are developed as needed with team members who know the student well including those members implementing supports at tier 3, so that they have input in decisions about interventions on the particular student(s). PBIS Tier 3 Student teams may include a number of individuals whose roles are not automatically predetermined based on their discipline (administrator, teacher, social worker, school psychologist, behavior analyst, etc.).

Essential components of Individual Student Teams include:

  • A uniquely constructed team including school, home, and community members
  • Input/approval from student/ family about who is on the team
  • Expertise that is logically matched to student needs and strengths
  • An administrator who can allocate school resources as needed for plan implementation
  • Establish rapport and engage the child and family team
  • Identify strengths and needs through behavior intervention planning or person centered planning
  • Assist the family developing a comprehensive plan
  • Track progress over time
  • Transition to less intensive interventions

Research/Articles/References to consider

  • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Further Validation, Replication, and Normative Data – Walker, Severson, Todis, Block-Pedego, Williams, Haring, Barckley, 1990
  • Team-Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers – Scott, Liaupsin, Nelson, McIntyre, 2005
  • An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies With School-Based Teams Liaupsin, Nelson, Conroy, Payne, 2005
  • Schoolwide Screening and Positive Behavior Supports: Identifying and Supporting Students at Risk for School Failure – Walker, Cheney, Stage, Blum, Horner, 2005
  • Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans – Benazzi, Horner, Good, 2006
  • A Comparison of Systematic Screening Tools for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Replication – Lane, Kalberg, Robertson, Warren, Crnobori, Bruhn, 2009
  • Building local capacity for training and coaching data-based problem solving with positive behavior intervention and support teams – Newton, Algozzine, Algozzine, Horner, Todd, 2011
  • Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams, Todd, Horner, Algozzine, Algozzine, Frank, 2011
  • Family Involvement in Functional Assessment and Positive Behavior Support (2001)
  • Development and Technical Characteristics of a Team Decision-Making Assessment Tool: Decision Observation, Recording, and Analysis (DORA) – Algozzine, Newton, Horner, Todd, Algozzine, 2012

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B. Screening/identification of students needing Tier 3 supports:  

Within a multi-tiered system of supports, Tier 3 supports target all students in need of individualized, intensive strategies to sufficiently achieve or maintain desired student outcomes and prevent future problem behaviors.  Students who are in need of Tier 3 supports are those students who are non-responsive to Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports. As such, Tier 3 supports are not based on categorical service options or requirements (e.g., whether a student has qualified for exceptional education services or meets criteria for a specific disability), but provide individualized, intensive supports matched to a range of specific student needs.  The array of behavior problems requiring Tier 3 supports may include externalizing behavior problems (e.g., disruptive behaviors, aggression) and internalizing behavior problems (e.g., suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety).  Also, Tier 3 behavioral supports may be delivered to students whose behaviors may be impacted by trauma or crisis situations, whether they are of a temporary or permanent nature, or driven by mental health needs. Tier 3 behavioral supports may be necessary for students who are transitioning from segregated placements (e.g., alternative schools, residential hospital treatment facilities) to less restrictive placements (e.g., neighborhood school) or those students who are at risk of more restrictive placements.  These students often manifest problem behavior across the school, and home environments and thus collaboration with family members in gathering information to address challenging behavior at school is vital in the development and implementation of behavior support across the school and home settings.

Students who need Tier 3 support are frequently identified by teacher or parent nominations, by evidence of chronic behavioral issues (office disciplines, suspension, time out of instruction, etc.), or by screening tools.

Examples of screening tools include:

  • Attendance Records (Absences by Student)
  • Office Discipline Referrals by Student
  • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD)
  • Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) Performance Screening Guide
  • Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
  • Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) -
  • Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition: Teacher Rating Scales BASC-2:TRS
  • Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS) – Drummond, 1994
  • Tier 2 intervention data (e.g., CICO progress data)

Research/Articles/References to consider

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C. Assessment:

The array of supports at Tier 3 include increased, individualized assessment and intervention within a collaborative problem-solving framework and development of a support team with the requisite skills to assess, identify interventions, and plan for coordinated implementation and monitoring of supports. Assessment is multi-dimensional, and may include behavioral, academic, medical, vocational and other assessment areas. The goal of assessment is to identify strengths and needs to build comprehensive, individualized plans. To do so, assessments must provide specific information on the problem behaviors to be addressed.

Functional Assessments

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is the process that drives a function-based behavior intervention plan (BIP) component of a Tier 3 plan and provides the foundation for a systematic, coordinated, data-driven problem-solving process for problem behaviors. The FBA/BIP processguides assessment, intervention planning, implementation, and monitoring of social behavioral interventions within a data-based problem-solving framework. Foundational to the individualized level of intervention is the importance of understanding why behaviors are occurring. The FBA/BIP process provides the student's team with information needed to analyze the problem behavior in a manner that links assessment to intervention and, thereby, informs the team as they identify which interventions are most likely to be useful for the individual student. This process can be used to target a range of social-behavioral, academic, and mental health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse, and trauma). The FBA/BIP process should align the behavior supports with contextual factors, taking into account the goals and strengths of the student and the strengths and resources of the setting.  Regardless of the complexity of behaviors presented by students, this FBA and BIP process is crucial to: (a) understand the variables associated with or maintaining a student's behavior, (b) develop strategies to prevent the challenging behavior, and (c) determine interventions that can teach and reinforce appropriate or prosocial behaviors. There should be a strong linkage between the FBA and the BSP.

However, it is important that school-based teams that address the needs of students identified for tertiary (tier 3) supports also consider a conceptual foundation that students may need multiple levels of behavioral support matched to their level of behavioral needs. For example, students may have a wraparound plan that does not include an FBA/BIP or they may have an FBA/BIP without a full wrap plan. Schools and districts may consider a continuum of increasingly intensive levels of tertiary (tier 3) supports that match individual student needs (Scott, Alter, Rosenberg, & Borgmeier, 2010; Anderson & Scott, 2009; Anderson, Horner, Rodriguez & Sampson, 2013).

Consultation-Based Functional Thinking 

Scott et al., (2010) report that an FBA in school settings is a continuum of progressively more formal and intense procedures. They suggest the first level of assessment should involve consultation-based functional thinking, that is, simple consultation with an individual who understands function to help the teacher or staff conceptualize the problem behavior. This consultation approach with a facilitator and teacher(s) (and student, particularly at the middle and high-school level) involves working together to identify contextual events related to behavior occurrences through indirect methods. The goal is to develop a behavior intervention plan that focuses on teaching appropriate replacement or alternative behaviors that get naturally reinforced (i.e. with the function) and addressing environmental features that will prevent behavior plan failure and increase success.

Team-Based Functional Assessment

The second level of assessment process involves more complexity and intensity. This level of functional assessment would require an increasingly comprehensive team approach that addresses students who have chronic and durable behavior issues.  Team-based FBAs would require more resources for activities as well as use both descriptive and indirect methods of gathering FBA data and would include strategies that address antecedent events, teach and reinforce new behaviors, and discontinue reinforcing problem behaviors. 

The first component of this level of assessment might just involve indirect assessments. Indirect assessments involve no direct observation of behavior. Indirect assessments take the form of rating scales, questionnaires, and interviews. Loman, Strickland-Cohen, Borgmeier, & Horner (2013) suggest a way for schools to address less complex individual student needs in a timely fashion.

Indirect FBA strategies may include a form (Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS) (March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown, Crone, Todd & Carr; 2000) completed by the staff working with the student that collects information on identifying problem behavior, the activities in which the behavior occurs most frequently, and the perceived functions/motivations of behavior. Students provide another excellent source of information concerning their behavior. There are several forms for gathering student functional assessment information. Examples of these forms are the Functional Assessment Checklist for Students (Loman, Strickland-Cohen, Borgmeier, & Horner, 2013) or the Student-Directed Functional Assessment Interview (O'Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey & Newton, 1997).

Several potential data sources can be used to determine the contextual variables that might influence the problem behaviors. One data source that might be useful is discipline events (ODRs, suspensions) and out of classroom events, e.g.; visits to the nurse's office. An archival review and brief analysis of this information may be conducted to ascertain whether there are specific times, locations, or activities where the problem behaviors occur most often. Secondly, if Daily Behavior Report or Check in Check Out data are available, then further analysis of this information might provide additional information on the time and activities that precede the problem behavior. Lastly, Antecedent Behavior Consequence (ABC) data could be collected to record antecedents and consequences. An analysis of these data would help pinpoint antecedents and consequences of the problem behavior. 

The next level of assessment would include descriptive assessment. Descriptive assessment includes a direct observation of behavior, but without any manipulation of the environmental conditions. The team based FBAs would contain the indirect information listed above along with the information collected from the descriptive assessment. For example, ABC data could be collected to record antecedents and consequences. An analysis of these data would help pinpoint antecedents and consequences of the problem behavior.  Individuals who have training and experience in conducting FBA and trained in evidenced based function-based interventions should conduct the observations. This information will be analyzed to help build a stronger hypothesis about the contextual variables that precede the behavior as well as the functions of the behavior. 

At this level, there may be the need for collaborating with community, medical, or mental health agencies. This collaboration could occur at the first indication of the need and may occur for some students who do not require Tier 3 supports.

The third level would be dedicated to supporting a small subset of students within tier 3 whose behaviors impact them across life domains, are multi-faceted and complex physical, mental health, environmental, and behavioral issues and have not responded to previous behavior support interventions.  These individuals may need more intensive and sophisticated assessment procedures.  These methods might involve functional analysis, where, direct manipulation of either the antecedents or functions are conducted and to better determine the antecedents and or functions that are maintaining the behavior.  The functional analysis would provide the clearest picture of those variables and functions that maintain the problem behavior. A functional analysis should be conducted only by those staff/experts that have previous training and behavioral expertise in this type of assessment. 

All of these assessment practices are used to verify a functional hypothesis of (a) under what circumstances do the problem behaviors occur, and (b) what are the maintaining the functions of the problem behaviors (Scott & Anderson, 2007). The goal is to use the most efficient and less complex procedures to develop the hypothesis that the team has confidence in upon which to build a BSP/BIP.

Wraparound Assessment

Wraparound plan development is driven by multi-domain assessments, and developed by a team of natural and formal supports. Intervention plans are as multi-dimensional as indicated by assessments and may include strategies to support students at home, in school, and the community, including living environment; basic needs; safety; medical; legal; and social, emotional, educational, spiritual, and cultural needs (Eber, 2002). Assessments need to encompass any areas if need, starting with more generic identifying of areas of need, then drill down.

Students and their families have a leading role in the development of plans by identifying the outcomes that are meaningful and the supports that are a good "fit".

Research/Articles/References to consider

Tools:                                           

  • Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)
  • F-BSP Protocol
  • Understanding and Responding to Escalating Behavior
  • Problem Behavior Pathway – "Analysis of the Problem Behavior"
  • ABC Observation Form
  • Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR)
  • Student Risk Screening Scale – Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE)

Presentations:

  • Function - based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Colorado PBS training)
  • Increasing Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Support meets Response to Intervention (Region XI, Ft. Worth Texas)
  • Wraparound as a Tertiary Level Process (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Using Rewards Effectively within PBIS (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Team Driven Tertiary Process: The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model (Chicago Forum-07)
  • RtI Model of Continuum of Support: Kansas-Illinois Tertiary Demo Center (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Family/Community Partnerships & PBS (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Interagency/Community-Based Planning: State & District Level Planning for Tertiary Support (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Taking Positive Behavior Support to Scale in Juvenile Justice Settings (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Developing Feasible & Effective Interventions Based on Functional Behavior Assessment (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Designing Evaluation Measures for Tertiary Training Systems in Positive Behavior Support (APBS 08)
  • Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans Using Functional Behavior Assessments (APBS 08)
  • Using an RTI model to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment (Washington Association of School Administrators)

Training Resources

  • Basic FBA
  • Missouri PBIS Website
  • MD PBIS Website
  • Florida PBIS Website
  • Midwest PBIS Network Website

Articles

  • Family Involvement in Functional Assessment and Positive Behavior Support (2001)
  • Team-Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers (2005)
  • Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples (2003)
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions (2004)
  • Promoting Inclusion and Peer Participation through Assessment-Based Intervention (2007)
  • An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements (2006)
  • Adding functional behavioral assessment to First Step to Success: A case study (2007)
  • Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA: Indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans (2005)
  • Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff FBA intervention measure (2008)
  • Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems (2005)
  • Using Functional Behavior Assessment in General Education Settings: Making a Case for Effectiveness and Efficiency (2004)
  • An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies with School-Based Teams (2005)
  • Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools (2003)
  • Assisting Students From Diverse Backgrounds With Challenging Behaviors: Incorporating a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioral Assessment in Pre-referral Services (2014)
  • The Effects of Function-Based Self-Management Interventions on Student Behavior (2010)
  • Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Match Task Difficulty for a 5th Grade Student: A Case Study (2012)
  • Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems (2007)
  • Functional Behavior Assessment in Classroom Settings: Scaling Down to Scale Up (2010)
  • Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review (2014)
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Interventions for Students with or At Risk for Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in School: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis (2012)
  • Improving On-Task Behavior Using a Functional Assessment-Based Intervention in an Inclusive High School Setting (2011)
  • Functional Assessment and Positive Support Strategies for Promoting Resilience: Effects on Teachers and High-Risk Children (2011)
  • Effects of a Comprehensive Function-Based Intervention Applied Across Multiple Educational Settings (2014)
  • Effects of Behavior Support Team Composition on the Technical Adequacy and Contextual Fit of Behavior Support Plans (2006)
  • Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students With Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior (2012)
  • Strategies for Developing and Carrying Out Functional Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning (2008)
  • Using a Function-Based Approach to Decrease Problem Behaviors and Increase Academic Engagement for Latino English Language Learners (2009)
  • Implementation and Validation of Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Public Elementary School Settings (2015)
  • A Review of the Evidence Base of Functional Assessment-based Interventions for Young Students Using One Systematic Approach (2015)
  • Randomized Controlled trail of the Prevent Teach Reinforce (PTR) Tertiary Intervention for Students with Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Outcomes (2009)
  • Power and Control: Useful Functions or Explanatory fictions? (2013)

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D. Function-based behavior support planning:

Making Tier 3 behavior support plans require (1) the knowledge gleaned from the individuals who know the student the best, (2) the student, where possible, and (3) the expertise of persons with applied behavior competencies in building these plans. Perhaps the most efficacious and best-implemented plans are developed combining both the knowledge of the student and the school, home and community environment in which they attend and/or live and those individuals who possess strong content in applied behavioral competencies.

Tier 3 support plans may be called behavior support plans or behavior intervention plans (BIP).   It is imperative that the BSP/BIP be carefully linked to the FBA. One method of organizing information collected from an FBA is to build a competing behavior model (O'Neill et al., 1997; Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T., 2000). The competing behavior model entails a three-step process. The first step involves the development of a four -part summary statement (or hypothesis) that results from an FBA. These first four parts are: (1) the problem behaviors, (2) immediate antecedents for problem behaviors, (3) the maintaining consequence of problem behaviors, and (4) setting events relevant to the occurrence of problem behaviors. The next step, once the FBA summary statement is developed, the team should determine (1) the desired behavior in the situation (i.e., what behavior(s) do you want the person to do?) and (2) the maintaining consequence for the desired behavior. Typically, the desired behavior leads to a maintaining consequence that is different from the consequence produced by problem behavior. The last step entails the selection of a replacement skill (positive alternative behavior) that will produce the same maintaining consequence as the problem behavior. These three steps result in a diagram (see below) that is then used for identifying and selecting potential behavior support practices.

Although there is not one standard format for a BSP/BIP there is general agreement that at a minimum an effective BSP/BIP should contain some critical elements such as:

  1. A clear and operational definition of the problem behavior,
  2. A clear link to the function of the behavior and antecedent and setting events as identified by the functional behavior assessment,
  3. Strategies for addressing antecedent variables that may prevent the problem behaviors from occurring or promote more appropriate behaviors,
  4. Strategies for teaching alternative or replacement behaviors,
  5. Strategies to reinforce alternative or replacement behaviors and reduce reinforcement of problem behaviors,
  6. Strategies for matching the BSP/BIP to unique contexts of the classroom, family and community to enhance the success of the plan (contextual fit), and
  7. A method for the collection of data for evaluation of the effectiveness and implementation fidelity of the BSP/BIP.
  8. Additional information to the BSP/BIP may be a safety plan for use only in crisis situations.

Clear and operational definition of the problem behavior

Operational definitions of the problem behavior are important in the development of a BSP/BIP are a critical part of the FBA process. An operational definition is an observable and measurable description of the motor behaviors (physical and verbal) that the student performs when engaging in the specified problem behavior. Having operational definitions of the problem behavior provides for consistency in gathering the FBA information to understand the environmental events that trigger and maintain problem behavior episodes and allows the team to have more confidence in identifying the function of the behavior.  Additionally, data collected on the specific problem behavior, both baseline and post-behavior support plan, is more consistent when the definition is observable and measurable.

Clear link to the function of the behavior and antecedent and setting events

The FBA information gathered is synthesized and a hypothesis or summary statement is developed, describing the antecedents of the problem behavior and the function that the problem behavior obtains for the student based on the most typical responses or consequences that follows problem behavior.  Once a summary statement has been developed, and the resulting completing pathway proposed strategies/interventions should be linked to the functions and antecedent and setting events.  For example, if a challenging academic task has been determined to be an antecedent to the problem behavior then it would be expected that the BSP/BIP would provide evidenced based strategies or in some situations accommodations to assist the student to be more successful with the academic task. Clear strategies to teach a replacement behavior that would help the gain access to that function in a socially appropriate way would be included in the plan.

Strategies for addressing antecedent variables that may prevent the problem behaviors from occurring or promote more appropriate behaviors

The BSP/BIP should contain strategies for eliminating where possible antecedents that precede the problem and that could prevent the problem behavior from occurring.  The elimination of these antecedents, realistically, may not be possible. For these individuals, the focus should be in reducing the impact of the event that precedes the behavior. For example, with a challenging academic task, the length of the task could be modified, or the work could be broken up into smaller increments. Secondly, the plan should suggest ways to prompt both the desired behaviors and replacement behaviors to increase the probability of these behaviors occurring.

Strategies for teaching alternative or replacement behaviors

One of the most important parts of developing a BSP/BIP is the identification of an appropriate replacement behavior. Problem behaviors are best reduced by replacing them with other similarly functional but more appropriate alternatives.  Appropriate replacement behaviors are both functional for the student and represent what is widely considered to be acceptable in the culture and context in which it occurs. The best replacement behaviors are those that work at least as effective (work as well), efficient (work as easily), and are relevant (look like others do) as the problem behavior (Scott & Anderson, 2007). 

Alternative skills, on the other hand, are the desired behaviors that others want to see the student perform. For example, instead of engaging in the problem behavior after presentation of the challenging academic task, the student can be taught to ask for help or to use problem-solving strategies such as skipping items that are too difficult and moving on to items that are easier to complete.  The student may also be taught specific academic skills so that the task is no longer challenging.

One of the most critical components of the BSP/BIP is building mastery of the replacement behavior so that it can be performed in the relevant context. Developing mastery of the replacement behavior requires instruction in these skills/behaviors. It is helpful to determine whether the student (1) has the replacement behavior in their repertoire, or (2) has the behavior in their repertoire but finds the problem behavior more efficient or effective in gaining the function of the behavior. In the first case, a student will need, acquisition training that is to be taught what the behavior is and how to do it. In the latter case, the student will need training on using the replacement behavior with less difficulty or effort.  
 
Strategies to reinforce alternative or replacement behaviors and reduce reinforcement of problem behaviors

Alternative or replacement behaviors need to be reinforced if they are going to be used by the student rather than the problem behavior. Preference assessments with the student should be completed to determine effective reinforcers. Replacement and desired behaviors need to have a high rate of reinforcement once they have been taught if they are going to be used rather than the problem behavior. Appropriate or desired behaviors can be reinforced by more powerful ways of getting the function. For example, a student can be taught to ask for a break (FERB) to escape or delay working on a task for 2 minutes.  If the student performs the alternative skill, he/she may earn 10 to 15 minutes escape from another non-preferred activity and choose a preferred activity to do during that 10 to 15 minutes.  Preference assessments with the student could be completed to determine effective reinforcers for alternative behaviors. Initially, reinforcement will occur often and quickly so that the new behavior is more efficient and reliable at getting the function and/or preferred reinforcers.  Behavior that is reinforced is more likely to be repeated.

Students use problem behaviors because they are more efficient and effective in getting the desired outcome (i.e. obtaining adult or peer attention or escaping from difficult tasks).  The goal is to teach students to use a replacement behavior that will be just as efficient and effective (if not more) as the current problem behavior and will get the same desired outcome, but by using a healthier/more appropriate behavior. The plan should suggest strategies to reduce or eliminate reinforcement of the problem behaviors and that increase the likelihood of the use of the replacement behavior.  Ideally, consideration will always be given to use strategies that meet the identified function of the problem behavior where possible.

Strategies for matching the BSP/BIP or individualized student action plan to unique contexts of the classroom, family, and community to enhance the success of the plan (contextual fit)

The BSP/BIP or student action plan, to increase the success of the plan in each context in which it is implemented, needs to match each unique context.  Developers of the plan need to actively involve the individuals who will implement the plan in the development of the plan to fit contexts of their particular location, e.g., classroom, home, or community. Specific antecedent and or reinforcement strategies, as well as instructional procedures, may need to be modified to meet these particular contexts.

A plan for the collection of data for evaluation of the effectiveness and implementation fidelity of the BSP/BIP or individualized student action plan.

The BSP/BIP  or student action plan should outline a method/s to collect data on the efficacy of the plan.  There are many methods, e.g., direct observation data, direct behavior ratings, checklists, that can be used for the collection of data. The team should select an efficient methodology that can help determine whether the plan is working or not. 

A plan is only as good as its implementation.  It is the expectation that fidelity checks are conducted to ensure the plan is implemented with integrity.  The use of fidelity checks is of particular importance when the plan is not producing the desired results. 

For examples of data collection and implementation fidelity measures see below.

Safety plan for use only in crisis situations may be needed

Although not part of the BSP/BIP a safety plan may be necessary to describe procedures to be utilized if the behaviors pose a risk to the student or others. Safety plans should take into consideration all aspects of the FBA (i.e. antecedents, function, etc.) and should be created uniquely for each student versus using a generic school crisis plan.  Safety plans may also be needed when developing an individualized student action plan for wraparound.

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E. Wraparound-Based Plan Development

Some students need Wraparound, that is, an ongoing process of comprehensive planning and intervention in need of individualized, intensive supports that involve systems (e.g., public health, mental health, medical, foster care, juvenile justice, etc.) beyond the school, family, and student.  These students' needs may best be met through a wraparound process in which a team of individuals collaborates on an individualized plan of care that is implemented and evaluated consistently across time.  A robust feature of wraparound is that it is unconditional; if interventions are not achieving the outcomes desired by the team, the team regroups to rethink the configuration of supports, services, and interventions to ensure success in natural settings such as the home, school, and community. As teams problem solve how to effectively meet students' needs, they combine supports for natural activities (e.g., child care, mentoring, making friends) with traditional interventions (e.g., behavioral interventions, specialized reading instruction, medication) (Eber, 2002). Wraparound is based on the belief that services and supports should be flexibly arranged to meet the unique needs of the students and their families, and they are not an attempt to fit a student into already existing interventions.

There are four identified phases of the wraparound planning process that include 1) engagement and team prep, 2) initial plan development, 3) implementation, and 4) transition.  The goals during each phase include:

Engagement and Team Prep

  • Establish rapport with student and family that is transparent and based on trust
  • Educate the family about the process so they can make an informed decision to participate (stabilize any crisis)
  • Explore individual and family strengths, needs, culture across life domains through a "coffee chat" or through the use of personal futures planning using graphic facilitation.
  • Prioritize family needs and create family mission
  • Identify and engage team members who will support the youth and family through the process
  • Prepare family (and team members) for the first meeting

Initial Plan Development

  • Facilitate initial wraparound team meeting(s)
  • Develop a team culture
  • Share and build on strengths, needs, and family mission to guide the wraparound team
  • Develop an individualized Action Plan
  • Complete a behavior intervention/safety plan if needed
  • Integrate the Wrap plan across classroom settings and agencies

Implementation

  • To review and update the plan over time
  • To ensure that plans are implemented with fidelity
  • To ensure the plan achieves outcomes
  • To improve team cohesion and effectiveness

Transition

  • Document and celebrate the team's work and success
  • To update the action and behavior intervention/crisis plans
  • To plan and ensure there is continued support after professional facilitation ends

Research/Articles/References to consider

Tools:

  • Basic FBA to BSP: Participant's Guide (Loman, S., Strickland-Cohen, M. K., Borgmeier, C., & Horner, R., 2013)
  • Behavior Support Planning
  • BSP Critical Features Checklist (Strickland-Cohen & Horner, 2014)
  • Competing Behavior Pathway
  • FACTS (Adapted by C. Borgmeier (2005) from March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown, Crone & Todd (1999)
  • Self-Assessment of Contextual Fit (Horner, Salentine, & Albin,  2003)
  • FBA and BIP Technical Adequacy Tool for Evaluation (TATE): Scoring Form Iovannone, Kincaid, & Christiansen- Revised August 2015)
  • Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plan Technical Adequacy Evaluation Tool-(TATE) Scoring Guide (Iovannone, Kincaid, & Christiansen - Revised August 2015)

Presentations

  • Function-based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Orange County training)
  • PBIS, Functional Behavioral Assessment, BIP Development, and Manifestation Determination (OSEP Regional Meeting)
  • Functional Assessment & Positive Behavior Support Plans (OSEP Forum on IDEA)
  • Function - based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Colorado PBS training)
  • Wraparound as a Tertiary Level Process (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Developing Feasible & Effective Interventions Based on Functional Behavior Assessment (Chicago Forum-07)
  • Interventions for Children with ADHD (APBS 08)
  • Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans Using Functional Behavior Assessments (APBS 08)

Training Resources

  • Basic FBA to BSP Participant's Guide (2013)
  • Practical Functional Behavioral Assessment & Behavior Support Planning Training Manual for School-Based Personnel (2013)
  • Writing a Behavioral Intervention Plan Based on a Functional Assessment
  • Behavior Intervention Planning: Using the Functional Behavior Assessment Data
  • Behavior Support Plan
  • Blank PATH Form
  • Person-centered Process Facilitator Tip Sheet
  • Person-Centered Planning Presentation
  • Impact of PCP and PBS Plan Tool
  • Person-centered Positive Behavior Support Plan Scoring Criteria and Checklist
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Series Training Resource Guide from Illinois PBIS

Articles

New articles/book chapters proposed to include:
Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Kincaid, D., Wilson, K., Christiansen, K., Strain, P. & English, C., (2010).  Prevent-Teach-Reinforce:  A school-based model of individualized positive behavior support.  Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes
Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Wilson, K., Strain, P., & Kincaid, D. (2010).  Prevent-Teach-Reinforce:  A standardized model of school-based behavioral intervention.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 9-22.  doi:10.1177/1098300708330880.
DeJager, B. W., & Filter, K. J. (2015).  Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on academic engagement and disruptive behavior.  Journal of Applied School Psychology, 31, 361-391.
Kulikowski, L., Blair, K. S., Iovannone, R., & Crosland, K. (2015).  An evaluation of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model in a community preschool classroom. Journal of Behavior Analysis and Supports, 2, 1-22.
Sears, K. M., Blair, K. S., Iovannone, R., & Crosland K. (2013).  Using the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model with families of young children with ASD.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1005-10016.
Strain, P. S., Wilson, K., & Dunlap, G. (2011).  Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: Addressing problem behaviors of students with autism in general education classrooms.  Behavioral Disorders, 36, 160-171.

  • Basic FBA to BSP Participant's Guide (2013)
  • Practical Functional Behavioral Assessment & Behavior Support Planning Training Manual for School-Based Personnel (2013)
  • Effects of Behavior Support Team Composition on the Technical Adequacy and Contextual Fit of Behavior Support Plans (2006)
  • Consequence Strategies to Change Behavior (2014)
  • Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Support Developing a Behavior Support Plan based on the Function of Behavior Instructional Packet for use with accompanying FBA/BSP forms (2010)
  • Functional Assessment and Program Development for problem behavior (2014)
  • A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Training using Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation
  • Guide (BSP-QE) to Improve Positive Behavioral Support Plans (2007)
  • Implementation of a Culturally Appropriate Positive Behavior Support Plan With a Japanese Mother of a Child With Autism: An Experimental and Qualitative Analysis (2012)
  • Precorrection: An instructional approach for managing predictable problem behaviors (1993)
  • How to defuse confrontations (1997)
  • How do you get the behavior support team to work together as a team? (2003)
  • Changing the way we think about assessment and intervention for problem behavior (2003)
  • Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: A Standardized Model of School-Based Behavioral Intervention (2010)
  • A Practitioner's Guide to Implementing a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors procedure (2010)
  • Using implementation planning to increase teachers' adherence and quality to behavior support plans (2014)
  • Function-Based Intervention Planning: Comparing the Effectiveness of FBA Function-Based and Non–Function-Based Intervention Plans (2005)
  • Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans (2015)
  • Effects of Training on the Use of the Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide With Autism Educators: A Preliminary Investigation Examining Positive Behavior Support Plans (2008)
  • Assessing Social Validity of School-wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (2009)
  • Antecedent Strategies to Change Behavior (2014)
  • Critical Features for Identifying Function-Based Supports: From Research to Practice (2014)
  • The content validity of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) and its potential application in accommodation and day-support services for adults with intellectual disability (2013)
  • Reliability and utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) for auditing and quality development in services for adults with intellectual disability and challenging behavior (2013)
  • Comparing Individual Behavior Plans from Schools With and Without Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: A Preliminary Study (2008)
  • Step-by-Step: Teaching Students to Self-Monitor (2010)
  • The Importance of Precorrective Statements and Behavior-Specific Praise and Strategies to Increase Their Use (2009)
  • A preliminary investigation of the utility of the "Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II" for use in Australia (2011)
  • Use of Coaching and Behavior Support Planning for Students With Disruptive Behavior Within a Universal Classroom Management Program (2014)
  • A component analysis of positive behaviour support plans (2012)
  • The Resource Guide to Wraparound:Phases and Activities of the Wraparound Process: Building Agreement About a Practice Model (2006)

Articles found on PBIS.org

  • Tips for Educators: IEPs as an essential element of individual support within schoolwide PBS
  • Building connections between individual behavior support plans and schoolwide systems of positive behavior support
  • Laying the foundation for positive behavior support through person-centered planning
  • Elements of Behavior support plans: A technical brief
  • Elements of Behavior support plans: A technical brief
  • Functional behavioral assessment: An investigation of assessment reliability and effectiveness of function-based interventions (2004)
  • A research synthesis of social story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (2004)
  • The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behaviors: Preliminary results from a single-case experiment (2003)
  • An examination of the relation between functional behavior assessment and selected interventions strategies with school-based teams (2005)

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F. Progress monitoring and implementation fidelity

An important part of the Tier 3 planning process is ongoing data-based decision making.  The team should meet at least monthly and review the progress monitoring data and along with the student and family determine whether the student is making progress.  Graphical representations of the data should be presented to the team, and a decision should be considered whether the plan is having its desired effect, showing no progress or the problem behavior is getting worse. If the decision is that the plan is achieving its desired result, the team could decide to continue as is, or reduce the intensity of the plan. If the plan is not achieving the desired outcome, the team could keep the plan as is and wait to see if the trend changes, check implementation fidelity or make changes in the plan by increasing intensity or reworking the plan.  .  The team could start fading parts of the plan (e.g., thin the reinforcement schedule) or the criteria for target behaviors can be set higher.  If the plan is not achieving the desired outcome, the team will first want to check implementation fidelity and if fidelity is low, address the reason. For example, if the plan is too complex or difficult for the teacher, the team may want to edit the interventions so that they are feasible for the teacher or the team may decide to review other interventiions that are linked with the hypothesis but may be easier for the teacher to perform.  If the teacher is implementing with high fidelity, the team may decide to make changes in the plan by increasing the intensity (e.g., providing reinforcement at a more immediate and frequent rate) or changing the interventions so that they may be more effective. The team may want to consider, at times, reviewing the FBA data to make sure that the hypothesis is correct or gather additional data.

A comprehensive data system, with multiple elements, may be necessary at the school level to measure behavioral outcomes as well as implementation fidelity for a broad range of student behaviors at tier 3.  Some of the elements of such a comprehensive system may include:

Comprehensive Data System

Each of these elements can assist with development of the behavior plan or evaluating the student outcomes produced by the plan.

  • Measures of fidelity of tier 3 implementation

Measures of implementation fidelity are essential to determine whether the tier 3 supports were actually provided as planned (frequency and quality).

 

While it is unlikely that one data system will be able to support every individual student's plan, there are a number of resources that provide many of the critical elements for use at the individual student level.

Within a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) the final component is a comprehensive plan (i.e., data system) for the collection and use of data for evaluation of the effectiveness and implementation fidelity of the BIP. A comprehensive data system includes two types of data: (a) intervention fidelity (i.e., implementation integrity, treatment adherence) as well as (b) effectiveness (e.g., student outcomes). A data system may require multiple elements in order to comprehensively monitor and evaluate the implementation fidelity and effectiveness of the BIP. It is unlikely that one data system will be able to support all students receiving tertiary supports. Even one student receiving tertiary supports is likely to experience many phases or plan changes throughout the course of the year.
A tertiary data system should contain critical elements such as:

  1. Goals for intervention fidelity and student outcomes should be reasonable, measurable, and valued
  2. Procedures and schedule for collecting evaluation and progress monitoring data (including perception data) across all goals
  3. Procedures and schedule for summarizing data in an understandable format (e.g., graphs)
  4. Procedures and schedule for communicating data across all relevant stakeholders,
  5. Decision rules to guide team-based decision making about plan fidelity and effectiveness including perception data

Goals for intervention fidelity and student outcomes should be (a) reasonable, (b) measurable, and (c) valued.

Intervention Fidelity Goals. Goals for intervention or implementation fidelity describe the acceptable and/or desired level of implementation of the specific components of the BIP. The overall question asked is, "Did we do what we said we would do?" and is intended to promote discussion related to the quality and contextual fit of the support plan as well as questions about the training, resources, and staff buy-in needed to implement the different strategies and supports identified. Short- and long-term goals may be related to (a) consistency of strategy use across staff or settings, (b) quality of strategy use, and/or (c) frequency of strategy use.
Note. The intensity or complexity of intervention fidelity goals should match that of the BIP strategies and also consider staff and team decision-making needs.

Student Outcome Goals. Goals for student outcome describe the acceptable and/or desired level of change in student behavior, related to the BIP or wrap plan. The short- and long-term goals are most often related to (a) decreasing challenging behavior, (b) increasing desired behavior, and/or (c) use of an acceptable alternative behavior.
All goals should include (a) what behavior is being measures, (b) the acceptable/desired level, and (c) by when the level will be met.

Procedures and schedule for collecting evaluation and progress monitoring data across all goals.
Data collection routines and schedules vary from school to school. To the extent possible the collection of the individual student's data should align with the procedures already in place but with greater specificity and frequency. For example, if the student previously participated in the Check In Check Out (targeted) intervention then it may be possible to format a similar but individualized point card with individualized goals, check-in periods, and/or feedback procedures. While desirable, teams should consider whether alignment is appropriate for the individual student's goals and adapt when data indicate a change in needs. It may be that alignment with a familiar intervention becomes a long-term goal.

Procedures and schedule for summarizing data in an understandable format (e.g., graphs).
Data collected are not useful until they have been organized in a format that team members and other stakeholders can easily use to summarize overall patterns and then break the information up into different perspectives (e.g., by time of day, by staff member, for the most recent week/month). Existing tools for organizing and analyzing data include spreadsheet tools (e.g., Excel), The Individual Student Intervention System (ISIS-SWIS), and the Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) Connect. Teams should determine what technology will provide the best quality of information, efficiency in entering and reporting data, and what will be flexible to progress monitoring needs across students and time.  A simple chart that is updated monthly or quarterly  might also be helpful as the team assess progress and patterns. 


Procedures and schedule for communicating data across all relevant stakeholders.

During the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and development of the BIP, it makes sense to include as many stakeholders as possible on the team. However, over time it can become difficult to keep everyone 'in the loop' about current levels of progress, changes in implementation, and/or problems which need to be addressed. Timely communication requires planning so teams should agree on guidelines for the frequency of communicating and the best information and methods for communicating across team members. The procedures and schedule should be documented within (or attached to) the BIP and reviewed regularly to ensure that all members of the team are included in decision making as well as progress updates.

Decision rules to guide team-based decision making about plan fidelity and effectiveness.
When a team regularly receives information with data that are in an understandable and visual format then identifying current levels of progress and potential problem areas becomes much more efficient. The data should lead to decisions about whether to continue, modify (major or minor), or discontinue specific components of the BIP. It is recommended that general decision rules be developed in relation to each goal. These decision rules can be used to guide team members as they review data. For example, if the intervention fidelity is acceptable but a student is not making progress toward outcome goals then how will the team know when they need to make a revision?

Simple Decision Rule Template

Decision

Level/Indicator

Duration

Continue Current Plan

  

Minor Adaptation
(Plan Change)

  

Major Modification
(Plan Change)

  

Conduct Full Assessment/Review
(Revise Plan)

  

Fade Supports

  

Graduate from Supports

  

Discontinue Supports

  

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G. Resources: Tools, videos, presentations, publications, exemplars

Tools: Links to formal FBA protocol, F-BSP protocol, BIP templates, to SWIS

Presentations

  • Team Driven Tertiary Process: The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model, PBIS Forum, 2007
  • School-Wide Screening for At-risk Students: Best Practices and School Examples - Lewis, Powers, & Dixon

Training Resources

  • Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities, Snell & Brown, 2014
  • Impact of PCP and PBS Plan Tool – Freeman, PBIS.org
  • Tier 3/Tertiary Series Training Resource Guide from Illinois PBIS – Eber, PBIS.org

Articles

  • Collecting Behavioral Data in General Education Settings: A Primer for Behavioral Data Collection - Lee, Vostal, Lylo, & Hua, 2011,
  • Data-based program modification: A manual - Deno & Mirkin, 1977
  • Usefulness of Different Types of Assessment Data in Diagnosing and Planning for a Student with High-Functioning Autism – Spears, Tollefson, Simpson, 2001
  • Pinkelman (TBA)
  • The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained - Riley-Tillman, Christ, Chafouleas, Boice-Mallah, & Briesh, 2011, 
  • Intensive Behavior Intervention: What Is It, What Is Its Evidence Base, and Why Do We Need to Implement Now? - Riley-Tillman, Christ, Chafouleas, Boice-Mallah, & Briesh, 2014
  •  The Influence of Observation Length on the Dependability of Data - Ferguson, Briesch, Volpe, & Daniels, 2012
  • The influence of alternative scale formats on the generalizability of data obtained from Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS) - Briesch, Kilgus, Cafouleas, Riley-Tillman, & Christ, 2013
  • Creating Smarter Classrooms: Data-Based Decision Making for Effective Classroom Management – Gage & McDaniel, 2012
  • Inter-Rater Agreement of the Individualized Rating Scale Tool – Iovannoe, Greenbaum, Wang, Dunlap, & Kincaid, 2014

Books and Book Chapters

  • Iovannone, R., & Briesch, A. M. (2016).Use of DBR in individualized intervention.  In A. M. Briesch, S. M. Chafouleas and T. C. Riley-Tillman (Eds.), Direct behavior rating: Linking assessment, communication, and intervention.  New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

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Resources

Use of DBR in individualized intervention

Iovannone, R., & Briesch, A. M. (2016). Use of DBR in individualized intervention.  In A. M. Briesch, S. M. Chafouleas and T. C. Riley-Tillman (Eds.), Direct behavior rating: Linking assessment, communication, and intervention.  New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Grounded in state-of-the-art research, this practical guide comprehensively shows how to harness the potential of direct behavior rating (DBR) as a tool for assessment, intervention, and communication in schools. DBR can be used rapidly and efficiently in PreK-12 classrooms to support positive behavior and promote self-management. The authors and contributors provide concrete examples of ways to implement DBR strategies within multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). The evidence base supporting each strategy is reviewed. More than 30 reproducible checklists and forms include step-by-step implementation blueprints, daily report cards, and more.

Inter-Rater Agreement of the Individualized Rating Scale Tool

Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P.E., Wang, W., Dunlap, G., & Kincaid, D. (2014) Inter-Rater Agreement of the Individualized Rating Scale Tool. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 39(4), 195-207 Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence in students requiring individualized interventions. Two independent observers (teacher and data collector) used the IBRST to rate student-specific problem and appropriate behaviors during specified observation times. Data were collected across 19 students and agreement between raters was compared. Resulting linear- and quadratic-weighted kappa coefficients indicated generally adequate agreement between raters on problem behaviors and appropriate behaviors. When ratings were categorized into more or less salient behaviors, less than adequate agreement (<.60) was found for some behaviors that were less salient. Agreement remained stable from baseline to intervention. Implications for practice, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

Creating Smarter Classrooms: Data-Based Decision Making for Effective Classroom Management

Gage, N.A. & McDaniel, S. (2012) Creating Smarter Classrooms: Data-Based Decision Making for Effective Classroom Management. Beyond Behavior, 22(1), 48-55 The term "data-based decision making" (DBDM) has become pervasive in education and typically refers to the use of data to make decisions in schools, from assessment of an individual student's academic progress to whole-school reform efforts. Research suggests that special education teachers who use progress monitoring data (a DBDM approach) adapt instructional practices and effectively use data more often than teachers who do not use progress monitoring. Using data in decision making helps teachers be objective in order to accurately identify a problem, identify a solution, and assess the solution's effectiveness. Students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) demonstrate both academic and behavioral deficits. DBDM provides a framework that allows one to know whether something works or does not work, and based on that knowledge, to adapt or adopt new instructional practices to positively affect student outcomes.

The influence of alternative scale formats on the generalizability of data obtained from Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS)

Briesch, A.M., Kilgus, S.P., Chafouleas, S.M, Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Christ, T.J. (2013) The influence of alternative scale formats on the generalizability of data obtained from Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS). Assessment for Effective Intervention, 38(2), 127-133 The current study served to extend previous research on scaling construction of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) in order to explore the potential flexibility of DBR to fit various intervention contexts. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students viewed the same classroom footage but rated student behavior using one of eight randomly assigned scales (i.e., differed with regard to number of gradients, length of scale, discrete vs. continuous). Descriptively, mean ratings typically fell within the same scale gradient across conditions. Furthermore, results of generalizability analyses revealed negligible variance attributable to the facet of scale type or interaction terms involving this facet. Implications for DBR scale construction within the context of intervention-related decision making are presented and discussed.

The Influence of Observation Length on the Dependability of Data

Ferguson, T.D., Briesch, A.M., Volpe, R.J., & Daniels, B. (2012) The Influence of Observation Length on the Dependability of Data. School Psychology Quarterly, 27(4), 187-97 Although direct observation is one of the most frequently used assessment methods by school psychologists, studies have shown that the number of observations needed to obtain a dependable estimate of student behavior may be impractical. Because direct observation may be used to inform important decisions about students, it is crucial that data be reliable. Preliminary research has suggested that dependability may be improved by extending the length of individual observations. The purpose of the current study was, therefore, to examine how changes in observational duration affect the dependability of student engagement data. Twenty seventh grade students were each observed for 30-min across 2 days during math instruction. Generalizability theory was then used to calculate reliability-like coefficients for the purposes of intraindividual decision making. Across days, acceptable levels of dependability for progress monitoring (i.e., .70) were achieved through two 30-min observations, three 15-min observations, or four to five 10-min observations. Acceptable levels of dependability for higher stakes decisions (i.e., .80) required over an hour of cumulative observation time. Within a given day, a 15 minute observation was found to be adequate for making low-stakes decisions whereas an hour long observation was necessary for high-stakes decision making. Limitations of the current study and implications for research and practice are discussed.

Intensive Behavior Intervention: What Is It, What Is Its Evidence Base, and Why Do We Need to Implement Now?

Wehby, J. H. & Kern, L. (2014) The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(4), 38-44 This article describes intensive behavior intervention that is used with students who have behavioural difficulties. Joseph H. Wehby and Lee Kern report on 35 years of research in this area and note two conclusions: (1) Students with significant behavioral difficulties, including those with emotional disturbance (ED), have among the poorest social and academic outcomes of any group of students; and (2) Teachers and other school personnel feel inadequately prepared to work with these students. A probable contributing factor to these poor school outcomes is that educators often receive inadequate training on managing and supporting students with significant behavior issues. Wehby and Kern introduce "Intensifying Behavioral Interventions with an Adaptive Intervention Approach," an idea that has its roots in the tradition of good clinical practice and DBI. Teachers can easily use their experience and history with a student or use response patterns shown on typical school measures to modify a particular behavior intervention. The article provides an example that illustrates the process of adaptation and uses the most frequently reported Tier 2 intervention (involving small-group support programs that incorporate validated methods to help students develop self-control strategies or enhance social relationships in addition to improving academic performance), then describes the intensive and individualized Tier 3--functional assessment process, a problem-solving approach that relies on selecting relevant environmental factors for identifying the primary motivations for problem behavior and using that information as the centerpiece for developing an individualized behavior intervention plan. As teachers move forward toward improving the outcomes for this difficult-to-teach population, systematic adaptations of Tier 2 interventions and individualization of support within a multitiered system may furnish the best avenue for meaningful change.

The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained

Riley-Tillman, T.C., Christ, T.J., Chafouleas, S.M., & Briesch, A. (2010) The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(2)  In this study, evaluation of direct behavior rating (DBR) occurred with regard to two primary areas: (a) accuracy of ratings with varied instrumentation (anchoring: proportional or absolute) and procedures (observation length: 5 min, 10 min, or 20 min) and (b) one-week test-retest reliability. Participants viewed video clips of a typical third grade student and then used single-item DBR scales to rate disruptive and academically engaged behavior. Overall, ratings tended to overestimate the actual occurrence of behavior. Although ratings of academic engagement were not affected by duration of the observation, ratings of disruptive behavior were, as the longer the duration, the more the ratings of disruptive behavior were overestimated. In addition, the longer the student was disruptive, the greater the overestimation effect. Results further revealed that anchoring the DBR scale as proportional versus absolute number of minutes did not affect rating accuracy. Finally, test-retest analyses revealed low to moderate consistency across time points for 10-min and 20-min observations, with increased consistency as the number of raters or number of ratings increased (e.g., four 5-min vs. one 20-min). Overall, results contribute to the technical evaluation of DBR as a behavior assessment method and provide preliminary information regarding the influence of duration of an observation period on DBR data.

Usefulness of Different Types of Assessment Data in Diagnosing and Planning for a Student with High-Functioning Autism.

Spears, R., Tollefson, N., & Simpson, R. (2001) Usefulness of Different Types of Assessment Data in Diagnosing and Planning for a Student with High-Functioning Autism. Behavioral Disorders, v26 n3, 227-42 A study examined 149 urban and rural school psychologists' abilities to use formal and informal assessment data to diagnose autism and plan an effective educational program for a student with high-functioning autism. Respondents had difficulty recognizing autism but were able to select appropriate Individualized Education Program goals for the student.

Data-Based Program Modification: A Manual.

Deno, Stanley L. & Mirkin, Phyllis K. (1977). Data-Based Program Modification: A Manual. Presented is an empirically oriented, data based program modification (DBPM) manual for individualizing educational plans for any child with a learning or behavioral problem. The rationale for an empirically based program, the socio-legal context, and specific measurement and evaluation procedures (e.g. time series procedures and discrepancy measurement) are described in Part I. Covered in Part II is the sequencing of initial assessment and in Part III a program planning sequence is provided. Program implementation, adjustment, and certification are discussed in Parts IV, V, and VI. Consultation, training, and the indirect role of the resource teacher are treated in Part VII. Featured throughout is the application of DBPM to the case of a hypothetical child. Three appendixes provide appropriate questions for each decision area of the DBPM, case report summaries, and a list of change strategies.

Collecting Behavioral Data in General Education Settings: A Primer for Behavioral Data Collection

Lee, D. L., Vostal, B. R., Lylo, B., & Hua, Y. (2011). Collecting behavioral data in general education settings: A primer for behavioral data collection. Beyond Behavior, 20, 22-30. The article provides insights on the steps for collecting behavioral data in general education settings. Teachers are advised to create a schedule for data collection. The importance of defining the target behavior of interest after the creation of the schedule is emphasized. Among the features of graphed data used to identify intervention effectiveness are the level of the first data points compared with baseline and changes in behavior as a result of the intervention.

Impact of PCP and PBS Plan Tool

This tool is used to review the impact of the PCP and PBS plan on the student as reflected by the written report for intensive tertiary support. This could be considered as a more in depth analysis of a PBS plan for a very complex plan.

Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities

This book presents information and evidence-based practices for dealing with the full range curriculum and instruction for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and autism. Case studies throughout Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities look at students of various ages and with a variety of disabilities, and each chapter includes an application to a student with autism. The content is presented with citations of supportive research, and the evidence-based practices are presented in clearly defined ways to ensure that teachers understand the practices and how to apply them in their own classrooms. PowerPoint slides created by the chapter authors are available for course instructors.

School-Wide Screening for At-risk Students: Best Practices and School Examples

The presentation describes how information from behavior and academic screening tools can be used.

Team Driven Tertiary Process: The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model

The presentation describes an individual positive behavior support process for use in the classroom and list factors impacting the effectiveness of an individual behavior support process.

Behavior Intervention Planning: Using the Functional Behavior Assessment Data

A CD-Rom based training tool that trains individuals to develop behavior intervention plans using the results of functional assessment.

BSP Critical Features Checklist

BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLAN CRITICAL FEATURES CHECKLIST

FBA and BIP Technical Adequacy Tool for Evaluation (TATE)

This session will provide an introduction to the concepts and systems necessary to utilize Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning (FBA-BIP) to support students with challenging behavior. These sessions will focus specifically on the processes and tools needed to assist coaches, facilitators and problem-solving teams in planning, implementing, and evaluating FBA-BIP.

BIP Template

Behavior Intervention Plan

F-BSP Protocol

Functional Behavioral Assessment Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP) Protocol

Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)

The FACTS is a two-page interview used by school personnel who are building behavior support plans for tertiary level supports. The FACTS is intended to be an efficient strategy for initial functional behavioral assessment. The FACTS is completed by people (teachers, family, clinicians) who know the student best, and used to either build behavior support plans, or guide more complete functional assessment efforts. The FACTS can be completed in a short period of time (5-15 min). Efficiency and effectiveness in completing the forms increases with practice.

Florida RtI:B

The RtI:B Database is a free online data system for Florida schools.

The Behavior Support Plan Critical Features Checklist

It provides an excellent example of a method to track and evaluate the development of a behavior support and the necessary component steps for practical implementation.

Data Tracking – PBIS World

Data Tracking Tools

Green Hills AEA Challenging Behavior Team Data Collection Resources

These tools may support you in conducting functional behavior assessments and progress monitoring intervention efforts. From single incidents to a years worth of behavior journals; we hope we can help you in organizing and interpreting information that will lead to a supportive and effective intervention.

Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR)

Solve serious behavior challenges in K–8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by typical behavior management strategies.

ABC Observation Form

This is a form that could be used to record the "Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence's" during a behavioral observation.

MyDBR Connect

DBR Connect is a behavioral assessment that can be used to screen at-risk students and monitor their behavior before, during, and after an intervention is implemented. It is one of the few behavior rating systems that allows users to enter data online and easily chart students’ progress over time.

Individual Student Intervention System, ISIS-SWIS

ISIS-SWIS completes the comprehensive, three-tiered information system by focusing data entry to Intensive (Tier III) interventions for individual students. ISIS-SWIS is a decision system for students receiving more intensive supports for academic, social, or mental health services.

Tier 3/Tertiary Series Training Resource Guide from Illinois PBIS

This training resource guide provides: 1) training course materials, 2) initial & advanced training activities, 3) evaluation tools, 4) wraparound, 5) team development and action planning strategies, 6) crisis planning, and 7) team planning tools for tertiary level support.