Facility-wide PBIS Resources

 

Resources for Facility-wide PBIS Implementation in Juvenile Corrections and Residential Settings/Facilities: From Adoption Consideration to Initial Implementation to Sustained Implementation

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Kristine Jolivette, Ph.D.

University of Alabama

Skip Kumm, MAT

University of Illinois – Chicago

As more and more secure and non-secure juvenile facilities and residential facilities (e.g., therapeutic hospitals, shelter care, group homes, psychiatric facilities, children and youth residential settings, etc.) serving youth with and without disabilities in a 24 hour 7 day a week delivery model adopt and adapt the positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) framework to address youth behavioral needs, it has become imperative that we share what we know, what we have learned (e.g., lessons learning), and what works within and across the juvenile and residential communities. Within these settings, the framework is typically referred to facility-wide PBIS (FW-PBIS) as the framework is applied during all treatment and programming hours and activities and implemented by all staff with all youth across all facility environments. Taking the lead from the many juvenile and residential facility staff and teams we work with across the country who ask for resources for their teams and staff, we have organized this FW-PBIS resource list by those resources addressing all tiers, Tier 1, Tier II, Tier III, tools, websites, journal special issues, conferences-professional development, and voices from the field in alphabetical order. When possible, the link to the resource was provided. For the resources without a direct link, we suggest using web tools (e.g., university libraries, subscriptions, etc.) to locate the resource. The full citations are provided so that this may occur. We have provided a brief overview of each resource to assist with the resource list's usage. We realize that this list may not be exhaustive but it will point juvenile and residential agencies/facilities in multiple directions to identify supports for their facility-wide adoption and implementation goals. We will update this comprehensive resource list on a yearly basis.

All TiersTier ITier II
Tier IIIToolsWebsites/Centers
Journal Special IssuesConferences - Professional DevelopmentVoices from the Field

All Tiers

Cassavaugh, M., & Nelson, C. M. (2013). Promoting educational success by addressing behavioral and social needs. NDTAC Webinar and handouts. https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov/events/promoting-educational-success-addressing-behavioral-and-social-needs  

This online resource includes a webinar, PowerPoint presentations, and other resources related to implementing FW-PBIS in juvenile justice facilities. The resources are designed to aid in the delivery of behavior interventions to help improve educational outcomes for youth in secure facilities. Additionally, professionals in the field provide real-world examples of implementing FW-PBIS in juvenile justice facilities. This content can be applied to residential facilities as well.

Ennis, R. P., & Gonsoulin, S. G. (2015). Multi-tiered systems of support to improve outcomes for youth in juvenile justice settings: Guiding principles for future research and practice. Residential and Treatment for Children and Youth, 32, 258-265. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wrtc20/32/4?nav=tocList

This conceptual manuscript illustrates how FW-PBIS can be used to meet the Guiding Principles for Providing High-Quality Education released by the Departments of Education and Justice. The authors systematically review each of the five recommendations and provide practitioners with evidence-based practices to incorporate FW-PBIS to address each recommendation for juvenile facilities. 

Fernandez, M. A., Doyle, C., Koon, R., & McClain, D. (2015). Managing disruptive and violent juvenile offenders in the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice. Corrections Today, September/October. https://www.aca.org/aca_prod_imis/Docs/Corrections%20Today/2015%20Articles/September%202015/
Juv%20Justice%20News.pdf

This brief descriptive manuscript exemplifies how the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice implemented FW-PBIS state-wide to deliver evidence-based behavioral management practices to the meet the needs of their diverse youth. The authors provide a detailed description of how FW-PBIS was used to intensify interventions through the use of six key components to deliver interventions for youth with the most severe and persistent needs in juvenile facilities.

Fernandez, M. A., & McClain, D. (2014). Georgia's juvenile justice system applies new framework to modify youth behavior trends. Corrections Today, 76, 18. http://www.djjnewsandviews.org/pbisatdjj/PBISArticle.pdf

This brief descriptive manuscript details how the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice transitioned from a token economy to FW-PBIS in all 27 secure facilities throughout the state.  The authors review the importance of using data to guide the decision-making process and provide an example of how facilities tracked data. Lastly, the authors discuss how allowing facilities, instead of the agency, to guide the use of FW-PBIS lead to cultural improvements. 

Fernandez, M., McClain, D., Brown Williams, B., & Ellison, P. (2015). PBIS in Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice: Data dashboard and radar reports utilized for team data-based decision-making with facility team leader perspectives. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 32, 334-343. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wrtc20/32/4?nav=tocList

This data-based manuscript provides a detailed example of how the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice used a Data Dashboard to collect and analyze data to identify trends for their Tier I FW-PBIS plans. The authors provide facility-specific examples of how the Data Dashboard was used to identify days and times that disruptive behaviors were occurring most often. Also, the authors describe how Radar Reports were used by Tier II/III teams to track youth specific disruptive behaviors in a facility so as to assign appropriate and intensified Tier II/II interventions. 

Jolivette, K. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support in residential juvenile facilities. Washington, DC: The National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth (NDTAC). https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov/sites/default/files/NDTAC-IssueBrief-508.pdf

This descriptive brief provides an overview of and comparison between multi-tiered systems of support and the PBIS framework as applied within juvenile facilities. The author describes the benefits of implementing FW-PBIS as reported in the field, youth and agency perceptions of FW-PBIS implementation, and adaptations and considerations to be made when implementing within juvenile facilities. Three facility examples of FW-PBIS implementation are provided from the lens of FW-PBIS Leadership Team members from secure detention and long-term facilities. This content can be applied to residential facilities as well.

Jolivette, K. (2013). Challenges of conducting empirically-rigorous intervention and evaluative research in juvenile correctional facilities: Suggestions for the field. Journal of Correctional Education, 64, 37-50. https://www.highbeam.com/publications/journal-of-correctional-education-p62124

This conceptual manuscript describes the challenges of conducting research per field-specific research guidelines in juvenile justice facilities, both non-secure and secure. The author details the barriers of such research as cited and experienced by other researchers, offers facilitators to such barriers, and calls on researchers to continue their investigations by designing high-quality and rigorous studies as well as being prepared for the barriers to occur. This manuscript is included to provide insight to both researchers and agencies of potential barriers with facilitators so that more empirical investigations, such as FW-PBIS or individual tiered practices, can be evaluated.

Jolivette, K., Boden, L. J., Sprague, J. R., Ennis, R. P., & Kimball, K. A. (2015). Youth voice matters: Perceptions of facility-wide PBIS implementation secure residential juvenile facilities. Residential and Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 299-320. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wrtc20/32/4?nav=tocList

This data-based manuscript was the first to measure youth perceptions related to multi-year FW-PBIS implementation within their secure juvenile facilities. The authors conducted focus groups in 8 facilities randomly selected based on their high-, mid-, and low-fidelity of implementation scores. The authors identified multiple positive themes (staff confidence in youth; authentic reinforcement; FW-PBIS relevancy in real-life) and negative themes (lack of teaching FW-PBIS features; staff inconsistency; new FW-PBIS versus old practices) as viewed by the youth, and offer suggestions for the FW-PBIS Leadership Teams charged with monitoring implementation of the FW-PBIS plan. Also, the youth from facilities with lower fidelity of implementation scores reported more barriers than those in higher fidelity of implementation facilities.

Jolivette, K., Houchins, D.E., Josephs, N., Waller, K,  Hall, T., & Nomvete, P. (2008). Providing educational services in secure settings. L.M. Bullock & R.A. Gable (Eds.), Ensuring a brighter future for troubled children/youth: Challenges and solutions (pp. 193-263). Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders. Arlington, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.

This monograph reviews the literature on educational services (i.e., academics, behavior, transition) provided to youth in juvenile facilities. The authors make many recommendations based on evidence-based practices from the general and special education literature. The authors recommend FW-PBIS as a means to better serve the behavioral needs of these youth and provide research questions for the field for such implementation.

Jolivette, K., Kimball, K. A., Boden, L. J., & Sprague, J. R. (2016). The utility of a multi-tiered behavioral system in juvenile corrections: The positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) framework. Corrections Today, 78, 42-47. http://www.aca.org/ACA_Prod_IMIS/ACA_Member/Publications/Corrections_Today_Magazine/
ACA_Member/Publications/CT_Magazine/CorrectionsToday_Home.aspx?hkey=08c84ce7-094c-4ae8-836d-d43cd22c656f

This conceptual manuscript details benefits of FW-PBIS implementation within juvenile facilities and provides specific systems, data, and tiered practices examples from implementing juvenile facilities. This manuscript could be used as an introduction to FW-PBIS for juvenile staff. The content is applicable to residential facilities.

Jolivette, K., McDaniel, S. C., Sprague, J. R., Swain-Bradway, J., & Ennis, R. P. (2012). Embedding the PBIS framework into the complex array of practices within AE settings: A decision-making approach. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 38, 15-29. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1534508412454450

This conceptual manuscript details how residential and juvenile facilities can use the FW-PBIS framework as a means to organize their behavioral systems, data, and practices. The author(s) provide a detailed flowchart as to how staff may tier their practices within the framework, identify and adopt additional tiered practices, and cull-out ineffective practices. Also, the authors present a rationale for why FW-PBIS should be considered in alternative and more restrictive settings.

Jolivette, K., & Nelson, C. M. (2010). Introduction to the special issue of Behavioral Disorders: Juvenile justice Issues. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 4-6. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43153825?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

This conceptual manuscript provides the dismal findings of youth with and without E/BD within juvenile facilities. The authors describe the manuscripts in the special issue and call for continued attention to PBIS implementation in juvenile facilities.

Jolivette, K., Scheuermann, B., & Ennis, R. P. (2015). Multi-tiered systems of support within secure residential juvenile facilities. Residential Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 254-257. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wrtc20/32/4?nav=tocList

This conceptual manuscript introduces the special issue of Residential Treatment of Children and Youth on FW-PBIS within juvenile facilities. The authors link the recommendation for implementing FW-PBIS as a means to address the school-to-prison pipeline, poor outcomes of youth from/within juvenile settings, and best practices.

Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., & Ennis, R. P. (2013). PBIS as prevention for high-risk youth in alternative education, residential, and juvenile justice settings. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 1-2. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516898/pdf

This conceptual manuscript introduces the special issue of Education and Treatment of Children on FW-PBIS for use with high-risk youth in alternative, residential, and juvenile facilities.

Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., McDaniel, S., & Duchaine, E. L. (2016). Using positive behavioral interventions and supports to assist in the transition of youth from juvenile justice facilities back to their neighborhood school: An illustrative example. Journal of Correctional Education, 67, 9-23.https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-4305523451.html

This case study manuscript details how FW-PBIS can be used as part of the transition process of a youth transitioning from a secure juvenile facility back to their neighborhood school. A case study approach details how this could be accomplished, who may be involved, and how to engage a youth's family in such a process.

Jolivette, K., Taylor, C., & Sjolund, A. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support in residential juvenile facilities. NDTAC Webinar with handouts. https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov/events/multi-tiered-systems-support-residential-juvenile-facilities

This webinar provides an overview of FW-PBIS with two FW-PBIS Leadership Team leaders detailing their Tier I and Tier II plans. The authors also provide handouts on their implementation efforts. Youth from one of the facilities speak as to their impressions on the usefulness of FW-PBIS in their daily programming and for their lives outside the facility.

Kimball, K., & Jolivette, K. (December, 2015). Facility-wide PBIS. National Technical Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. https://www.pbis.org/Common/Cms/files/Forum15_Presentations/RDQ%2014%20Brief%20-%20Juvenile%20Justice.pdf

This literature review and conceptual manuscript describes the benefits of FW-PBIS implementation, the calls from entities for multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) implementation within juvenile facilities, the guiding principles offered from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, and research questions for future FW-PBIS implementation per published literature.

Kimball, K., & Jolivette, K. (December, 2016). Facility-wide PBIS: Residential & juvenile justice perceptions of implementation and next steps. National Technical Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. https://www.pbis.org/Common/Cms/files/Forum16_Presentations/RDQ%2010%20Brief%20-%20Juvenile%20Justice.pdf

This conceptual manuscript provides a definition of FW-PBIS as applied within juvenile facilities and other settings which operate within a 24 hours 7 days a week delivery model. The authors provide a brief overview of the stages of implementation and an outline of the components of FW-PBIS local operating procedures for FW-PBIS Leadership Teams to use as a guide when constructing their FW-PBIS plan and subsequent systems of support for staff. Also, the roundtable discussions were summarized in terms of themes (family/community supports, staff buy-in, data systems, youth voice, mental health) with appropriate resources for further reading provided by theme. Future research questions are provided per theme.

Kimball, K. A., Jolivette, K., & Sprague, J. R. (2017). Agency-stakeholder reflections: Perspectives of state-wide adoption of the PBIS framework in juvenile facilities. Journal of Correctional Education, 68, 17-36. https://www.highbeam.com/publications/journal-of-correctional-education-p62124

This data-based manuscript surveyed juvenile justice agency and facility staff from two states who had been implementing FW-PBIS for several years as a state-wide effort as to their perceptions of FW-PBIS effectiveness. The author(s) identified facilitators (positive view of FW-PBIS framework effectiveness, positive culture change across agency and within facilities, improved consistency and fidelity of FW-PBIS practices) and barriers (facility instability, slowness of change related to practices and policies, inconsistent buy-in, and data quality issues) to FW-PBIS implementation as well as specific systems, data, and practice supports they created and used as part of these efforts.

Kumm, S., & Jolivette, K. (December, 2017). Facility-wide PBIS implementation as viewed by roundtable participants and from the field. National Technical Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. http://www.pbis.org/Common/Cms/files/Forum17_Presentations/RDQ%2010%20Brief%20-%20Juvenile%20Justice.pdf

This conceptual manuscript defines FW-PBIS and makes the case for why juvenile and residential facilities should consider adopting the PBIS framework. A summary of roundtable participant discussions and examples from their facilities from the juvenile justice strand at the PBIS Forum are provided per the four thematic group topics – sources and uses of data to make FW-PBIS decisions; selecting and implementing appropriate reinforcements; teaching and modeling FW-PBIS behavior expectations; and using FW-PBIS to organize facility practices, including mental health, into the tiers with frequently asked FW-PBIS questions.

Lampron, S., & Gonsoulin, S. (2013). PBIS in restrictive settings: The time is now. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 161-174. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516909?casa_token=lb0U_ZhmxqcAAAAA:HkynF5SDX5jVk8gcb7HYn4De0MF8sB-E9c-LEgRmGS2AejX1jk7VVZImfDvI4n3vuFQPc6gzh0c

This conceptual manuscript identifies why FW-PBIS is an appropriate framework to reduce reliance on punitive behavior management systems and instead provide rehabilitation for youth in restrictive settings. The authors provide evidence-based practices of how FW-PBIS can be used to improve facility safety, teach social skills, and encourage youth to demonstrate accountability. Lastly, the authors provide examples of how FW-PBIS has effectively benefited youth as they transition back to their communities.

Lopez, A., Williams, J. K., & Newsom, K. (2015). PBIS in Texas Juvenile Justice Department's Division of Education and State Programs: Integrating programs and developing systems for sustained implementation. Residential and Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 344-353. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wrtc20/32/4?nav=tocList

This descriptive study provides a case study on the Texas Juvenile Justice Department's implementation of FW-PBIS from its initial planning stages to current practices. The authors describe how PBIS was first delivered in their educational programs before adopting FW-PBIS. Key components are identified as well as lesson learned from universal implementation. 

Mathur, S. R., & Nelson, C. M. (2013). PBIS as prevention for high-risk youth in restrictive settings: Where do we go from here? Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 175-181. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516910

This conceptual manuscript provides recommendations for future research on PBIS in restrictive settings. The authors identify five areas of focus for future research to both prevent involvement with the juvenile justice system and to improve practices in restrictive settings. This article highlights the need for researchers to work with facilities in order to improve the long-term outcomes of youth in restrictive settings.  

Myers, D. M., & Farrell, A. F. (2008). Reclaiming lost opportunities: Applying public health models in juvenile justice. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1159-1177. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740908000704  

This conceptual manuscript provides the theoretical basis and rationale for why PBIS, as a public health model, should be applied within juvenile facilities. The authors review the a) characteristics; b) identification, surveillance, and interventions; and c) application of the prevention logic and evidence-based practices in juvenile corrections. The authors conclude with recommendations related to policy changes, national implementation, and data collection.

Nelson, C. M., & Jolivette, K. (2014). Positive behavioral interventions and supports in alternative education settings. In C. R. Reynolds, K. J. Vannest, & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of special education: A reference for the education of children, adolescents, and adults with disabilities and other exceptional individuals, v 1, A-C. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

In this brief description, the authors provide a definition and several examples of PBIS as applied within alternative education settings.

Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., Leone, P. E., & Mathur, S. R. (2010). Meeting the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth with behavioral challenges: The promise of juvenile justice. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 70-80. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/019874291003600108  

This conceptual manuscript describes the current state of the juvenile justice system and offers a variety of recommendations for the field. The authors cite the adoption of the PBIS framework as one future direction for the field in better meeting the diverse needs of youth with E/BD and other disabilities.

Nelson, C. M., Sprague, J. R., Jolivette, K., Smith, C. R., & Tobin, T. J. (2009). Positive behavior support in alternative education, community-based mental health and juvenile justice settings. In G. Sugai, R. Horner, G. Dunlap, and W. Sailor (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 465-496). New York: Springer Press.

This descriptive, conceptual manuscript describes PBIS and its applicable use within restrictive settings, including residential and juvenile facilities. The authors provide a summary of what is known to date and examples of PBIS ideas within such settings.

Nelson, C. M., Sugai, G., & Smith, C. (2005). Positive behavior support offered in juvenile corrections. Counterpoint, 1, 6-7. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/265045554_Positive_Behavior_Support_Offered_In_
Juvenile_Corrections

This conceptual manuscript describes the evidence-base for PBIS in schools, provides a rational for FW-PBIS in juvenile justice facilities, and issues guidance for implementation. Barriers to effective implementation are presented as well as possible remedies, along with practical illustrations.

Quinn, M., Clarida, M., & Rosen, C. (2006). Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). The National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk. Washington, DC. https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov/resource/positive-behavioral-interventions-and-supports-pbis  

This webinar provides an overview of the PBIS framework with two juvenile agency staff detailing their PBIS implementation.

Read, N., & Lampron, S. (2012). Supporting student achievement through sound behavior management practices in schools and juvenile justice facilities: A spotlight on positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). The National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk. Washington, DC. https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov/sites/default/files/docs/SupportingStudentAchievement.pdf

This issue brief provides an extensive rationale for the use of FW-PBIS to improve student achievement in juvenile justice facilities. Direct positive impacts of FW-PBIS are identified for students displaying behavioral challenges in both school and juvenile justice facilities. Additionally, considerations for implementation of FW-PBIS are given, along with recommendations from lessons learned in delivering tiered behavior and academic systems in juvenile justice facilities. 

Scheuermann, B., Nelson, C. M., Wang, E. W., & Bruntmyer, T. (2015). Monitoring process and outcomes for positive behavior interventions and supports in residential settings: Better uses of data. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 32, 266-279. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wrtc20/32/4?nav=tocList  

This descriptive manuscript focuses on the importance of using data to guide FW-PBIS practices. The authors provide guidance on adapting PBIS for juvenile justice facilities and provide examples of the type of data juvenile justice facilities should be collecting to fit their unique needs. This manuscript also provides examples of how facility management should be using data to guide their decision-making process. 

Scheuermann, B. K., Duchaine, E. L., Bruntmyer, D. T., Wang, E. W., Nelson, C. M, & Lopez, A. (2013). An exploratory survey of the perceived value of coaching activities to support PBIS implementation in secure juvenile education settings. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 147-160. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516908

This data-based manuscript details the use of coaching for intervention implementation and links it to perceptions of PBIS coaches and PBIS team members within the educational settings of juvenile facilities. The authors found several facilitators and barriers to coaching activities related to PBIS implementation and offer recommendations to address the barriers.

Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C. J., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., Christle, C. A., & Riney, M. (2002). Addressing the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth through positive behavior support: Effective prevention practices. Education and Treatment of Children, 25, 532-551. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ660964

This conceptual manuscript describes the PBIS framework and makes the case for adoption within alternative settings including juvenile facilities. The authors describe the three tiers of the framework and how practices can be intensified across each tier within these restrictive settings. The authors provide considerations for those thinking of adopting the framework within their settings.

Simonsen, B., & Sugai, G. (2013). PBIS in alternative education settings: Positive support for youth with high-risk behavior. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 3-14. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516899

This conceptual manuscript provides a framework for adapting PBIS to meet the needs of youth displaying high-risk behaviors in alternative education settings. The authors identify elements of PBIS that can be modified for each tier along with examples of data that should be collected in alternative education settings. The modifications provide a facility to adapt PBIS to fit the needs of all students, ranging from general education to juvenile justice facilities. 

Sprague, J. R., Jolivette, K., & Nelson, C. M. (2014). Applying positive behavior intervention and supports in alternative education programs and secure juvenile facilities. H. M. Walker & F. M. Gresham (Eds.), Evidence-based practices for addressing school-related behavior problems and disorders (pp. 261-276). New York, NY: Guilford.

This conceptual manuscript details the school-to-prison pipeline and links FW-PBIS adoption and implementation as a means to address such pipeline. The authors provide a brief literature review on the research related to alternative programs, how PBIS is based on a public health model, and the characteristics of youth in restrictive settings. The authors describe adaptations to the framework for juvenile settings and a research agenda for such work.

Sprague, J. R., Scheuermann, B., Wang, E., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., & Vincent, C. (2013). Adopting and adapting PBIS for secure juvenile justice settings: Lessons learned. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 121-134.https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516906

This conceptual manuscript is based on the findings of a federal grant and author experiences in implementing the FW-PBIS framework within juvenile facilities. The authors provide some guidelines for implementation and a description of the iterative processes used in field-testing the framework in such settings. Also, the authors provide future research directions for the field.

Swain-Bradway, J., Swoszowski, N. C., Boden, L. J., & Sprague, J. R. (2013). Voices from the field: Stakeholder perspectives on PBIS implementation in alternative educational settings. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 31-46. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516901

This manuscript presents information gleaned from interviews of practitioners implementing PBIS in alternative settings. The authors present themes that emerged from the interviews related to facilitating factors and barriers along with examples. Additionally, the manuscript includes quotes from practitioners that identify specific factors that facilitate effective PBIS delivery. 

Texas Juvenile Justice Department. (2012). Effectiveness of positive behavioral interventions and supports: A report to the Texas Legislature. https://www.tjjd.texas.gov/publications/reports/pbislegislativereport2012-12.pdf

This data-based report summarizes the activities of the Texas Juvenile Justice Department in their initial adoption and implementation of PBIS within their education department.

U.S. Departments of Education and Justice (2014). Guiding principles for providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings.https://www.pbis.org/community/juvenile-justice/high-quality-ed-in-jj   

This report issued by the Departments of Education and Justice presents five guiding principles to deliver high-quality education in juvenile justice facilities. Each principle is accompanied with suggested practices for facilities looking to deliver new services or improve existing ones. The report also identifies requirements specified by law and provides examples of how facilities can meet those requirements through implementing the core principles. These guiding principles support FW-PBIS implementation.

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Tier I

Johnson, L. E., Wang, E., W., Gilinsky, N., He, Z., Carpenter, C., Nelson, C. M., Scheuermann, B. K. (2013). Youth outcomes following implementation of universal SW-PBIS strategies in a Texas secure juvenile facility. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 135-145. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516907

This data-based manuscript chronicles the effect of SW-PBIS in a school located within a Texas juvenile justice facility by presenting results after of the first-year of implementation. The study provides descriptive data related to improvement in both behavior and academic outcomes by analyzing pre- and post-implementation data.    

Jolivette, K., & Nelson, C. M. (2010). Adapting positive behavioral interventions and supports for secure juvenile justice settings: Improving facility-wide behavior. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 28-42.https://www.jstor.org/stable/43153825?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

This conceptual manuscript was one of the first to describe and detail how the PBIS framework is appropriate and applicable within juvenile justice facilities as a means to address youth behavior and remediate reactive and punitive current systems. The authors provide considerations for adoption as well as concrete ideas for teams to consider at Tier I.

Sidana, A. (2006). NDTAC Brief: Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in juvenile justice settings. National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth. https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov/sites/default/files/PBISinJuvenileJusticeSettings.pdf

This brief report provides a summary of PBIS and its application within an Iowa Juvenile Home and an Illinois Youth Center written for practitioners.

Simonsen, B., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J., Sugai, G., & McCurdy, B. (2011). Alternative setting-wide positive behavior support. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 213-224. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/019874291103600402

This conceptual manuscript describes how each Tier of PBIS can be intensified and modified for delivery in an alternative setting. The authors provide specific examples of how outcomes data, practices, and systems can be altered for implementation of FW-PBIS. Additionally, the authors provide a five-step practical guide for initiating FW-PBIS.

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Tier II

Alonzo-Vaughn, N., Bradley, R., & Cassavaugh, M. (2015). PBIS in Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections: How tier II practices build upon tier I. Residential and Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 321-333. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0886571X.2015.1113458

This descriptive manuscript outlines how the Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections initiated FW-PBIS practices. Furthermore, this manuscript provides an outline for intensifying Tier 1 interventions and specific examples of evidence-based Tier 2 interventions. The manuscript ends by providing three case studies of students that required supports at the various FW-PBIS tiers. 

Ennis, R. P., Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., & Johnson, M. L. (2012). Secondary prevention efforts at a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Function-based check-in, check-out. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 29, 79-102.http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0886571X.2012.669250

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of the Tier II intervention, check in/check out, and whether function-based forms of this intervention effected student positive behavior. The authors found that function-based check in/check out positively affected most of the participating students who were in a residential facility implementing PBIS with fidelity.

Griller Clark, H., & Mathur, S. R. (2015). Merging two worlds: A tier two model to promote transition of youth from residential settings to the community. Residential Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 280-298. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Heather_Clark15/publication/283787681_Merging_Two_Worlds_A_
Tier_Two_Model_to_Promote_Transition_of_Youth_from_Residential_Settings_to_the_Community/links/
56aba48a08ae8f386569c738.pdf

This data-based manuscript illustrates the effects of a Tier 2 transition intervention for youth leaving secure facilities and reentering their communities. The described intervention is a curriculum designed to be delivered in secure facilities and assist youth transitioning to school, work, and community. Two separate studies are presented with outcomes related to post-release engagement and resilience. This curriculum is being used as a Tier II intervention.

Kennedy, C., & Jolivette, K. (2008). The effects of positive verbal reinforcement on the time spent outside the classroom for students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential setting. Behavioral Disorders, 33, 211-221. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ888358

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of verbal praise as a Tier II intervention with students in a residential facility which was implementing PBIS with fidelity. The authors found that students time spent outside of classroom instruction was improved with the introduction of verbal praise for appropriate behaviors.

Kennedy, C. Jolivette, K., & Ramsey, M. L. (2014). The effects of written teacher and peer praise notes on the inappropriate behaviors of elementary students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential school. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 31, 17-40. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0886571X.2014.878577

This data-based manuscript described two Tier II interventions, teacher and peer praise notes, used within a residential facility implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors found that both interventions improved the behaviors of elementary aged students with E/BD. A description of each intervention is provided which would be useful for others to replicate.

Ramsey, M. L., Jolivette, K., Kennedy, C., Fredrick, L. D., & Williams, C. D. (2017). Functionally-indicated choice-making interventions to address academic and social behaviors of adolescent students with E/BD in a residential facility. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 52, 45-66. http://www.jciuh.org/issues/vol52no2.htm

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of Tier II function-based choice making opportunities for students with E/BD whose residential facility was implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors state that the function-based choice making was more likely to improve the student's behavior during math than non-function-based choice. The authors provide future research ideas for the field.

Ramsey, M.L., Jolivette, K., Puckett Patterson, D., & Kennedy, C. (2010). Using choice to increase time on-task, task completion, and accuracy for students with emotional/behavioral disorders in a residential facility. Education and Treatment of Children, 33, 1-21. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/369895

This data-based manuscript investigates a Tier II intervention, choice-making, with students in a facility implementing PBIS with fidelity. The authors found that the students time on-task and task-completion of math activities increased with the intervention but choice-making had little impact on student math accuracy. The manuscript details the choice-making intervention.

Swoszowski, N. C., Jolivette, K., & Fredrick, L. D. (2013). Addressing the social and academic behavior of a student with emotional and behavioral disorders in an alternative setting. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 48, 28-36. http://www.jciuh.org/issues/vol48no1.htm

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of the Tier II check in/check out practice on the frequency of ODRs, academic performance, and SW-PBIS point earnings. The authors conducted this study in a residential facility which was implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors found that the practice improved youth behaviors, more some in some students than others. The manuscript details the check in/check out intervention.

Swoszowski, N. C., Jolivette, K., Fredrick, L. D., & Heflin, L. J. (2012). Check in/Check out: Effects on students with emotional and behavioral disorders with attention- or escape-maintained behavior in a residential facility. Exceptionality, 20, 163-178. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09362835.2012.694613

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of the Tier II check in/check out intervention with students in a residential facility which was implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors found that the students whose inappropriate behaviors were maintained by attention improved their behavior more than those maintained by escape. The authors provide future research directions for this line of Tier II investigations.

Swoszowski, N. C., McDaniel, S., C., Jolivette, K., & Melius, P. (2013). The effects of Tier II Check in/Check out including adaptation for non-responders on the off-task behavior of elementary students in a residential setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 63-79. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516903

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of CICO with the first-time addition of a check-up adaptation to CICO for 4 students with E/BD in a residential facility where the PBIS framework was being implemented with fidelity. Results of the single-subject study suggest that CICO was effective in decreasing the inappropriate behaviors of the students.

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Tier III

Scott, T. M., & Cooper, J. (2013). Tertiary-tier PBIS in alternative, residential, and correctional school settings: Considering intensity in the delivery of evidence-based practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 101-119. https://muse.jhu.edu/article/516905

This conceptual manuscript focuses on delivering Tier III interventions in secure facilities. The authors identify several considerations that can be implemented to help intensify and deliver Tier III interventions in secure facilities and provides an example of how facilities can deliver an intensive behavioral intervention.

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Tools

Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., & Ennis, R. P. (2017). Facility-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. https://www.pbis.org/resource/1188/facility-wide-tiered-fidelity-inventory-fw-tfi

This fidelity tool produces fidelity of implementation scores for each tier within an action planning framework. The authors adapted the SW-TFI using stakeholder voice (i.e., those who work in juvenile justice agencies and juvenile justice team members, those who work in various types of residential facilities, those who work in state education agencies) to create a tool for use by those who provide FW-PBIS within a 24/7 delivery model. The full tool is available and is free access.

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Websites/Centers

National Technical Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports      

www.pbis.org

*From the main webpage, click on 'Community' and then click on 'Juvenile Justice" to find resources related to PBIS and juvenile justice. Also, the website has many resources, PowerPoints, and tools related to PBIS implementation as well as ongoing professional development opportunities such as conferences and webinars for those interested in PBIS implementation.

The National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At Risk    

https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov  

*From the main webpage, click 'Topic Areas,' then click on 'Safe and Supportive Learning Environments,' and click on 'Resources: Behavior Management Strategies' to find resources related to PBIS and juvenile justice. The website has many webinars, reports/briefs, and toolkits. Of interest may be their resources related to youth transitioning from residential and juvenile facilities back to their neighborhood schools and communities – Transition Toolkit 3.0: Meeting the Educational Needs of Youth Exposed to the Juvenile Justice System (https://neglected-delinquent.ed.gov/sites/default/files/NDTAC-TransitionToolkit30FINAL.pdf). Also, their homepage summarizes the most recent resources applicable to residential and juvenile facilities which are applicable within FW-PBIS (e.g., practices).

PACER Center

http://www.pacer.org

*Juvenile Justice Program Overview http://www.pacer.org/jj/

*This website provides resources and program descriptions for those who work in, the youth served, and families of the youth served within the juvenile system. The website offers many free resources, workshops, movies, publications, and fact sheets on how to best serve youth with disabilities in the juvenile system. This includes gender-specific options. This content is applicable to residential facilities as well.

The IRIS Center

https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu

*Juvenile Corrections https://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/iris-resource-locator/

*This website provides modules, activities, and information briefs related to best practices to meet the needs of youth in juvenile facilities, including FW-PBIS.

OSEP Ideas That Work

      https://www.osepideasthatwork.org

*Topical Issue Brief: Improving Outcomes for Youth with Disabilities in Juvenile Corrections – Facility-wide Practices

https://osepideasthatwork.org/jj/facility-wide-practices

*This brief highlights the guidelines set forth by the US Departments of Education and Justice and provides recommendations by guideline across the tiers. The brief includes information on trauma-informed care and restorative practices within juvenile facilities.

*Improving Transition Outcomes for Youth Involved in the Juvenile Justice System: Practical Considerations

https://osepideasthatwork.org/jj/improving-transition-outcomes-youth-involved-juvenile-justice-system-practical-considerations

*This provides a variety of resources for teams to use which can be linked to FW-PBIS.

The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice (EDJJ)

      www.edjj.org

*This website provides archived resources and tools for appropriate practices within juvenile justice settings, including PBIS.

The Legal Center for Youth Justice and Education

https://www.jjeducationblueprint.org

*This website shares resources, policies, and practices related to juvenile justice with partners such as the American Bar Association: Center on Children and the Law, Education Law Center, Southern Poverty Law Center, and Juvenile Law Center. Content related to PBIS can be found under Goal 6: Supportive School Environments.

*Blueprint for Change: Education Success for Youth in the Juvenile Justice System

*https://www.jjeducationblueprint.org/examples/positive-behavior-interventions-and-supports-youth-risk-and-involved-juvenile-corrections

Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice

 https://djj.georgia.gov/positive-behavioral-interventions-and-supports-djj

*This website details how the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice has been supporting and implementing FW-PBIS implementation across all their detention and long-term secure facilities. There are active links of FW-PBIS implementation examples from these facilities as well as agency documents.

Colorado Department of Human Services – Youth Services

*These are a few examples of the materials posted related to FW-PBIS implementation within the Department.

Grand Mesa Youth Services Center

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B9eaXW7_92zSZmFzamJHbVNtOGM/view

*Their Youth Handbook describes their FW-PBIS approach.

Gilliam Youth Services

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B6eUVZvBBTHjZjBVUnFmUloyRm8/view

*Their brochure describes how FW-PBIS is integrated within their programming.

Mount View Youth Services Center

https://www.colorado.gov/pacific/cdhs/mount-view-youth-services-center

*Their website, Youth Handbook, and brochure describe their FW-PBIS implementation.

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Journal Special Issues

Residential Treatment of Children and Youth (2015; Volume 32, No. 4) on Multi-tiered systems of support within secure residential juvenile facilities 

http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/wrtc20/32/4?nav=tocList  

Education and Treatment of Children (2013; Volume 36, No. 3) on PBIS as Prevention for High-Risk Youth in Alternative, Residential, and Juvenile Justice Settings https://muse.jhu.edu/issue/28099

https://www.pbis.org/community/prevention-for-high-risk

Behavioral Disorders (2010; Volume 36, No. 1) on Juvenile Justice Issues

www.ccbd.net

http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/bhda/36/1

Remedial and Special Education (forth coming) on PBIS Framework Implementation in Residential and Juvenile Facilities

http://journals.sagepub.com/loi/rse

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Conferences - Professional Development

PBIS Forum

https://sites.google.com/a/midwestpbis.org/pbis-leadership-forum-2017/

The PBIS Forum provides a dedicated juvenile justice strand focused on FW-PBIS implementation from the views of researchers, advocacy personnel, and juvenile justice agency and facility personnel. Beyond the juvenile justice sessions, the PBIS Forum offers an opportunity for all those who work in juvenile and residential facilities to gather for a roundtable discussion on current issues with a resulting publication as well as some of the presentations on the www.pbis.org website.

Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS)

https://new.apbs.org/conference

The APBS conference has juvenile justice sessions related to PBIS implementation. They also offer webinars on PBIS content.

Teacher Educators for Children with Behavior Disorders (TECBD)

https://education.asu.edu/2017-annual-tecbd-conference

The TECBD conference has a dedicated juvenile justice strand which in years past has included many sessions on FW-PBIS implementation from the views of researchers, advocacy personnel, and juvenile justice agency and facility personnel. The Tier II strand also would be helpful to those who work in residential and juvenile facilities.

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Voices from the Field

PBIS Interview – Why is PBIS Important in Juvenile Justice Facilities

Dr. Christine Doyle, Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice

https://youtu.be/AILGnb2ZCjk

PBIS for Youth Involved in Juvenile Corrections

Drs. C. Michael Nelson and Carl Liaupsin

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3KymwrhtbF0

Note: At the time of this posting, all links were active. If a link does not work, please use the full citation within your search to locate the resource.

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Resources

PBIS for Youth Involved in Juvenile Corrections

Drs. C. Michael Nelson and Carl Liaupsin

PBIS Interview – Why is PBIS Important in Juvenile Justice Facilities

Dr. Christine Doyle, Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice

Teacher Educators for Children with Behavior Disorders (TECBD)

The TECBD conference has a dedicated juvenile justice strand which in years past has included many sessions on FW-PBIS implementation from the views of researchers, advocacy personnel, and juvenile justice agency and facility personnel. The Tier II strand also would be helpful to those who work in residential and juvenile facilities.

Association for Positive Behavior Support (APBS)

The APBS conference has juvenile justice sessions related to PBIS implementation. They also offer webinars on PBIS content.

PBIS Framework Implementation in Residential and Juvenile Facilities

Remedial and Special Education (forth coming) on PBIS Framework Implementation in Residential and Juvenile Facilities

Journal Special Issues: Juvenile Justice Issues

Behavioral Disorders (2010; Volume 36, No. 1) on Juvenile Justice Issues

Journal Special Issues: PBIS as Prevention for High-Risk Youth in Alternative, Residential, and Juvenile Justice Settings

Education and Treatment of Children (2013; Volume 36, No. 3) on PBIS as Prevention for High-Risk Youth in Alternative, Residential, and Juvenile Justice Settings

Journal Special Issues: Multi-tiered systems of support within secure residential juvenile facilities

Residential Treatment of Children and Youth (2015; Volume 32, No. 4) on Multi-tiered systems of support within secure residential juvenile facilities

Facility-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory.

Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., & Ennis, R. P. (2017). Facility-wide PBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

This fidelity tool produces fidelity of implementation scores for each tier within an action planning framework. The authors adapted the SW-TFI using stakeholder voice (i.e., those who work in juvenile justice agencies and juvenile justice team members, those who work in various types of residential facilities, those who work in state education agencies) to create a tool for use by those who provide FW-PBIS within a 24/7 delivery model. The full tool is available and is free access.

Tertiary-tier PBIS in alternative, residential, and correctional school settings: Considering intensity in the delivery of evidence-based practice.

Scott, T. M., & Cooper, J. (2013). Tertiary-tier PBIS in alternative, residential, and correctional school settings: Considering intensity in the delivery of evidence-based practice. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 101-119.

This conceptual manuscript focuses on delivering Tier III interventions in secure facilities. The authors identify several considerations that can be implemented to help intensify and deliver Tier III interventions in secure facilities and provides an example of how facilities can deliver an intensive behavioral intervention.

The effects of Tier II Check in/Check out including adaptation for non-responders on the off-task behavior of elementary students in a residential setting.

Swoszowski, N. C., McDaniel, S., C., Jolivette, K., & Melius, P. (2013). The effects of Tier II Check in/Check out including adaptation for non-responders on the off-task behavior of elementary students in a residential setting. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 63-79.

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of CICO with the first-time addition of a check-up adaptation to CICO for 4 students with E/BD in a residential facility where the PBIS framework was being implemented with fidelity. Results of the single-subject study suggest that CICO was effective in decreasing the inappropriate behaviors of the students.

Check in/Check out: Effects on students with emotional and behavioral disorders with attention- or escape-maintained behavior in a residential facility.

Swoszowski, N. C., Jolivette, K., Fredrick, L. D., & Heflin, L. J. (2012). Check in/Check out: Effects on students with emotional and behavioral disorders with attention- or escape-maintained behavior in a residential facility. Exceptionality, 20, 163-178.

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of the Tier II check in/check out intervention with students in a residential facility which was implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors found that the students whose inappropriate behaviors were maintained by attention improved their behavior more than those maintained by escape. The authors provide future research directions for this line of Tier II investigations.

Addressing the social and academic behavior of a student with emotional and behavioral disorders in an alternative setting.

Swoszowski, N. C., Jolivette, K., & Fredrick, L. D. (2013). Addressing the social and academic behavior of a student with emotional and behavioral disorders in an alternative setting. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 48, 28-36.

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of the Tier II check in/check out practice on the frequency of ODRs, academic performance, and SW-PBIS point earnings. The authors conducted this study in a residential facility which was implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors found that the practice improved youth behaviors, more some in some students than others. The manuscript details the check in/check out intervention.

Using choice to increase time on-task, task completion, and accuracy for students with emotional/behavioral disorders in a residential facility.

Ramsey, M.L., Jolivette, K., Puckett Patterson, D., & Kennedy, C. (2010). Using choice to increase time on-task, task completion, and accuracy for students with emotional/behavioral disorders in a residential facility. Education and Treatment of Children, 33, 1-21.

This data-based manuscript investigates a Tier II intervention, choice-making, with students in a facility implementing PBIS with fidelity. The authors found that the students time on-task and task-completion of math activities increased with the intervention but choice-making had little impact on student math accuracy. The manuscript details the choice-making intervention.

Functionally-indicated choice-making interventions to address academic and social behaviors of adolescent students with E/BD in a residential facility.

Ramsey, M. L., Jolivette, K., Kennedy, C., Fredrick, L. D., & Williams, C. D. (2017). Functionally-indicated choice-making interventions to address academic and social behaviors of adolescent students with E/BD in a residential facility. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 52, 45-66.

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of Tier II function-based choice making opportunities for students with E/BD whose residential facility was implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors state that the function-based choice making was more likely to improve the student's behavior during math than non-function-based choice. The authors provide future research ideas for the field.

The effects of written teacher and peer praise notes on the inappropriate behaviors of elementary students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential school.

Kennedy, C. Jolivette, K., & Ramsey, M. L. (2014). The effects of written teacher and peer praise notes on the inappropriate behaviors of elementary students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential school. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 31, 17-40.

This data-based manuscript described two Tier II interventions, teacher and peer praise notes, used within a residential facility implementing the PBIS framework with fidelity. The authors found that both interventions improved the behaviors of elementary aged students with E/BD. A description of each intervention is provided which would be useful for others to replicate.

The effects of positive verbal reinforcement on the time spent outside the classroom for students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential setting.

Kennedy, C., & Jolivette, K. (2008). The effects of positive verbal reinforcement on the time spent outside the classroom for students with emotional and behavioral disorders in a residential setting. Behavioral Disorders, 33, 211-221.

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of verbal praise as a Tier II intervention with students in a residential facility which was implementing PBIS with fidelity. The authors found that students time spent outside of classroom instruction was improved with the introduction of verbal praise for appropriate behaviors.

Merging two worlds: A tier two model to promote transition of youth from residential settings to the community.

Griller Clark, H., & Mathur, S. R. (2015). Merging two worlds: A tier two model to promote transition of youth from residential settings to the community. Residential Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 280-298.

This data-based manuscript illustrates the effects of a Tier 2 transition intervention for youth leaving secure facilities and reentering their communities. The described intervention is a curriculum designed to be delivered in secure facilities and assist youth transitioning to school, work, and community. Two separate studies are presented with outcomes related to post-release engagement and resilience. This curriculum is being used as a Tier II intervention.

Secondary prevention efforts at a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Function-based check-in, check-out.

Ennis, R. P., Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., & Johnson, M. L. (2012). Secondary prevention efforts at a residential facility for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Function-based check-in, check-out. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 29, 79-102.

This data-based manuscript investigated the effects of the Tier II intervention, check in/check out, and whether function-based forms of this intervention effected student positive behavior. The authors found that function-based check in/check out positively affected most of the participating students who were in a residential facility implementing PBIS with fidelity.

PBIS in Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections: How tier II practices build upon tier I.

Alonzo-Vaughn, N., Bradley, R., & Cassavaugh, M. (2015). PBIS in Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections: How tier II practices build upon tier I. Residential and Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 321-333.

This descriptive manuscript outlines how the Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections initiated FW-PBIS practices. Furthermore, this manuscript provides an outline for intensifying Tier 1 interventions and specific examples of evidence-based Tier 2 interventions. The manuscript ends by providing three case studies of students that required supports at the various FW-PBIS tiers.

Alternative setting-wide positive behavior support.

Simonsen, B., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J., Sugai, G., & McCurdy, B. (2011). Alternative setting-wide positive behavior support. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 213-224.

This conceptual manuscript describes how each Tier of PBIS can be intensified and modified for delivery in an alternative setting. The authors provide specific examples of how outcomes data, practices, and systems can be altered for implementation of FW-PBIS. Additionally, the authors provide a five-step practical guide for initiating FW-PBIS.

NDTAC Brief: Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in juvenile justice settings.

Sidana, A. (2006). NDTAC Brief: Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in juvenile justice settings. National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth.

This brief report provides a summary of PBIS and its application within an Iowa Juvenile Home and an Illinois Youth Center written for practitioners.

Adapting positive behavioral interventions and supports for secure juvenile justice settings: Improving facility-wide behavior.

Jolivette, K., & Nelson, C. M. (2010). Adapting positive behavioral interventions and supports for secure juvenile justice settings: Improving facility-wide behavior. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 28-42.

This conceptual manuscript was one of the first to describe and detail how the PBIS framework is appropriate and applicable within juvenile justice facilities as a means to address youth behavior and remediate reactive and punitive current systems. The authors provide considerations for adoption as well as concrete ideas for teams to consider at Tier I.

Youth outcomes following implementation of universal SW-PBIS strategies in a Texas secure juvenile facility.

Johnson, L. E., Wang, E., W., Gilinsky, N., He, Z., Carpenter, C., Nelson, C. M., Scheuermann, B. K. (2013). Youth outcomes following implementation of universal SW-PBIS strategies in a Texas secure juvenile facility. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 135-145.

This data-based manuscript chronicles the effect of SW-PBIS in a school located within a Texas juvenile justice facility by presenting results after of the first-year of implementation. The study provides descriptive data related to improvement in both behavior and academic outcomes by analyzing pre- and post-implementation data.

Guiding principles for providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings.

U.S. Departments of Education and Justice (2014). Guiding principles for providing high-quality education in juvenile justice secure care settings.

This report issued by the Departments of Education and Justice presents five guiding principles to deliver high-quality education in juvenile justice facilities. Each principle is accompanied with suggested practices for facilities looking to deliver new services or improve existing ones. The report also identifies requirements specified by law and provides examples of how facilities can meet those requirements through implementing the core principles. These guiding principles support FW-PBIS implementation.

Effectiveness of positive behavioral interventions and supports: A report to the Texas Legislature.

Texas Juvenile Justice Department. (2012). Effectiveness of positive behavioral interventions and supports: A report to the Texas Legislature.

This data-based report summarizes the activities of the Texas Juvenile Justice Department in their initial adoption and implementation of PBIS within their education department.

Voices from the field: Stakeholder perspectives on PBIS implementation in alternative educational settings.

Swain-Bradway, J., Swoszowski, N. C., Boden, L. J., & Sprague, J. R. (2013). Voices from the field: Stakeholder perspectives on PBIS implementation in alternative educational settings. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 31-46.

This manuscript presents information gleaned from interviews of practitioners implementing PBIS in alternative settings. The authors present themes that emerged from the interviews related to facilitating factors and barriers along with examples. Additionally, the manuscript includes quotes from practitioners that identify specific factors that facilitate effective PBIS delivery.

Adopting and adapting PBIS for secure juvenile justice settings: Lessons learned.

Sprague, J. R., Scheuermann, B., Wang, E., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., & Vincent, C. (2013). Adopting and adapting PBIS for secure juvenile justice settings: Lessons learned. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 121-134.

This conceptual manuscript is based on the findings of a federal grant and author experiences in implementing the FW-PBIS framework within juvenile facilities. The authors provide some guidelines for implementation and a description of the iterative processes used in field-testing the framework in such settings. Also, the authors provide future research directions for the field.

Applying positive behavior intervention and supports in alternative education programs and secure juvenile facilities.

Sprague, J. R., Jolivette, K., & Nelson, C. M. (2014). Applying positive behavior intervention and supports in alternative education programs and secure juvenile facilities. H. M. Walker & F. M. Gresham (Eds.), Evidence-based practices for addressing school-related behavior problems and disorders (pp. 261-276). New York, NY: Guilford.

This conceptual manuscript details the school-to-prison pipeline and links FW-PBIS adoption and implementation as a means to address such pipeline. The authors provide a brief literature review on the research related to alternative programs, how PBIS is based on a public health model, and the characteristics of youth in restrictive settings. The authors describe adaptations to the framework for juvenile settings and a research agenda for such work.

PBIS in alternative education settings: Positive support for youth with high-risk behavior.

Simonsen, B., & Sugai, G. (2013). PBIS in alternative education settings: Positive support for youth with high-risk behavior. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 3-14.

This conceptual manuscript provides a framework for adapting PBIS to meet the needs of youth displaying high-risk behaviors in alternative education settings. The authors identify elements of PBIS that can be modified for each tier along with examples of data that should be collected in alternative education settings. The modifications provide a facility to adapt PBIS to fit the needs of all students, ranging from general education to juvenile justice facilities.

Addressing the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth through positive behavior support: Effective prevention practices.

Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C. J., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., Christle, C. A., & Riney, M. (2002). Addressing the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth through positive behavior support: Effective prevention practices. Education and Treatment of Children, 25, 532-551.

This conceptual manuscript describes the PBIS framework and makes the case for adoption within alternative settings including juvenile facilities. The authors describe the three tiers of the framework and how practices can be intensified across each tier within these restrictive settings. The authors provide considerations for those thinking of adopting the framework within their settings.

An exploratory survey of the perceived value of coaching activities to support PBIS implementation in secure juvenile education settings.

Scheuermann, B. K., Duchaine, E. L., Bruntmyer, D. T., Wang, E. W., Nelson, C. M, & Lopez, A. (2013). An exploratory survey of the perceived value of coaching activities to support PBIS implementation in secure juvenile education settings. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 147-160.

This data-based manuscript details the use of coaching for intervention implementation and links it to perceptions of PBIS coaches and PBIS team members within the educational settings of juvenile facilities. The authors found several facilitators and barriers to coaching activities related to PBIS implementation and offer recommendations to address the barriers.

Monitoring process and outcomes for positive behavior interventions and supports in residential settings: Better uses of data.

Scheuermann, B., Nelson, C. M., Wang, E. W., & Bruntmyer, T. (2015). Monitoring process and outcomes for positive behavior interventions and supports in residential settings: Better uses of data. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 32, 266-279.

This descriptive manuscript focuses on the importance of using data to guide FW-PBIS practices. The authors provide guidance on adapting PBIS for juvenile justice facilities and provide examples of the type of data juvenile justice facilities should be collecting to fit their unique needs. This manuscript also provides examples of how facility management should be using data to guide their decision-making process.

Supporting student achievement through sound behavior management practices in schools and juvenile justice facilities: A spotlight on positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS).

Read, N., & Lampron, S. (2012). Supporting student achievement through sound behavior management practices in schools and juvenile justice facilities: A spotlight on positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). The National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk. Washington, DC.

This issue brief provides an extensive rationale for the use of FW-PBIS to improve student achievement in juvenile justice facilities. Direct positive impacts of FW-PBIS are identified for students displaying behavioral challenges in both school and juvenile justice facilities. Additionally, considerations for implementation of FW-PBIS are given, along with recommendations from lessons learned in delivering tiered behavior and academic systems in juvenile justice facilities.

Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS).

Quinn, M., Clarida, M., & Rosen, C. (2006). Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS). The National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk. Washington, DC.

This webinar provides an overview of the PBIS framework with two juvenile agency staff detailing their PBIS implementation.

Positive behavior support offered in juvenile corrections.

Nelson, C. M., Sugai, G., & Smith, C. (2005). Positive behavior support offered in juvenile corrections. Counterpoint, 1, 6-7.

This conceptual manuscript describes the evidence-base for PBIS in schools, provides a rational for FW-PBIS in juvenile justice facilities, and issues guidance for implementation. Barriers to effective implementation are presented as well as possible remedies, along with practical illustrations.

Positive behavior support in alternative education, community-based mental health and juvenile justice settings.

Nelson, C. M., Sprague, J. R., Jolivette, K., Smith, C. R., & Tobin, T. J. (2009). Positive behavior support in alternative education, community-based mental health and juvenile justice settings. In G. Sugai, R. Horner, G. Dunlap, and W. Sailor (Eds.), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 465-496). New York: Springer Press.

This descriptive, conceptual manuscript describes PBIS and its applicable use within restrictive settings, including residential and juvenile facilities. The authors provide a summary of what is known to date and examples of PBIS ideas within such settings.

Meeting the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth with behavioral challenges: The promise of juvenile justice.

Nelson, C. M., Jolivette, K., Leone, P. E., & Mathur, S. R. (2010). Meeting the needs of at-risk and adjudicated youth with behavioral challenges: The promise of juvenile justice. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 70-80.

This conceptual manuscript describes the current state of the juvenile justice system and offers a variety of recommendations for the field. The authors cite the adoption of the PBIS framework as one future direction for the field in better meeting the diverse needs of youth with E/BD and other disabilities.

Positive behavioral interventions and supports in alternative education settings.

Nelson, C. M., & Jolivette, K. (2014). Positive behavioral interventions and supports in alternative education settings. In C. R. Reynolds, K. J. Vannest, & E. Fletcher-Janzen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of special education: A reference for the education of children, adolescents, and adults with disabilities and other exceptional individuals, v 1, A-C. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

In this brief description, the authors provide a definition and several examples of PBIS as applied within alternative education settings.

Reclaiming lost opportunities: Applying public health models in juvenile justice.

Myers, D. M., & Farrell, A. F. (2008). Reclaiming lost opportunities: Applying public health models in juvenile justice. Children and Youth Services Review, 30, 1159-1177.

This conceptual manuscript provides the theoretical basis and rationale for why PBIS, as a public health model, should be applied within juvenile facilities. The authors review the a) characteristics; b) identification, surveillance, and interventions; and c) application of the prevention logic and evidence-based practices in juvenile corrections. The authors conclude with recommendations related to policy changes, national implementation, and data collection.

PBIS as prevention for high-risk youth in restrictive settings: Where do we go from here?

Mathur, S. R., & Nelson, C. M. (2013). PBIS as prevention for high-risk youth in restrictive settings: Where do we go from here? Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 175-181.

This conceptual manuscript provides recommendations for future research on PBIS in restrictive settings. The authors identify five areas of focus for future research to both prevent involvement with the juvenile justice system and to improve practices in restrictive settings. This article highlights the need for researchers to work with facilities in order to improve the long-term outcomes of youth in restrictive settings.

PBIS in Texas Juvenile Justice Department's Division of Education and State Programs: Integrating programs and developing systems for sustained implementation.

Lopez, A., Williams, J. K., & Newsom, K. (2015). PBIS in Texas Juvenile Justice Department's Division of Education and State Programs: Integrating programs and developing systems for sustained implementation. Residential and Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 344-353.

This descriptive study provides a case study on the Texas Juvenile Justice Department's implementation of FW-PBIS from its initial planning stages to current practices. The authors describe how PBIS was first delivered in their educational programs before adopting FW-PBIS. Key components are identified as well as lesson learned from universal implementation.

PBIS in restrictive settings: The time is now.

Lampron, S., & Gonsoulin, S. (2013). PBIS in restrictive settings: The time is now. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 161-174.

This conceptual manuscript identifies why FW-PBIS is an appropriate framework to reduce reliance on punitive behavior management systems and instead provide rehabilitation for youth in restrictive settings. The authors provide evidence-based practices of how FW-PBIS can be used to improve facility safety, teach social skills, and encourage youth to demonstrate accountability. Lastly, the authors provide examples of how FW-PBIS has effectively benefited youth as they transition back to their communities.

Facility-wide PBIS implementation as viewed by roundtable participants and from the field.

Kumm, S., & Jolivette, K. (December, 2017). Facility-wide PBIS implementation as viewed by roundtable participants and from the field. National Technical Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports.

This conceptual manuscript defines FW-PBIS and makes the case for why juvenile and residential facilities should consider adopting the PBIS framework. A summary of roundtable participant discussions and examples from their facilities from the juvenile justice strand at the PBIS Forum are provided per the four thematic group topics – sources and uses of data to make FW-PBIS decisions; selecting and implementing appropriate reinforcements; teaching and modeling FW-PBIS behavior expectations; and using FW-PBIS to organize facility practices, including mental health, into the tiers with frequently asked FW-PBIS questions.

Agency-stakeholder reflections: Perspectives of state-wide adoption of the PBIS framework in juvenile facilities.

Kimball, K. A., Jolivette, K., & Sprague, J. R. (2017). Agency-stakeholder reflections: Perspectives of state-wide adoption of the PBIS framework in juvenile facilities. Journal of Correctional Education, 68, 17-36.

This data-based manuscript surveyed juvenile justice agency and facility staff from two states who had been implementing FW-PBIS for several years as a state-wide effort as to their perceptions of FW-PBIS effectiveness. The author(s) identified facilitators (positive view of FW-PBIS framework effectiveness, positive culture change across agency and within facilities, improved consistency and fidelity of FW-PBIS practices) and barriers (facility instability, slowness of change related to practices and policies, inconsistent buy-in, and data quality issues) to FW-PBIS implementation as well as specific systems, data, and practice supports they created and used as part of these efforts.

Facility-wide PBIS: Residential & juvenile justice perceptions of implementation and next steps.

Kimball, K., & Jolivette, K. (December, 2016). Facility-wide PBIS: Residential & juvenile justice perceptions of implementation and next steps. National Technical Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports.

This conceptual manuscript provides a definition of FW-PBIS as applied within juvenile facilities and other settings which operate within a 24 hours 7 days a week delivery model. The authors provide a brief overview of the stages of implementation and an outline of the components of FW-PBIS local operating procedures for FW-PBIS Leadership Teams to use as a guide when constructing their FW-PBIS plan and subsequent systems of support for staff. Also, the roundtable discussions were summarized in terms of themes (family/community supports, staff buy-in, data systems, youth voice, mental health) with appropriate resources for further reading provided by theme. Future research questions are provided per theme.

Facility-wide PBIS.

Kimball, K., & Jolivette, K. (December, 2015). Facility-wide PBIS. National Technical Center on Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports.

This literature review and conceptual manuscript describes the benefits of FW-PBIS implementation, the calls from entities for multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) implementation within juvenile facilities, the guiding principles offered from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice, and research questions for future FW-PBIS implementation per published literature.

Multi-tiered systems of support in residential juvenile facilities. NDTAC Webinar with handouts.

Jolivette, K., Taylor, C., & Sjolund, A. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support in residential juvenile facilities. NDTAC Webinar with handouts.

This webinar provides an overview of FW-PBIS with two FW-PBIS Leadership Team leaders detailing their Tier I and Tier II plans. The authors also provide handouts on their implementation efforts. Youth from one of the facilities speak as to their impressions on the usefulness of FW-PBIS in their daily programming and for their lives outside the facility.

Using positive behavioral interventions and supports to assist in the transition of youth from juvenile justice facilities back to their neighborhood school: An illustrative example.

Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., McDaniel, S., & Duchaine, E. L. (2016). Using positive behavioral interventions and supports to assist in the transition of youth from juvenile justice facilities back to their neighborhood school: An illustrative example. Journal of Correctional Education, 67, 9-23.

This case study manuscript details how FW-PBIS can be used as part of the transition process of a youth transitioning from a secure juvenile facility back to their neighborhood school. A case study approach details how this could be accomplished, who may be involved, and how to engage a youth's family in such a process.

PBIS as prevention for high-risk youth in alternative education, residential, and juvenile justice settings.

Jolivette, K., Swoszowski, N. C., & Ennis, R. P. (2013). PBIS as prevention for high-risk youth in alternative education, residential, and juvenile justice settings. Education and Treatment of Children, 36, 1-2.

This conceptual manuscript introduces the special issue of Education and Treatment of Children on FW-PBIS for use with high-risk youth in alternative, residential, and juvenile facilities.

Multi-tiered systems of support within secure residential juvenile facilities.

Jolivette, K., Scheuermann, B., & Ennis, R. P. (2015). Multi-tiered systems of support within secure residential juvenile facilities. Residential Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 254-257.

This conceptual manuscript introduces the special issue of Residential Treatment of Children and Youth on FW-PBIS within juvenile facilities. The authors link the recommendation for implementing FW-PBIS as a means to address the school-to-prison pipeline, poor outcomes of youth from/within juvenile settings, and best practices.

Introduction to the special issue of Behavioral Disorders: Juvenile justice Issues.

Jolivette, K., & Nelson, C. M. (2010). Introduction to the special issue of Behavioral Disorders: Juvenile justice Issues. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 4-6.

This conceptual manuscript provides the dismal findings of youth with and without E/BD within juvenile facilities. The authors describe the manuscripts in the special issue and call for continued attention to PBIS implementation in juvenile facilities.

Embedding the PBIS framework into the complex array of practices within AE settings: A decision-making approach.

Jolivette, K., McDaniel, S. C., Sprague, J. R., Swain-Bradway, J., & Ennis, R. P. (2012). Embedding the PBIS framework into the complex array of practices within AE settings: A decision-making approach. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 38, 15-29.

This conceptual manuscript details how residential and juvenile facilities can use the FW-PBIS framework as a means to organize their behavioral systems, data, and practices. The author(s) provide a detailed flowchart as to how staff may tier their practices within the framework, identify and adopt additional tiered practices, and cull-out ineffective practices. Also, the authors present a rationale for why FW-PBIS should be considered in alternative and more restrictive settings.

The utility of a multi-tiered behavioral system in juvenile corrections: The positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) framework.

Jolivette, K., Kimball, K. A., Boden, L. J., & Sprague, J. R. (2016). The utility of a multi-tiered behavioral system in juvenile corrections: The positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) framework. Corrections Today, 78, 42-47.

This conceptual manuscript details benefits of FW-PBIS implementation within juvenile facilities and provides specific systems, data, and tiered practices examples from implementing juvenile facilities. This manuscript could be used as an introduction to FW-PBIS for juvenile staff. The content is applicable to residential facilities.

Youth voice matters: Perceptions of facility-wide PBIS implementation secure residential juvenile facilities.

Jolivette, K., Boden, L. J., Sprague, J. R., Ennis, R. P., & Kimball, K. A. (2015). Youth voice matters: Perceptions of facility-wide PBIS implementation secure residential juvenile facilities. Residential and Treatment of Children and Youth, 32, 299-320.

This data-based manuscript was the first to measure youth perceptions related to multi-year FW-PBIS implementation within their secure juvenile facilities. The authors conducted focus groups in 8 facilities randomly selected based on their high-, mid-, and low-fidelity of implementation scores. The authors identified multiple positive themes (staff confidence in youth; authentic reinforcement; FW-PBIS relevancy in real-life) and negative themes (lack of teaching FW-PBIS features; staff inconsistency; new FW-PBIS versus old practices) as viewed by the youth, and offer suggestions for the FW-PBIS Leadership Teams charged with monitoring implementation of the FW-PBIS plan. Also, the youth from facilities with lower fidelity of implementation scores reported more barriers than those in higher fidelity of implementation facilities.

Challenges of conducting empirically-rigorous intervention and evaluative research in juvenile correctional facilities: Suggestions for the field.

Jolivette, K. (2013). Challenges of conducting empirically-rigorous intervention and evaluative research in juvenile correctional facilities: Suggestions for the field. Journal of Correctional Education, 64, 37-50.

This conceptual manuscript describes the challenges of conducting research per field-specific research guidelines in juvenile justice facilities, both non-secure and secure. The author details the barriers of such research as cited and experienced by other researchers, offers facilitators to such barriers, and calls on researchers to continue their investigations by designing high-quality and rigorous studies as well as being prepared for the barriers to occur. This manuscript is included to provide insight to both researchers and agencies of potential barriers with facilitators so that more empirical investigations, such as FW-PBIS or individual tiered practices, can be evaluated.

Multi-tiered systems of support in residential juvenile facilities.

Jolivette, K. (2016). Multi-tiered systems of support in residential juvenile facilities. Washington, DC: The National Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Neglected or Delinquent Children and Youth (NDTAC).

This descriptive brief provides an overview of and comparison between multi-tiered systems of support and the PBIS framework as applied within juvenile facilities. The author describes the benefits of implementing FW-PBIS as reported in the field, youth and agency perceptions of FW-PBIS implementation, and adaptations and considerations to be made when implementing within juvenile facilities. Three facility examples of FW-PBIS implementation are provided from the lens of FW-PBIS Leadership Team members from secure detention and long-term facilities. This content can be applied to residential facilities as well.

PBIS in Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice: Data dashboard and radar reports utilized for team data-based decision-making with facility team leader perspectives.

Fernandez, M., McClain, D., Brown Williams, B., & Ellison, P. (2015). PBIS in Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice: Data dashboard and radar reports utilized for team data-based decision-making with facility team leader perspectives. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth, 32, 334-343.

This data-based manuscript provides a detailed example of how the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice used a Data Dashboard to collect and analyze data to identify trends for their Tier I FW-PBIS plans. The authors provide facility-specific examples of how the Data Dashboard was used to identify days and times that disruptive behaviors were occurring most often. Also, the authors describe how Radar Reports were used by Tier II/III teams to track youth specific disruptive behaviors in a facility so as to assign appropriate and intensified Tier II/II interventions.

Georgia's juvenile justice system applies new framework to modify youth behavior trends.

Fernandez, M. A., & McClain, D. (2014). Georgia's juvenile justice system applies new framework to modify youth behavior trends. Corrections Today, 76, 18.

This brief descriptive manuscript details how the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice transitioned from a token economy to FW-PBIS in all 27 secure facilities throughout the state. The authors review the importance of using data to guide the decision-making process and provide an example of how facilities tracked data. Lastly, the authors discuss how allowing facilities, instead of the agency, to guide the use of FW-PBIS lead to cultural improvements.

Managing disruptive and violent juvenile offenders in the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice.

Fernandez, M. A., Doyle, C., Koon, R., & McClain, D. (2015). Managing disruptive and violent juvenile offenders in the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice. Corrections Today, September/October.

This brief descriptive manuscript exemplifies how the Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice implemented FW-PBIS state-wide to deliver evidence-based behavioral management practices to the meet the needs of their diverse youth. The authors provide a detailed description of how FW-PBIS was used to intensify interventions through the use of six key components to deliver interventions for youth with the most severe and persistent needs in juvenile facilities.

Multi-tiered systems of support to improve outcomes for youth in juvenile justice settings: Guiding principles for future research and practice.

Ennis, R. P., & Gonsoulin, S. G. (2015). Multi-tiered systems of support to improve outcomes for youth in juvenile justice settings: Guiding principles for future research and practice. Residential and Treatment for Children and Youth, 32, 258-265.

This conceptual manuscript illustrates how FW-PBIS can be used to meet the Guiding Principles for Providing High-Quality Education released by the Departments of Education and Justice. The authors systematically review each of the five recommendations and provide practitioners with evidence-based practices to incorporate FW-PBIS to address each recommendation for juvenile facilities.

Promoting educational success by addressing behavioral and social needs. NDTAC Webinar and handouts

By Cassavaugh, M., & Nelson, C. M. (2013)

This online resource includes a webinar, PowerPoint presentations, and other resources related to implementing FW-PBIS in juvenile justice facilities. The resources are designed to aid in the delivery of behavior interventions to help improve educational outcomes for youth in secure facilities. Additionally, professionals in the field provide real-world examples of implementing FW-PBIS in juvenile justice facilities. This content can be applied to residential facilities as well.