The Effects of Teaching School Expectations and Establishing a Consistent Consequence on Formal Office Disciplinary Actions


A four-year study evaluated how establishing, teaching, and reinforcing schoolwide rules and routines and systematically responding to disruptive behavior affected the number of formal office disciplinary referrals in one elementary school. Results revealed that establishing clear standards and having in place a systematic response to disruptive behavior reduced referrals.


Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders from PRO-ED


  • Benita Galand
  • Ron Martella
  • J. Ron Nelson

Prevention Level

  • Primary


  • Administrators
  • District Contacts
  • PBS Coaches
  • PBS Teams

System Impact

  • Whole School


  • Elementary School
  • High School
  • Middle School
  • Systems