Check in/Check out: A Post-Hoc Evaluation of an Efficient, Secondary-Level Targeted Intervention for Reducing Problem Behaviors in Schools


The Check in/Check out (CICO) program was developed as a secondary-level, targeted behavioral intervention in a three-tier preventative model of behavior support and has received empirical support as an effective way to reduce problem behaviors (Hawken & Horner, 2003; March & Horner, 2002). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate, post-implementation, the fidelity of implementation and effectiveness of the CICO program to reduce problem behavior when program training and implementation was managed by typical district personnel. Results indicate that the critical components of the program were implemented with fidelity across three elementary schools and that the program was effective in reducing the number of office discipline referrals for students who entered the program. Further, the program was perceived as being effective and efficient by district personnel. It is argued that the CICO program should be considered a viable targeted behavioral intervention with students for whom primary-level preventative measures are insufficient.


Education and Treatment of Children


  • Elizabeth Benedict
  • Kevin J. Filter
  • Robert H. Horner
  • Moria McKenna
  • Anne W. Todd
  • James Watson

Prevention Level

  • Secondary


  • Administrators
  • PBS Coaches
  • PBS Teams

System Impacts

  • Classroom Level
  • Targeted Groups


  • Elementary School
  • High School
  • Middle School