Validity of office discipline referral measures as indices of school-wide behavioral status and effects of school-wide behavioral interventions


Office discipline referrals (ODRs) are widely used by school personnel to evaluate student behavior and the behavioral climate of schools. In this article, the authors report the results of a review of the relevant literature to evaluate the validity of ODR data as indices of school-wide behavioral climate, the effects of school-wide behavioral interventions, and differ- ing behavior support needs across schools. They used Messick's unified approach to validity by focusing on examples of evidence for empirical and ethical foundations of interpretations, uses, and social consequences of ODR measures at the school-wide level. The authors also discuss ongoing issues, study limitations, and related recommendations for interpretations and uses of ODR measures as school-wide indices, based on the existing literature.


Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions


  • Larry Irvin
  • Jeffrey Sprague
  • George Sugai
  • Tary Tobin
  • C. Vincent

Prevention Level

  • Primary


  • Administrators
  • PBS Coaches
  • PBS Teams

System Impact

  • Whole School


  • Elementary School
  • High School
  • Middle School