Data-Based Program Modification: A Manual.

Deno, Stanley L. & Mirkin, Phyllis K. (1977). Data-Based Program Modification: A Manual. Presented is an empirically oriented, data based program modification (DBPM) manual for individualizing educational plans for any child with a learning or behavioral problem. The rationale for an empirically based program, the socio-legal context, and specific measurement and evaluation procedures (e.g. time series procedures and discrepancy measurement) are described in Part I. Covered in Part II is the sequencing of initial assessment and in Part III a program planning sequence is provided. Program implementation, adjustment, and certification are discussed in Parts IV, V, and VI. Consultation, training, and the indirect role of the resource teacher are treated in Part VII. Featured throughout is the application of DBPM to the case of a hypothetical child. Three appendixes provide appropriate questions for each decision area of the DBPM, case report summaries, and a list of change strategies.


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Prevention Levels

  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary


  • PBS Coaches
  • Specialists

System Impacts

  • Individual Student
  • Targeted Groups
  • Whole School


  • Elementary School
  • High School
  • Middle School
  • RtI
  • Systems