Preventing School Violence: The Use of Office Discipline Referrals To Assess and Monitor School-Wide Discipline Interventions


A study involving 11 elementary and 9 middle schools illustrates how office discipline referrals can be used to indicate the status of school-wide discipline, and how schools can use the information to modify their universal interventions for all students and their targeted interventions for students with severe behavior problems.


Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders from PRO-ED


  • Robert H. Horner
  • Jeffrey Sprague
  • George Sugai
  • Hill M. Walker

Prevention Level

  • Primary


  • Administrators
  • District Contacts
  • PBS Coaches
  • PBS Teams

System Impacts

  • District Team
  • State Team
  • Whole School


  • Elementary School
  • Mental Health
  • Middle School
  • Systems