School demographic variables and out-of-school suspension rates: A quantitative and qualitative analysis of a large, ethnically diverse school district


Study examined out-of-school suspensions among elementary and secondary schools (N=97). Although student demographic variables were strongly related to a school's suspension rate, school comparisons showed that not all schools with a high percentage of at-risk students have a high suspension rate. Discusses results in terms of school discipline reform.


Psychology in the Schools


  • John M. Ferron
  • Howard M. Knoff
  • Linda M. Raffaele Mendez

Prevention Level

  • Primary


  • Administrators
  • District Contacts
  • PBS Coaches

System Impacts

  • District Team
  • Whole School


  • Elementary School
  • High School
  • Middle School
  • Systems