Demonstration of combined efforts in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavior challenges in early elementary grades


This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support. Students in the district are provided a continuum of reading and/or behavioral support based on screening measures that indicate response to universal, targeted, and intensive support. This combined approach may be more successful due to the number of shared critical features in both systems. Results document positive outcomes in prevalence of students needing additional reading and/or behavior support (in comparison to national figures) and are reported with recommendations for future experimental analyses.


Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions


  • J. B. Boland
  • D. Chard
  • Robert H. Horner
  • K. McIntosh

Prevention Level

  • Primary


  • Administrators
  • District Contacts
  • PBS Coaches
  • PBS Teams
  • Specialists

System Impacts

  • District Team
  • State Team
  • Whole School


  • Elementary School
  • RtI
  • Systems