What are Student-Level Tier 3 Systems?

What are the Critical Student-Level Tier 3 Systems that Support Practices?


A. Teaming

PBIS Tier 3 Individual Student teams have multi-disciplinary/cross-department membership that includes Tier 3 systems coordinator and individuals who can provide (a) applied behavioral expertise, (b) administrative authority, (c) multi-agency supports (e.g., person centered planning, wraparound) expertise, (d) knowledge of students, and (e) knowledge about the operations of the school across grade levels and programs. The individual student teams, are formed uniquely around students, one at a time. PBIS Student Teams are developed as needed with team members who know the student well including those members implementing supports at tier 3, so that they have input in decisions about interventions on the particular student(s). PBIS Tier 3 Student teams may include a number of individuals whose roles are not automatically predetermined based on their discipline (administrator, teacher, social worker, school psychologist, behavior analyst, etc.).

Essential components of Individual Student Teams include:

  • A uniquely constructed team including school, home, and community members
  • Input/approval from student/ family about who is on the team
  • Expertise that is logically matched to student needs and strengths
  • An administrator who can allocate school resources as needed for plan implementation
  • Establish rapport and engage the child and family team
  • Identify strengths and needs through behavior intervention planning or person centered planning
  • Assist the family developing a comprehensive plan
  • Track progress over time
  • Transition to less intensive interventions

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B. Screening/identification of students needing Tier 3 supports:  

Within a multi-tiered system of supports, Tier 3 supports target all students in need of individualized, intensive strategies to sufficiently achieve or maintain desired student outcomes and prevent future problem behaviors.  Students who are in need of Tier 3 supports are those students who are non-responsive to Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports. As such, Tier 3 supports are not based on categorical service options or requirements (e.g., whether a student has qualified for exceptional education services or meets criteria for a specific disability), but provide individualized, intensive supports matched to a range of specific student needs.  The array of behavior problems requiring Tier 3 supports may include externalizing behavior problems (e.g., disruptive behaviors, aggression) and internalizing behavior problems (e.g., suicidal ideation, depression, anxiety).  Also, Tier 3 behavioral supports may be delivered to students whose behaviors may be impacted by trauma or crisis situations, whether they are of a temporary or permanent nature, or driven by mental health needs. Tier 3 behavioral supports may be necessary for students who are transitioning from segregated placements (e.g., alternative schools, residential hospital treatment facilities) to less restrictive placements (e.g., neighborhood school) or those students who are at risk of more restrictive placements.  These students often manifest problem behavior across the school, and home environments and thus collaboration with family members in gathering information to address challenging behavior at school is vital in the development and implementation of behavior support across the school and home settings.

Students who need Tier 3 support are frequently identified by teacher or parent nominations, by evidence of chronic behavioral issues (office disciplines, suspension, time out of instruction, etc.), or by screening tools.

Examples of screening tools include:

  • Attendance Records (Absences by Student)
  • Office Discipline Referrals by Student
  • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD)
  • Social Skills Improvement System (SSIS) Performance Screening Guide
  • Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
  • Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) -
  • Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition: Teacher Rating Scales BASC-2:TRS
  • Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS) – Drummond, 1994
  • Tier 2 intervention data (e.g., CICO progress data)

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C. Assessment:

The array of supports at Tier 3 include increased, individualized assessment and intervention within a collaborative problem-solving framework and development of a support team with the requisite skills to assess, identify interventions, and plan for coordinated implementation and monitoring of supports. Assessment is multi-dimensional, and may include behavioral, academic, medical, vocational and other assessment areas. The goal of assessment is to identify strengths and needs to build comprehensive, individualized plans. To do so, assessments must provide specific information on the problem behaviors to be addressed.

Functional Assessments

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is the process that drives a function-based behavior intervention plan (BIP) component of a Tier 3 plan and provides the foundation for a systematic, coordinated, data-driven problem-solving process for problem behaviors. The FBA/BIP processguides assessment, intervention planning, implementation, and monitoring of social behavioral interventions within a data-based problem-solving framework. Foundational to the individualized level of intervention is the importance of understanding why behaviors are occurring. The FBA/BIP process provides the student's team with information needed to analyze the problem behavior in a manner that links assessment to intervention and, thereby, informs the team as they identify which interventions are most likely to be useful for the individual student. This process can be used to target a range of social-behavioral, academic, and mental health concerns (e.g., anxiety, substance abuse, and trauma). The FBA/BIP process should align the behavior supports with contextual factors, taking into account the goals and strengths of the student and the strengths and resources of the setting.  Regardless of the complexity of behaviors presented by students, this FBA and BIP process is crucial to: (a) understand the variables associated with or maintaining a student's behavior, (b) develop strategies to prevent the challenging behavior, and (c) determine interventions that can teach and reinforce appropriate or prosocial behaviors. There should be a strong linkage between the FBA and the BSP.

However, it is important that school-based teams that address the needs of students identified for tertiary (tier 3) supports also consider a conceptual foundation that students may need multiple levels of behavioral support matched to their level of behavioral needs. For example, students may have a wraparound plan that does not include an FBA/BIP or they may have an FBA/BIP without a full wrap plan. Schools and districts may consider a continuum of increasingly intensive levels of tertiary (tier 3) supports that match individual student needs (Scott, Alter, Rosenberg, & Borgmeier, 2010; Anderson & Scott, 2009; Anderson, Horner, Rodriguez & Sampson, 2013).

Consultation-Based Functional Thinking 

Scott et al., (2010) report that an FBA in school settings is a continuum of progressively more formal and intense procedures. They suggest the first level of assessment should involve consultation-based functional thinking, that is, simple consultation with an individual who understands function to help the teacher or staff conceptualize the problem behavior. This consultation approach with a facilitator and teacher(s) (and student, particularly at the middle and high-school level) involves working together to identify contextual events related to behavior occurrences through indirect methods. The goal is to develop a behavior intervention plan that focuses on teaching appropriate replacement or alternative behaviors that get naturally reinforced (i.e. with the function) and addressing environmental features that will prevent behavior plan failure and increase success.

Team-Based Functional Assessment

The second level of assessment process involves more complexity and intensity. This level of functional assessment would require an increasingly comprehensive team approach that addresses students who have chronic and durable behavior issues.  Team-based FBAs would require more resources for activities as well as use both descriptive and indirect methods of gathering FBA data and would include strategies that address antecedent events, teach and reinforce new behaviors, and discontinue reinforcing problem behaviors. 

The first component of this level of assessment might just involve indirect assessments. Indirect assessments involve no direct observation of behavior. Indirect assessments take the form of rating scales, questionnaires, and interviews. Loman, Strickland-Cohen, Borgmeier, & Horner (2013) suggest a way for schools to address less complex individual student needs in a timely fashion.

Indirect FBA strategies may include a form (Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS) (March, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, Brown, Crone, Todd & Carr; 2000) completed by the staff working with the student that collects information on identifying problem behavior, the activities in which the behavior occurs most frequently, and the perceived functions/motivations of behavior. Students provide another excellent source of information concerning their behavior. There are several forms for gathering student functional assessment information. Examples of these forms are the Functional Assessment Checklist for Students (Loman, Strickland-Cohen, Borgmeier, & Horner, 2013) or the Student-Directed Functional Assessment Interview (O'Neill, Horner, Albin, Sprague, Storey & Newton, 1997).

Several potential data sources can be used to determine the contextual variables that might influence the problem behaviors. One data source that might be useful is discipline events (ODRs, suspensions) and out of classroom events, e.g.; visits to the nurse's office. An archival review and brief analysis of this information may be conducted to ascertain whether there are specific times, locations, or activities where the problem behaviors occur most often. Secondly, if Daily Behavior Report or Check in Check Out data are available, then further analysis of this information might provide additional information on the time and activities that precede the problem behavior. Lastly, Antecedent Behavior Consequence (ABC) data could be collected to record antecedents and consequences. An analysis of these data would help pinpoint antecedents and consequences of the problem behavior. 

The next level of assessment would include descriptive assessment. Descriptive assessment includes a direct observation of behavior, but without any manipulation of the environmental conditions. The team based FBAs would contain the indirect information listed above along with the information collected from the descriptive assessment. For example, ABC data could be collected to record antecedents and consequences. An analysis of these data would help pinpoint antecedents and consequences of the problem behavior.  Individuals who have training and experience in conducting FBA and trained in evidenced based function-based interventions should conduct the observations. This information will be analyzed to help build a stronger hypothesis about the contextual variables that precede the behavior as well as the functions of the behavior. 

At this level, there may be the need for collaborating with community, medical, or mental health agencies. This collaboration could occur at the first indication of the need and may occur for some students who do not require Tier 3 supports.

The third level would be dedicated to supporting a small subset of students within tier 3 whose behaviors impact them across life domains, are multi-faceted and complex physical, mental health, environmental, and behavioral issues and have not responded to previous behavior support interventions.  These individuals may need more intensive and sophisticated assessment procedures.  These methods might involve functional analysis, where, direct manipulation of either the antecedents or functions are conducted and to better determine the antecedents and or functions that are maintaining the behavior.  The functional analysis would provide the clearest picture of those variables and functions that maintain the problem behavior. A functional analysis should be conducted only by those staff/experts that have previous training and behavioral expertise in this type of assessment. 

All of these assessment practices are used to verify a functional hypothesis of (a) under what circumstances do the problem behaviors occur, and (b) what are the maintaining the functions of the problem behaviors (Scott & Anderson, 2007). The goal is to use the most efficient and less complex procedures to develop the hypothesis that the team has confidence in upon which to build a BSP/BIP.

Wraparound Assessment

Wraparound plan development is driven by multi-domain assessments, and developed by a team of natural and formal supports. Intervention plans are as multi-dimensional as indicated by assessments and may include strategies to support students at home, in school, and the community, including living environment; basic needs; safety; medical; legal; and social, emotional, educational, spiritual, and cultural needs (Eber, 2002). Assessments need to encompass any areas if need, starting with more generic identifying of areas of need, then drill down.

Students and their families have a leading role in the development of plans by identifying the outcomes that are meaningful and the supports that are a good "fit".

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D. Function-based behavior support planning:

Making Tier 3 behavior support plans require (1) the knowledge gleaned from the individuals who know the student the best, (2) the student, where possible, and (3) the expertise of persons with applied behavior competencies in building these plans. Perhaps the most efficacious and best-implemented plans are developed combining both the knowledge of the student and the school, home and community environment in which they attend and/or live and those individuals who possess strong content in applied behavioral competencies.

Tier 3 support plans may be called behavior support plans or behavior intervention plans (BIP).   It is imperative that the BSP/BIP be carefully linked to the FBA. One method of organizing information collected from an FBA is to build a competing behavior model (O'Neill et al., 1997; Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T., 2000). The competing behavior model entails a three-step process. The first step involves the development of a four -part summary statement (or hypothesis) that results from an FBA. These first four parts are: (1) the problem behaviors, (2) immediate antecedents for problem behaviors, (3) the maintaining consequence of problem behaviors, and (4) setting events relevant to the occurrence of problem behaviors. The next step, once the FBA summary statement is developed, the team should determine (1) the desired behavior in the situation (i.e., what behavior(s) do you want the person to do?) and (2) the maintaining consequence for the desired behavior. Typically, the desired behavior leads to a maintaining consequence that is different from the consequence produced by problem behavior. The last step entails the selection of a replacement skill (positive alternative behavior) that will produce the same maintaining consequence as the problem behavior. These three steps result in a diagram (see below) that is then used for identifying and selecting potential behavior support practices.

Although there is not one standard format for a BSP/BIP there is general agreement that at a minimum an effective BSP/BIP should contain some critical elements such as:

  1. A clear and operational definition of the problem behavior,
  2. A clear link to the function of the behavior and antecedent and setting events as identified by the functional behavior assessment,
  3. Strategies for addressing antecedent variables that may prevent the problem behaviors from occurring or promote more appropriate behaviors,
  4. Strategies for teaching alternative or replacement behaviors,
  5. Strategies to reinforce alternative or replacement behaviors and reduce reinforcement of problem behaviors,
  6. Strategies for matching the BSP/BIP to unique contexts of the classroom, family and community to enhance the success of the plan (contextual fit), and
  7. A method for the collection of data for evaluation of the effectiveness and implementation fidelity of the BSP/BIP.
  8. Additional information to the BSP/BIP may be a safety plan for use only in crisis situations.

Clear and operational definition of the problem behavior

Operational definitions of the problem behavior are important in the development of a BSP/BIP are a critical part of the FBA process. An operational definition is an observable and measurable description of the motor behaviors (physical and verbal) that the student performs when engaging in the specified problem behavior. Having operational definitions of the problem behavior provides for consistency in gathering the FBA information to understand the environmental events that trigger and maintain problem behavior episodes and allows the team to have more confidence in identifying the function of the behavior.  Additionally, data collected on the specific problem behavior, both baseline and post-behavior support plan, is more consistent when the definition is observable and measurable.

Clear link to the function of the behavior and antecedent and setting events

The FBA information gathered is synthesized and a hypothesis or summary statement is developed, describing the antecedents of the problem behavior and the function that the problem behavior obtains for the student based on the most typical responses or consequences that follows problem behavior.  Once a summary statement has been developed, and the resulting completing pathway proposed strategies/interventions should be linked to the functions and antecedent and setting events.  For example, if a challenging academic task has been determined to be an antecedent to the problem behavior then it would be expected that the BSP/BIP would provide evidenced based strategies or in some situations accommodations to assist the student to be more successful with the academic task. Clear strategies to teach a replacement behavior that would help the gain access to that function in a socially appropriate way would be included in the plan.

Strategies for addressing antecedent variables that may prevent the problem behaviors from occurring or promote more appropriate behaviors

The BSP/BIP should contain strategies for eliminating where possible antecedents that precede the problem and that could prevent the problem behavior from occurring.  The elimination of these antecedents, realistically, may not be possible. For these individuals, the focus should be in reducing the impact of the event that precedes the behavior. For example, with a challenging academic task, the length of the task could be modified, or the work could be broken up into smaller increments. Secondly, the plan should suggest ways to prompt both the desired behaviors and replacement behaviors to increase the probability of these behaviors occurring.

Strategies for teaching alternative or replacement behaviors

One of the most important parts of developing a BSP/BIP is the identification of an appropriate replacement behavior. Problem behaviors are best reduced by replacing them with other similarly functional but more appropriate alternatives.  Appropriate replacement behaviors are both functional for the student and represent what is widely considered to be acceptable in the culture and context in which it occurs. The best replacement behaviors are those that work at least as effective (work as well), efficient (work as easily), and are relevant (look like others do) as the problem behavior (Scott & Anderson, 2007). 

Alternative skills, on the other hand, are the desired behaviors that others want to see the student perform. For example, instead of engaging in the problem behavior after presentation of the challenging academic task, the student can be taught to ask for help or to use problem-solving strategies such as skipping items that are too difficult and moving on to items that are easier to complete.  The student may also be taught specific academic skills so that the task is no longer challenging.

One of the most critical components of the BSP/BIP is building mastery of the replacement behavior so that it can be performed in the relevant context. Developing mastery of the replacement behavior requires instruction in these skills/behaviors. It is helpful to determine whether the student (1) has the replacement behavior in their repertoire, or (2) has the behavior in their repertoire but finds the problem behavior more efficient or effective in gaining the function of the behavior. In the first case, a student will need, acquisition training that is to be taught what the behavior is and how to do it. In the latter case, the student will need training on using the replacement behavior with less difficulty or effort.  
 
Strategies to reinforce alternative or replacement behaviors and reduce reinforcement of problem behaviors

Alternative or replacement behaviors need to be reinforced if they are going to be used by the student rather than the problem behavior. Preference assessments with the student should be completed to determine effective reinforcers. Replacement and desired behaviors need to have a high rate of reinforcement once they have been taught if they are going to be used rather than the problem behavior. Appropriate or desired behaviors can be reinforced by more powerful ways of getting the function. For example, a student can be taught to ask for a break (FERB) to escape or delay working on a task for 2 minutes.  If the student performs the alternative skill, he/she may earn 10 to 15 minutes escape from another non-preferred activity and choose a preferred activity to do during that 10 to 15 minutes.  Preference assessments with the student could be completed to determine effective reinforcers for alternative behaviors. Initially, reinforcement will occur often and quickly so that the new behavior is more efficient and reliable at getting the function and/or preferred reinforcers.  Behavior that is reinforced is more likely to be repeated.

Students use problem behaviors because they are more efficient and effective in getting the desired outcome (i.e. obtaining adult or peer attention or escaping from difficult tasks).  The goal is to teach students to use a replacement behavior that will be just as efficient and effective (if not more) as the current problem behavior and will get the same desired outcome, but by using a healthier/more appropriate behavior. The plan should suggest strategies to reduce or eliminate reinforcement of the problem behaviors and that increase the likelihood of the use of the replacement behavior.  Ideally, consideration will always be given to use strategies that meet the identified function of the problem behavior where possible.

Strategies for matching the BSP/BIP or individualized student action plan to unique contexts of the classroom, family, and community to enhance the success of the plan (contextual fit)

The BSP/BIP or student action plan, to increase the success of the plan in each context in which it is implemented, needs to match each unique context.  Developers of the plan need to actively involve the individuals who will implement the plan in the development of the plan to fit contexts of their particular location, e.g., classroom, home, or community. Specific antecedent and or reinforcement strategies, as well as instructional procedures, may need to be modified to meet these particular contexts.

A plan for the collection of data for evaluation of the effectiveness and implementation fidelity of the BSP/BIP or individualized student action plan.

The BSP/BIP  or student action plan should outline a method/s to collect data on the efficacy of the plan.  There are many methods, e.g., direct observation data, direct behavior ratings, checklists, that can be used for the collection of data. The team should select an efficient methodology that can help determine whether the plan is working or not. 

A plan is only as good as its implementation.  It is the expectation that fidelity checks are conducted to ensure the plan is implemented with integrity.  The use of fidelity checks is of particular importance when the plan is not producing the desired results. 

For examples of data collection and implementation fidelity measures see below.

Safety plan for use only in crisis situations may be needed

Although not part of the BSP/BIP a safety plan may be necessary to describe procedures to be utilized if the behaviors pose a risk to the student or others. Safety plans should take into consideration all aspects of the FBA (i.e. antecedents, function, etc.) and should be created uniquely for each student versus using a generic school crisis plan.  Safety plans may also be needed when developing an individualized student action plan for wraparound.

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E. Wraparound-Based Plan Development

Some students need Wraparound, that is, an ongoing process of comprehensive planning and intervention in need of individualized, intensive supports that involve systems (e.g., public health, mental health, medical, foster care, juvenile justice, etc.) beyond the school, family, and student.  These students' needs may best be met through a wraparound process in which a team of individuals collaborates on an individualized plan of care that is implemented and evaluated consistently across time.  A robust feature of wraparound is that it is unconditional; if interventions are not achieving the outcomes desired by the team, the team regroups to rethink the configuration of supports, services, and interventions to ensure success in natural settings such as the home, school, and community. As teams problem solve how to effectively meet students' needs, they combine supports for natural activities (e.g., child care, mentoring, making friends) with traditional interventions (e.g., behavioral interventions, specialized reading instruction, medication) (Eber, 2002). Wraparound is based on the belief that services and supports should be flexibly arranged to meet the unique needs of the students and their families, and they are not an attempt to fit a student into already existing interventions.

There are four identified phases of the wraparound planning process that include 1) engagement and team prep, 2) initial plan development, 3) implementation, and 4) transition.  The goals during each phase include:

Engagement and Team Prep

  • Establish rapport with student and family that is transparent and based on trust
  • Educate the family about the process so they can make an informed decision to participate (stabilize any crisis)
  • Explore individual and family strengths, needs, culture across life domains through a "coffee chat" or through the use of personal futures planning using graphic facilitation.
  • Prioritize family needs and create family mission
  • Identify and engage team members who will support the youth and family through the process
  • Prepare family (and team members) for the first meeting

Initial Plan Development

  • Facilitate initial wraparound team meeting(s)
  • Develop a team culture
  • Share and build on strengths, needs, and family mission to guide the wraparound team
  • Develop an individualized Action Plan
  • Complete a behavior intervention/safety plan if needed
  • Integrate the Wrap plan across classroom settings and agencies

Implementation

  • To review and update the plan over time
  • To ensure that plans are implemented with fidelity
  • To ensure the plan achieves outcomes
  • To improve team cohesion and effectiveness

Transition

  • Document and celebrate the team's work and success
  • To update the action and behavior intervention/crisis plans
  • To plan and ensure there is continued support after professional facilitation ends

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Articles found on PBIS.org

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F. Progress monitoring and implementation fidelity

An important part of the Tier 3 planning process is ongoing data-based decision making.  The team should meet at least monthly and review the progress monitoring data and along with the student and family determine whether the student is making progress.  Graphical representations of the data should be presented to the team, and a decision should be considered whether the plan is having its desired effect, showing no progress or the problem behavior is getting worse. If the decision is that the plan is achieving its desired result, the team could decide to continue as is, or reduce the intensity of the plan. If the plan is not achieving the desired outcome, the team could keep the plan as is and wait to see if the trend changes, check implementation fidelity or make changes in the plan by increasing intensity or reworking the plan.  .  The team could start fading parts of the plan (e.g., thin the reinforcement schedule) or the criteria for target behaviors can be set higher.  If the plan is not achieving the desired outcome, the team will first want to check implementation fidelity and if fidelity is low, address the reason. For example, if the plan is too complex or difficult for the teacher, the team may want to edit the interventions so that they are feasible for the teacher or the team may decide to review other interventiions that are linked with the hypothesis but may be easier for the teacher to perform.  If the teacher is implementing with high fidelity, the team may decide to make changes in the plan by increasing the intensity (e.g., providing reinforcement at a more immediate and frequent rate) or changing the interventions so that they may be more effective. The team may want to consider, at times, reviewing the FBA data to make sure that the hypothesis is correct or gather additional data.

A comprehensive data system, with multiple elements, may be necessary at the school level to measure behavioral outcomes as well as implementation fidelity for a broad range of student behaviors at tier 3.  Some of the elements of such a comprehensive system may include:

Comprehensive Data System

Each of these elements can assist with development of the behavior plan or evaluating the student outcomes produced by the plan.

  • Measures of fidelity of tier 3 implementation

Measures of implementation fidelity are essential to determine whether the tier 3 supports were actually provided as planned (frequency and quality).

 

While it is unlikely that one data system will be able to support every individual student's plan, there are a number of resources that provide many of the critical elements for use at the individual student level.

Within a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) the final component is a comprehensive plan (i.e., data system) for the collection and use of data for evaluation of the effectiveness and implementation fidelity of the BIP. A comprehensive data system includes two types of data: (a) intervention fidelity (i.e., implementation integrity, treatment adherence) as well as (b) effectiveness (e.g., student outcomes). A data system may require multiple elements in order to comprehensively monitor and evaluate the implementation fidelity and effectiveness of the BIP. It is unlikely that one data system will be able to support all students receiving tertiary supports. Even one student receiving tertiary supports is likely to experience many phases or plan changes throughout the course of the year.
A tertiary data system should contain critical elements such as:

  1. Goals for intervention fidelity and student outcomes should be reasonable, measurable, and valued
  2. Procedures and schedule for collecting evaluation and progress monitoring data (including perception data) across all goals
  3. Procedures and schedule for summarizing data in an understandable format (e.g., graphs)
  4. Procedures and schedule for communicating data across all relevant stakeholders,
  5. Decision rules to guide team-based decision making about plan fidelity and effectiveness including perception data

Goals for intervention fidelity and student outcomes should be (a) reasonable, (b) measurable, and (c) valued.

Intervention Fidelity Goals. Goals for intervention or implementation fidelity describe the acceptable and/or desired level of implementation of the specific components of the BIP. The overall question asked is, "Did we do what we said we would do?" and is intended to promote discussion related to the quality and contextual fit of the support plan as well as questions about the training, resources, and staff buy-in needed to implement the different strategies and supports identified. Short- and long-term goals may be related to (a) consistency of strategy use across staff or settings, (b) quality of strategy use, and/or (c) frequency of strategy use.
Note. The intensity or complexity of intervention fidelity goals should match that of the BIP strategies and also consider staff and team decision-making needs.

Student Outcome Goals. Goals for student outcome describe the acceptable and/or desired level of change in student behavior, related to the BIP or wrap plan. The short- and long-term goals are most often related to (a) decreasing challenging behavior, (b) increasing desired behavior, and/or (c) use of an acceptable alternative behavior.
All goals should include (a) what behavior is being measures, (b) the acceptable/desired level, and (c) by when the level will be met.

Procedures and schedule for collecting evaluation and progress monitoring data across all goals.
Data collection routines and schedules vary from school to school. To the extent possible the collection of the individual student's data should align with the procedures already in place but with greater specificity and frequency. For example, if the student previously participated in the Check In Check Out (targeted) intervention then it may be possible to format a similar but individualized point card with individualized goals, check-in periods, and/or feedback procedures. While desirable, teams should consider whether alignment is appropriate for the individual student's goals and adapt when data indicate a change in needs. It may be that alignment with a familiar intervention becomes a long-term goal.

Procedures and schedule for summarizing data in an understandable format (e.g., graphs).
Data collected are not useful until they have been organized in a format that team members and other stakeholders can easily use to summarize overall patterns and then break the information up into different perspectives (e.g., by time of day, by staff member, for the most recent week/month). Existing tools for organizing and analyzing data include spreadsheet tools (e.g., Excel), The Individual Student Intervention System (ISIS-SWIS), and the Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) Connect. Teams should determine what technology will provide the best quality of information, efficiency in entering and reporting data, and what will be flexible to progress monitoring needs across students and time.  A simple chart that is updated monthly or quarterly  might also be helpful as the team assess progress and patterns. 


Procedures and schedule for communicating data across all relevant stakeholders.

During the functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and development of the BIP, it makes sense to include as many stakeholders as possible on the team. However, over time it can become difficult to keep everyone 'in the loop' about current levels of progress, changes in implementation, and/or problems which need to be addressed. Timely communication requires planning so teams should agree on guidelines for the frequency of communicating and the best information and methods for communicating across team members. The procedures and schedule should be documented within (or attached to) the BIP and reviewed regularly to ensure that all members of the team are included in decision making as well as progress updates.

Decision rules to guide team-based decision making about plan fidelity and effectiveness.
When a team regularly receives information with data that are in an understandable and visual format then identifying current levels of progress and potential problem areas becomes much more efficient. The data should lead to decisions about whether to continue, modify (major or minor), or discontinue specific components of the BIP. It is recommended that general decision rules be developed in relation to each goal. These decision rules can be used to guide team members as they review data. For example, if the intervention fidelity is acceptable but a student is not making progress toward outcome goals then how will the team know when they need to make a revision?

Simple Decision Rule Template

Decision

Level/Indicator

Duration

Continue Current Plan

  

Minor Adaptation
(Plan Change)

  

Major Modification
(Plan Change)

  

Conduct Full Assessment/Review
(Revise Plan)

  

Fade Supports

  

Graduate from Supports

  

Discontinue Supports

  

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G. Resources: Tools, videos, presentations, publications, exemplars

Tools: Links to formal FBA protocol, F-BSP protocol, BIP templates, to SWIS

Presentations

Training Resources

Articles

Books and Book Chapters

  • Iovannone, R., & Briesch, A. M. (2016). Use of DBR in individualized intervention.  In A. M. Briesch, S. M. Chafouleas and T. C. Riley-Tillman (Eds.), Direct behavior rating: Linking assessment, communication, and intervention.  New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

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As we continue to improve the Tier 3 resources on www.pbis.org, we want to ask each of you if you have case studies, examples, materials or tools that you would like to share on the website.  If you do have materials to share, you can access a form for the submission of your materials at 'Tier 3 Resource Submission.'  Please follow the directions on the submission form to assist us in evaluating whether we can post the material or not. Remember that the OSEP TAC will not post products, materials, etc. that are proprietary or for profit in nature.

Resources

Reliability and utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) for auditing and quality development in services for adults with intellectual disability and challenging behavior

McVilly K., Webber, L., Paris, M., & Sharp, G. (2013). Reliability and utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) for auditing and quality development in services for adults with intellectual disability and challenging behavior. Journal of Disability Research, 57(8), 716-727

Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II (BSP-QEII) was developed to monitor and assess BSPs prepared by teachers to support children with disability in the school system. This study investigated the application of the BSP-QEII to the assessment of BSPs for adults with ID in community support services.

The content validity of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) and its potential application in accommodation and day-support services for adults with intellectual disability

McVilly, K., Webber, L., Sharp, G., & Maris, M. (2012). The content validity of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII) and its potential application in accommodation and day-support services for adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(8), 703-715

The quality of support provided to people with disability who show challenging behaviour could be influenced by the quality of the behaviour support plans (BSPs) on which staff rely for direction. This study investigated the content validity of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII), originally developed to guide the development of BSPs for children in school settings, and evaluated its application for use in accommodation and day-support services for adults with intellectual disability.

Assessing Social Validity of School-wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale

Social Validity of School-wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale. School Psychology Review, 38(1), 135-144

This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior to intervention onset. Results indicated the Primary Intervention Rating Scale is a one-factor instrument, with high internal consistency and utility. These results were found to replicate across educators from elementary, middle, and high schools. In addition, there was a significant, positive relation between social validity and treatment integrity when examining data at the school-site level. Limitations and future directions are offered.

Effects of Training on the Use of the Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide With Autism Educators: A Preliminary Investigation Examining Positive Behavior Support Plans

Kraemer, B. R., Cook, C. R., Browning-Wright, D., Mayer, G. R., & Wallace, M. D. (2008). Effects of Training on the Use of the Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide With Autism Educators: A Preliminary Investigation Examining Positive Behavior Support Plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(3), 179-189

Positive behavior support (PBS) plans are required practice for students whose behaviors impede their learning or that of others. Educators of children and youth with autism and other developmental disorders represent a subgroup of special educators who are frequently involved in the development of PBS plans. The goal of this research was to assess the effect of a specific, brief training delivered to improve the substantive, evidence-based quality of PBS plans developed by autism educators in a graduate-level university program. Intra-individual tests of significance revealed that the training significantly improved the quality of PBS plans. The plan components with the highest ratings were predictors of problem behaviorand behavioral definition, whereas the components with the lowest ratings were behavioral goals/objectives and team communication. The implications for delivering brief trainings to improve evidence-based practice, as well as limitations and future directions, are discussed.

Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans

Strickland-Cohen, M. K., & Horner, R. H. (2014). Typical School Personnel Developing and Implementing Basic Behavior Support Plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 17(2), 83-94

We evaluated the ability of typical school personnel with basic behavioral training to develop and implement function-based supports for students with mild to moderate problem behaviors. Descriptive results indicated that following four 1-hr training sessions, 13 participants were able to (a) identify interventions that were and were not functionally related to problem behavior and (b) lead school-based teams in developing function-based supports that were rated as technically sound by external behavior analysts. Data resulting from a non-concurrent multiple baseline analysis across five of the trained professionals, each working with a team to address the problem behavior of one elementary school student, indicated that plan implementation occurred with high fidelity and was functionally related to decreases in problem behavior and increases in academic engagement. In addition, school personnel rated the training, tools, and implementation process as effective and efficient. Limitations and implications of these results are discussed.

Function-Based Intervention Planning: Comparing the Effectiveness of FBA Function-Based and Non–Function-Based Intervention Plans

Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2005). Function-Based Intervention Planning: Comparing the Effectiveness of FBA Function-Based and Non–Function-Based Intervention Plans. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224-236

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) has been suggested for facilitating the development and effectiveness of behavior intervention plans. In this study, the researchers examined whether behavior intervention plans based on FBA information (function-based) were more effective than behavior intervention plans not based on FBA information (non—functionbased) in affecting rates of problem behaviors displayed by two middle school students. Single-subject ABCBC designs were used to demonstrate a functional relationship between student responding and function-based and non—function-based behavior intervention plans. Results indicated that the use of FBA-based intervention plans was associated with greater improvements in lowering the number of problem behaviors. Implications and limitations for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

Using implementation planning to increase teachers' adherence and quality to behavior support plans

Sanetti, L., Collier-Meek, M. A., Long, A., & Kratochwill, T. (2014). Using implementation planning to increase teachers' adherence and quality to behavior support plans. Psychology in the Schools, 51(8), 879-895

Evidence-based practices within a response-to-intervention framework must be implemented with adequate treatment integrity to promote student outcomes. However, research findings indicate educators struggle to implement interventions and logistical considerations may limit the utility of performance feedback, an evidence-based treatment integrity promotion strategy. This study evaluates the effect of implementation planning, a treatment integrity promotion strategy that includes detailed logistical planning and barrier identification adapted from an adult behavior change theory from heath psychology (i.e., the Health Action Process Approach). A multiple baseline across participants design was used to evaluate teachers’ adherence to a behavior support plan as well as their quality of implementation. Results indicated that after intervention training, adherence was initially low and variable, and quality of implementation was moderate to high and variable, but both adherence and quality increased and became less variable after implementation planning. The increases in implementation were more pronounced for two teachers, whose students also had subsequent improvements in their academic engagement and disruptive behavior. These findings highlight the relationship between adequate levels of treatment integrity and student outcomes as well as provide initial support for implementation planning.

A Practitioner's Guide to Implementing a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors procedure

Gongola, L. C., & Daddario, R. (2010). A Practitioner's Guide to Implementing a Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors procedure. Teaching Exceptional Children, 42(6), 14-20

The use of interventions to create behavior change among students with disabilities has an extended and complex history (Horner et al., 2005). Practitioners involved in the field of special education often debate best practices from an immense array of available interventions (Heflin & Simpson, 1998). Service providers express concern about effectiveness of treatment options and the ethics consuming the field of special education (Newman, Reeve, Reeve, & Ryan, 2003; Paul, French, & Cranston-Gingras, 2001). This article discusses research supporting the use of differential reinforcement of other behaviors (DRO) and the impact of this strong intervention in reducing undesirable behaviors among students with disabilities.

How do you get the behavior support team to work together as a team?

Crone, D. A., Hawken, L. S., & Horner, R. H. (2015) How do you get the behavior support team to work together as a team? Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools (pp. 109-121). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

How to defuse defiance, threats, challenges, confrontations

Colvin, G., Ainge, D., & Nelson, R. (1997). How to defuse defiance, threats, challenges, confrontations. Teaching Exceptional Children, 29(6), 47-51

Discusses behavior management of confrontational situations in the classroom, including prevention, defusion, and follow-up. Strategies for defusion are suggested, such as focusing on the task rather than the attention-getting behavior, presenting options privately, reducing agitation, preteaching and presenting choices to establish limits, and disengaging and delaying responding in the presence of serious threatening behavior.

Precorrection: An instructional approach for managing predictable problem behaviors

Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patching B. (1993). Precorrection: An instructional approach for managing predictable problem behaviors. Intervention in School and Clinic, 28(3), 143-150

Demonstrates how an instructional strategy, precorrection, can be applied to changing chronic behavior problems

Implementation of a Culturally Appropriate Positive Behavior Support Plan With a Japanese Mother of a Child With Autism: An Experimental and Qualitative Analysis

Cheremshynski, C. Lucyshyn, J. M., & Olson, D. L. (2012). Implementation of a Culturally Appropriate Positive Behavior Support Plan With a Japanese Mother of a Child With Autism: An Experimental and Qualitative Analysis. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 15(4), 242-253

The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate a family-centered approach to positive behavior support (PBS) that was designed to be culturally responsive to families of diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds. A Japanese mother and a child with autism were the primary participants. Multiple research methods were used. A single-subject withdrawal design evaluated the functional relation between parent implementation of a culturally informed PBS plan and improvements in child behavior and participation in a dinner routine. Qualitative case study methods guided an understanding of the family’s culture, the mother’s perspectives on the PBS plan and outcomes, and the interventionist’s perspectives on the provision of behavior support to the family. Quantitative results documented a functional relation between implementation of the PBS plan and improvements in child behavior and participation in the dinner routine. Qualitative results provided a rich description of the parent’s and interventionist’s experience and perspective. Three themes emerged: (a) developing a rapport informed by family culture; (b) working with a cultural guide to facilitate understanding the family’s cultural values, beliefs, and parenting practices; and (c) accommodating the mother’s cross-cultural values and beliefs. Contributions to the literature and implications for behavior interventionists working with families of diverse cultural backgrounds are discussed.

A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Training using Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide (BSP-QE) to Improve Positive Behavioral Support Plans

Wright, D. B., Mayer, G. R., Cook, C. R., Crews, S. D., Kraemer, B. R., & Gale, B. (2007). A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Training using Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide (BSP-QE) to Improve Positive Behavioral Support Plans. Education and Treatment of Children, 30(3), 89-106

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of two trainings designed to increase the competencies of professionals to develop high quality positive behavior support plans for students that engage in problem behaviors that interfere with theirs and/or others’ ability to learn. Training one consisted of training attendees on six key concepts of behavior analysis, and team functioning, that are supported by the research as best practice for effective behavior change. Training two concentrated on training attendees how to evaluate and rate the quality of PBS plans using an evidence-based rating instrument. Results of the professional trainings revealed that participants were nearly four times more likely to develop PBS plans that were rated as good or superior after receiving training on how to evaluate and rate the quality of PBS plans than receiving training on the six key concepts alone. The implications for professional pre- and in-service training to enhance the skills of educators in developing PBS plans based on functional behavioral assessments are discussed.

Functional Assessment and Program Development for problem behavior

O’Neill, R. E., Allbin, R. W., Storey, K., Horner, R. H., & Sprague, J. R. (2014). Functional Assessment and Program Development for problem behavior. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

This guide to functional assessment procedures includes a variety of strategies for assessing problem behavior situations, and presents a systematic approach for designing behavioral support programs based on those assessments. Professionals and other readers learn to conduct functional assessments and develop their own intervention programs.

Consequence Strategies to Change Behavior

This is the presentation material for PBIS Chicago Forum, 2014.

Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: Addressing problem behaviors of students with autism in general education classrooms

Strain, P. S., Wilson, K., & Dunlap, G. (2011).  Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: Addressing problem behaviors of students with autism in general education classrooms.  Behavioral Disorders, 36, 160-171.

Children with autism and other disabilities are often prohibited from participating in inclusive educational environments due to the occurrence of problem behaviors. In this study, a standardized model for individualizing procedures of behavior support, Prevent–Teach–Reinforce (PTR), was evaluated in general education settings with three elementary school students with autism spectrum disorders and serious problem behaviors. A multiple baseline across students design was used to test the effects of PTR on the occurrence of problem behaviors and academic engagement. Results indicated that problem behaviors were reduced and engagement was increased for all of the participants. The findings are discussed in relation to the importance and the challenges of implementation fidelity and effective behavior support in general education settings.

Using the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model with families of young children with ASD

Sears, K. M., Blair, K. S., Iovannone, R., & Crosland K. (2013).  Using the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce model with families of young children with ASD.  Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43, 1005-10016.

This study was conducted to examine the feasibility and potential efficacy of implementing an adapted, family-centered version of the school-based prevent-teach-reinforce (PTR) model. The research included two families who implemented the PTR process for their children in collaboration with the researchers. The adapted PTR was tested using a multiple baseline design across routines to examine changes in child behavior across experimental conditions. Results indicated that the adapted PTR intervention was associated with reduction in child problem behavior and increases in alternative behavior in both target and non-target routines. The results also indicated that the parents were able to implement the behavior intervention plan with fidelity and successfully use the PTR process for a novel routine. The PTR intervention also had high social validity ratings; both self- and novel-rated validity indicated that the PTR intervention was acceptable to both families and the community at large. The data are discussed in terms of the expanding evidence related to the PTR model and the extension to a family context.

An evaluation of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model in a community preschool classroom

Kulikowski, L., Blair, K. S., Iovannone, R., & Crosland, K. (2015).  An evaluation of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model in a community preschool classroom. Journal of Behavior Analysis and Supports, 2, 1-22.

This study evaluated the use of the Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model with two four-year-old children in a community preschool classroom. A multiple baseline design across activities was used to assess the teacher implementation of the behavior intervention strategies developed during the PTR team process and the changes in child problem behavior and engagement. Additional measures associated with the outcomes, such as researcher procedural integrity and social validity were assessed. The results suggest that the team of teachers were able to implement the PTR intervention with fidelity, which resulted in a decrease in the children’s problem behavior and an increase in their engagement. The PTR process was deemed feasible and acceptable by the teaching staff, and that the child behavioral outcomes were evaluated as acceptable by naïve observers.

Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on academic engagement and disruptive behavior

DeJager, B. W., & Filter, K. J. (2015).  Effects of Prevent-Teach-Reinforce on academic engagement and disruptive behavior.  Journal of Applied School Psychology, 31, 361-391.

This study assessed the effectiveness of prevent-teach-reinforce (P-T-R), a functional behavioral assessment-based intervention for students with behavior problems, using an A-B-A-B design with follow-up. Participants included three students in kindergarten, fourth grade, and fifth grade in a rural Midwestern school district. P-T-R interventions were implemented with fidelity by all teachers and P-T-R was associated with mean decreases in disruptive behavior for all participants with Tau-U effect sizes ranging from minimal to strong. All three participants demonstrated mean increases in academic engagement with strong effect sizes. P-T-R interventions were associated with moderate to high levels of perceived social validity. Implications for consistent and efficient FBA-based interventions in schools are discussed.

Prevent-Teach-Reinforce:  A standardized model of school-based behavioral intervention

Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Wilson, K., Strain, P., & Kincaid, D. (2010).  Prevent-Teach-Reinforce:  A standardized model of school-based behavioral intervention.  Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12, 9-22.  doi:10.1177/1098300708330880.

Although there is a substantial empirical foundation for the basic intervention components of behavior analysis and positive behavior support (PBS), the field still lacks a standardized program model of individualized PBS suitable for widespread application by school personnel. This article provides a description of a standardized PBS model that is in the process of development and large-scale evaluation. The "Prevent-Teach-Reinforce" (PTR) model is designed to meet the behavior support needs of students with serious behavior challenges in a broad range of school settings. Included in this article are an overview of the model's components and implementation process, two case examples, and a discussion of the model's status and future directions.

Prevent-Teach-Reinforce:  A school-based model of individualized positive behavior support

Dunlap, G., Iovannone, R., Kincaid, D., Wilson, K., Christiansen, K., Strain, P. & English, C., (2010).  Prevent-Teach-Reinforce:  A school-based model of individualized positive behavior support.  Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes

Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by typical behavior management strategies. With this thorough blueprint for PTR, education professionals will learn how to prevent behavior problems by adjusting the curriculum and environment; teach proactive communication skills; and reinforce prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Chapters of this book include: (1) Introduction to PTR; (2) Teaming; (3) Goal Setting and Data Collection; (4) Functional Behavior Assessment; (5) Behavior Intervention Plan; and (6) Evaluation. A list of references and an index are included.

Basic FBA to BSP: Participant's Guide

This participant’s guide presents specific procedures for school-based personnel to conduct Basic functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and lead teams in the design of behavior support plans (BSP) for students with mild to moderate problem.

Power and Control: Useful Functions or Explanatory fictions?

Iovanonne, R., Anderson, C. M., & Scott, T. M. (2013). Power and Control: Useful Functions or Explanatory fictions? Beyond Behavior, 22(2), 3-6

The article presents an argument on the daily practice of enforcing function-based interventions for power and control, describing the function's concept in the context of functional behavior assessment (FBA). It offers a rationale for keeping a strict focus on observable and measurable variables. An overview of principles underlying FBA is given, including an analysis proving the conjecture that nonobservable and nonmeasurable builds cannot be seen as the function or reinforcer for a behavior.

Randomized Controlled trail of the Prevent Teach Reinforce (PTR) Tertiary Intervention for Students with Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Outcomes

Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P. E., Wang, W., Kincaid, D., Dunlap, G., & Strain, P. (2009). Randomized Controlled trail of the Prevent Teach Reinforce (PTR) Tertiary Intervention for Students with Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Outcomes. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 17(4), 213-225

Although there is literature supporting the effectiveness of tertiary behavioral supports, the majority of the studies have been conducted with single-subject designs. The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model is a standardized model of a school-based tertiary intervention. This study reports initial results from a randomized controlled trial to compare whether the PTR model, as implemented by typical school personnel, is more effective than interventions typically used (i.e., services as usual). To date, 245 students in Grades K-8 have been enrolled in the study, and preliminary results show that students who received the PTR intervention had significantly higher social skills and academic engaged time and significantly lower problem behavior when compared with students who received services as usual. Teachers gave high social validity ratings to the intervention. Implications for widescale school adoption are discussed.

A Review of the Evidence Base of Functional Assessment-based Interventions for Young Students Using One Systematic Approach

Wood, B. K., Oakes, W. P., Fetting, A., & Lane, K. L. (2015). A Review of the Evidence Base of Functional Assessment-based Interventions for Young Students Using One Systematic Approach. Behavioral Disorders, 40(4), 230-250.

This review of the literature was conducted to explore the evidence base for functional assessment-based interventions (FABIs) for one systematic approach developed by Umbreit, Ferro, Liaupsin, and Lane (2007). Specifically, this review examined the evidence base for this systematic approach to FABI for young students by applying quality indicators and evidence-based standards. A secondary purpose was to identify the extent to which classroom teachers were involved in the FABI process. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria of intervening with young students (i.e., preschool through third grade) with or at risk for disabilities using this one systematic approach to FABI. Although seven studies demonstrated positive effects and met all eight quality indicators (Council for Exceptional Children [CEC], 2014), indicating they were methodologically sound, these seven cases represented 14 students falling short of the recommended 20 participants (CEC, 2014). This review provides evidence for deeming this FABI model a potential evidence-based practice for use with young students. Limitations and future direction are discussed.

Implementation and Validation of Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Public Elementary School Settings

Lloyd, B. P., Wehby, J. H., Weaver, E. S., Goldman, S. E., Harvey, M. N., & Sherlock, D. R. (2015). Implementation and Validation of Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Public Elementary School Settings. Journal of Behavioral Educaiton. 24(2), 167-195.

Although functional analysis (FA) remains the standard for identifying the function of problem behavior for students with developmental disabilities, traditional FA procedures are typically costly in terms of time, resources, and perceived risks. Preliminary research suggests that trial-based FA may be a less costly alternative. The purpose of this study was to add to the burgeoning evidence on trial-based FA. Working with students with disabilities, school-based paraprofessionals conducted trial-based FAs for four students with developmental disabilities emitting high-frequency problem behavior. We then conducted brief contingency reversals to assess validity of hypotheses derived from the trial-based FA. Results of the present study add to the small but growing evidence base validating the trial-based FA as a practical and flexible alternative to the standard FA in school settings.

Using a Function-Based Approach to Decrease Problem Behaviors and Increase Academic Engagement for Latino English Language Learners

Preciado J. A., Horner, R. H., & Baker, S. K. (2008). Using a Function-Based Approach to Decrease Problem Behaviors and Increase Academic Engagement for Latino English Language Learners. The Journal of Special Education, 42(4), 227-240

This study evaluates the effectiveness of a function-based intervention to improve behavior and reading outcomes for Latino English language learners (ELLs). The participants, four Latino ELLs in an elementary school general education setting, were directly observed over a 14-week period. Functional behavioral assessment via teacher interviews and archival reviews were conducted to establish a hypothesis regarding the maintaining function of students' problem behavior. A functional analysis was conducted to verify the function of students' problem behavior, and a single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-subjects design was used to document the relationship between reduction in problem behavior and implementation of language-matched instructional priming. Results documented a functional relationship between intervention and reduction of problem behavior.

Strategies for Developing and Carrying Out Functional Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning

Scott, T. M., Anderson, C. M., & Spaulding, S. A. (2008). Strategies for Developing and Carrying Out Functional Assessment and Behavior Intervention Planning. Prevention School Failure, 52(3), 39-49

Although the federal government recently mandated the use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) and positive behavioral interventions for students, this legislation has not defined the key features of FBA and has provided little guidance for how such procedures should be completed in a public school setting. As a result, recent evidence suggests that the FBAs in schools are conducted either with such a lack of rigor and logic as to be worthless or with such complexity and formality as to be unrealistic for the typical school setting. In this article, the authors provide a framework for conducting FBAs in classroom settings in typical schools. They provide an overview of the key concepts and features of FBA, describe how educators can efficiently conduct FBA in a classroom and how the results can be used to develop an individualized function-based behavior intervention plan, and make recommendations for teachers.

Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students With Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior

Sanford, A. K., & Horner, R. H. (2012). Effects of Matching Instruction Difficulty to Reading Level for Students With Escape-Maintained Problem Behavior. Journal of Positive Behavior Intervenitons, 5(2), 79-89

The effects of a literacy intervention matching student skill level with academic performance demands were examined through a multiple baseline across participants design. The dual dependent variables were problem behavior and academic engagement. Four students in Grades 2 or 3 who exhibited low academic performance and problem behavior during reading instruction participated. Functional behavioral assessment and oral reading fluency assessment indicated that each of the students (a) was at risk for reading difficulties and read at the frustration level in text used for reading instruction and (b) had escape-maintained problem behavior during instruction sessions. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design across students was used to assess the effects of matching reading instructional level (e.g., reducing the aversive level of instruction) on academic engagement and problem behavior. Matching the reading instructional level to the skill level of the students was associated with academic engagement increases and problem behavior decreases for three of the students. The fourth student demonstrated improvement during baseline that made effects of the intervention difficult to assess. Conceptual implications and suggestions for integrating behavioral and academic supports are explored.

Effects of a Comprehensive Function-Based Intervention Applied Across Multiple Educational Settings

Gann, C. J., Ferro, J. B., Umbreit, J., & Liaupsin, C. J. (2013). Effects of a Comprehensive Function-Based Intervention Applied Across Multiple Educational Settings. Remedial and Special Education, 35(1), 50-60.

This study examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a comprehensive function-based intervention applied across multiple inclusive classroom settings. The participant was a middle school student diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome who exhibited chronic off-task behaviors across all academic environments. This study was conducted across two phases: (a) A descriptive functional behavior assessment (FBA) was conducted across all inclusive classroom environments and (b) a single, comprehensive function-based intervention was developed based on the results of the FBA followed by the implementation of a comprehensive function-based intervention in each inclusive classroom environment using a multiple probe design. The comprehensive function-based intervention markedly improved the participant’s on-task behavior in each classroom setting. Furthermore, social validity ratings by each teacher revealed that the comprehensive, function-based intervention was preferable to the previously used classroom practices. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.

Functional Assessment and Positive Support Strategies for Promoting Resilience: Effects on Teachers and High-Risk Children

Stoiber, K. C., & Gettinger, M. (2011). Functional Assessment and Positive Support Strategies for Promoting Resilience: Effects on Teachers and High-Risk Children. Psychology in the Schools, 48(7), 686-706.

The purpose of this study was to conduct an experimental analysis of teachers' use of functional assessment (FA) and positive behavior support (PBS) for addressing challenging behaviors in young children. A group of 35 experimental teachers participated in professional development designed to provide step-by-step training and guided implementation of FA linked to PBS intervention planning for children identified with challenging behavior in prekindergarten through first-grade classrooms. A randomly designated group of 35 control teachers received neither training nor consultation for implementing FA and PBS. At post-intervention, experimental teachers reported increased resilience as evidenced in their significantly higher competence and self-efficacy along with greater utilization of FA and PBS practices compared with control teachers. Increased levels of resilience were also documented on multiple measures for experimental children with challenging behaviors who received FA and PBS. Specifically, experimental children demonstrated more positive behaviors and fewer challenging behaviors compared with control children at post-intervention. The findings offer empirical support for providing professional development in FA and PBS as a proactive strategy for promoting improved competence for teachers and, more importantly, for improving resilience among children with behavioral concerns.

Improving On-Task Behavior Using a Functional Assessment-Based Intervention in an Inclusive High School Setting

Majeika, C. E., Walder, J. P., Hubbard, J. P., Steeb, K. M., Ferris, G. J., Oakes, W. P., & Lane, K. L. (2011). Improving On-Task Behavior Using a Functional Assessment-Based Intervention in an Inclusive High School Setting. Beyond Behavior, 20(3), 55-66

A comprehensive, integrated, three-tiered model (CI3T) of prevention is a framework for proactively meeting students' academic, behavioral, and social skills. At the tertiary (Tier 3) level of prevention, functional-assessment based interventions (FABIs) may be used to identify, develop, and implement supports based on the function, or purpose, of target behaviors in their specified settings. FABIs have been shown to be more effective than interventions that simply increase reinforcement for desired behaviors and punish undesired behaviors. In this study, a FABI was conducted as a Tier 3 support in an inclusive high school implementing a CI3T model of prevention. Andrew was identified by his assistant principal as needing Tier 3 supports based on his low academic GPA, high number of office discipline referrals (ODRs), and ratings on the school's behavior screening data. A unique feature of this study was that it was conducted in Andrew's English class, which included a coteaching approach to instructional delivery. Three main questions were explored: (1) To what extent was the FABI effective in improving on-task behavior of a high school student taught in a cotaught, inclusive classroom?; (2) Was the intervention implemented as planned and viewed as acceptable by the participants?; and (3) Was it feasible for the special education teacher to assist with collecting data on student behavior in a reliable and feasible manner? Overall, the results demonstrated a functional relation between on-task behavior of a high school student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the intervention put in place in an inclusive English class. On-task behavior started out at low levels during baseline and increased during the first intervention phase. When the intervention was removed, Andrew's on-task behavior immediately decreased to levels similar to those of the first baseline. Finally, once the intervention was reintroduced Andrew's on-task behavior again immediately increased and remained at high rates through maintenance. This study also supports the potential feasibility of teachers as data collectors. The use of momentary time sampling by Mr. Vega, the special education teacher, was shown to be dually beneficial. First, this study demonstrates that data collection using momentary time sampling can unobtrusively be done within a teacher's instructional routine, particularly in a coteaching model. Second, it provided the teacher with a simple and practical method of collecting data and monitoring student performance that can be implemented without the assistance of outside personnel.

Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Interventions for Students with or At Risk for Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in School: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis

Gage, N. A., Lewis, T. J., & Stichter, J. P. (2012). Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Interventions for Students with or At Risk for Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in School: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis. Behavioral Disorders, 37(2), 55-77.

Of the myriad practices currently utilized for students with disabilities, particularly students with or at risk for emotional and/or behavioral disorder (EBD), functional behavior assessment (FBA) is a practice with an emerging solid research base. However, the FBA research base relies on single-subject design (SSD) and synthesis has relied on literature review or analyses using nonparametric effect size calculations. This study was designed to examine the omnibus effect that FBA-based interventions have on problem behaviors for students with or at risk for EBD in schools using a hierarchical linear modeling meta-analytic approach to SSD synthesis. Based on a sample of 69 FBA studies, 146 subjects, and 206 outcome graphs, results indicated that, overall, FBA-based interventions reduced problem behavior by an average of 70.5% and that the procedure was effective across all student characteristics. Differences of effectiveness were evident between functional analysis and descriptive assessment procedures. Findings of this study suggest that FBA based interventions for students with or at risk for EBD are an effective approach for the reduction of problem behaviors.

Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review

Wood, B. K., Drogan, R. R., & Janney, D. M. (2013). Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 34(1), 16-26.

Reviewers analyzed studies published from 1990 to 2012 to determine early childhood practitioner involvement in functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based behavioral intervention plans (BIP) for children with challenging behavior, age 6 and younger. Coding of 30 studies included practitioner involvement in FBA and BIP processes, training received to conduct FBAs and implement BIPs, and social validity and treatment integrity data. Findings indicate that early childhood practitioners had a limited role in FBAs and BIPs. Practitioner training occurred more often for the BIP than for the FBA. Approximately one fourth of the studies included a description of practitioners in a collaborative role with researchers during the FBA, and approximately one-half during the BIP process, even though practitioners implemented the BIP in the majority of studies reviewed. More than one half of the studies included social validity and/or treatment integrity measures.

Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems

McIntosh, K., & Hadas, A. (2007). Implications of Current Research on the Use of Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Support Planning in School Systems. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 3(1), 38-52.

Functional behavior assessment and function-based support have increasingly been used in school settings in the past decade. This increased use has come under scrutiny from some experts who have argued in the past that function-based support has not yet been proven to be effective in typical school settings with students without severe disabilities. But recent research has demonstrated its effectiveness in general education settings, and current researchis providing insight into procedures that can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of functional behavior assessment and function-based support in typical school settings. In this article the authors provide six guidelines for effective functional behavior assessment and support in school settings.

Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Match Task Difficulty for a 5th Grade Student: A Case Study

Haydon, T. (2012). Using Functional Behavior Assessment to Match Task Difficulty for a 5th Grade Student: A Case Study. Education and Treatment of Children, 35(3), 459-476.

We used an AB design with a control condition to examine the effects of an academic strategy on a student with a learning disability during a 5th grade math class. During baseline the student had high rates of disruptive behavior, low percentages of intervals of on-task behavior, and low percentages of correct responses. An antecedent-based intervention was developed to target the student's escape-maintained behavior during independent seatwork. The intervention consisted of matching task difficulty with the student's level of performance based on his success in a special education resource room. During intervention the targeted student demonstrated lower rates of disruptive behavior, higher levels of on-task behavior, and higher percentages of correct responses. The student's positive results were compared to his performance in a special education resource room. A discussion on study limitations, implications, and future research directions is included.

Student Risk Screening Scale – Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE)

The Student Risk Screening Scale – Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) is an adapted version of the SRSS (Drummond, 1994) and is available free-access.

Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System

Anthony, C. J., DiPerna, J. C., & Lei, Pui-Wa. (2016). Maximizing measurement efficiency of behavior rating scales using Item Response Theory: An example with the Social Skills Improvement System. Journal of School Psychology, 55, 57-67

Measurement efficiency is an important consideration when developing behavior rating scales for use in research and practice. Although most published scales have been developed within a Classical Test Theory (CTT) framework, Item Response Theory (IRT) offers several advantages for developing scales that maximize measurement efficiency. The current study provides an example of using IRT to maximize rating scale efficiency with the Social Skills Improvement System - Teacher Rating Scale (SSIS - TRS), a measure of student social skills frequently used in practice and research. Based on IRT analyses, 27 items from the Social Skills subscales and 14 items from the Problem Behavior subscales of the SSIS - TRS were identified as maximally efficient. In addition to maintaining similar content coverage to the published version, these sets of maximally efficient items demonstrated similar psychometric properties to the published SSIS - TRS.

Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale With Elementary Age English Learners

Lane, K. L., Richards-Tutor, C., Oakes, W. P., & Connor, K. (2013). Initial Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale With Elementary Age English Learners. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 39(4), 219-232.

We report findings of a validation study exploring the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond, 1994) for use with English learners (ELs) attending a large suburban elementary school. First, we explored the reliability of the SRSS by examining internal consistency, with results indicating adequate internal consistency (.83). Second, we examined and established a convergent validity of the SRSS scores with the social skills improvement system–performance screening guide (SSiS-PSG; Gresham & Elliott, 2007) and the systematic screening for behavior disorders (SSBD; Walker & Severson, 1992). Results indicated that SRSS scores were negatively correlated with SSiS-PSG scores, thereby suggesting that an increased behavioral risk is associated with decreases in teacher-reported reading performance, math performance, motivation to learn, and prosocial behaviors. In addition, the results yielded additional evidence of convergent validity with SSBD and SRSS scores. SRSS scores improved the chance estimates of predicting the internalizing behaviors of ELs (area under the curve [AUC] = .72) and externalizing behaviors of ELs (AUC = .98) as measured by the SSBD. Third, we examined the relation between SRSS scores and academic performance as measured by dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills Next (Good & Kaminski, 2011), which suggested an inverse relation (r = −.41). Fourth, we examined the teachers’ perceptions of the screening tool.

Systematic Screenings of Behavior to Support Instruction From Preschool to High School

Lane, K. L., Menzies, H. M., Oakes, W. P., & Kalberg, J. R. (2012) Systematic Screenings of Behavior to Support Instruction From Preschool to High School. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Straightforward, practical, and user friendly, this unique guide addresses an essential component of decision making in schools. The authors show how systematic screenings of behavior—used in conjunction with academic data—can enhance teachers' ability to teach and support all students within a response-to-intervention framework. Chapters review reliable, valid screening measures for all grade levels, discuss their strengths and weaknesses, and explain how to administer, score, and interpret them. Practitioners get helpful guidance for evaluating their school's needs and resources and making sound choices about which tools to adopt.

Development and Technical Characteristics of a Team Decision-Making Assessment Tool: Decision Observation, Recording, and Analysis (DORA)

Algozzine, B., Newton, J. S., Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., & Algozzine, K. (2012). Development and Technical Characteristics of a Team Decision-Making Assessment Tool: Decision Observation, Recording, and Analysis (DORA). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 30(3), 237-249.

Problem solving is fundamental to psychoeducational assessment practices and generally grounded in activities related to identifying problems, developing and refining hypotheses, generating solutions, developing and implementing actions, and evaluating outcomes. While the process is central to response-to-intervention practices as well, little research has addressed the form, content, or outcomes of decision-making teams as they operate in schools. One barrier to building a program of research on team problem solving has been the absence of a credible and feasible measure of team performance. We developed the Decision Observation, Recording, and Analysis (DORA) tool to document problem-solving behaviors during team meetings. We were interested in evaluating problem solving during team meetings that focus on academic and behavior concerns in school. We describe the development and preliminary psychometric data for DORA in this article. Our discussion focuses on the implications of DORA for expanding the study of team processes and for improvement of problem-solving practices in schools.

Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams

Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Newton, J. S., Algozzine, R. F., Algozzine, K. M., & Frank, J. L. (2011). Effects of Team-Initiated Problem Solving on Decision Making by Schoolwide Behavior Support Teams. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27(1), 42-59

The authors examined the problem-solving practices of school teams engaged in implementing and improving schoolwide behavior support implementation. A multiple baseline design across 4 elementary school teams was used to assess the effects of the Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) training program (1 day of team training plus 2 coached meetings). A direct observation data collection protocol--Decision Observation, Recording, and Analysis--was used to index if teams followed "meeting foundations" practices for effective problem solving (e.g., predictable agenda, stable participants, clear roles for facilitator, minute taker, data analyst) and "thorough problem solving" practices for building interventions (e.g., problem definition, use of data, solution development, action planning). Direct observation results indicate that 3 of the 4 teams demonstrated improved meeting foundations and problem-solving skills after TIPS training. The fourth team also performed well, but documented baseline patterns that were either at optimum levels (meeting foundations) or with an increasing trend (problem solving) that prevented demonstration of an intervention effect. Team members perceived their meetings after TIPS training as resulting in more effective problem solving. Collectively, the results are interpreted as demonstrating a functional relation between TIPS training and improved problem solving practices by school teams. Implications address how to improve team-based consultation and problem solving in schools.

Building local capacity for training and coaching data-based problem solving with positive behavior intervention and support teams

Newton, J. S., Algozzine, B., Algozzine, K., Robert, H., & Todd, A. W. (2011). Building local capacity for training and coaching data-based problem solving with positive behavior intervention and support teams. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27(3), 228-245

Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Teams use data to guide decisions about student social and academic behavior problems. In previous evaluation and research efforts, the authors taught team members to use Team-Initiated Problem Solving, a model that embeds data-based decision making into a broader problem-solving framework. In this study, the authors taught local trainer/coaches to deliver the problem-solving workshop to Positive Behavior Intervention and Support Team members. Trainer/coaches delivered the workshop and follow-up technical assistance with fidelity, and team members subsequently (a) used the problem-solving procedures in their meetings and (b) perceived positive differences between their pre- and postworkshop meetings. The study provides support for developing local capacity to deliver training and coaching, in particular as it concerns data-based decision making and problem solving.

A Comparison of Systematic Screening Tools for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Replication

Lane, K. L., Kalberg, J. R., Lambert, E. W., Crnobori, M., & Bruhn, A. L. (2009). A Comparison of Systematic Screening Tools for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Replication. Journal of Emotional and behavioral Disorders, 18(2), 100-112

In this article, the authors examine the psychometric properties of the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS), including evaluating the concurrent validity of the SRSS to predict results from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) when used to detect school children with externalizing or internalizing behavior concerns at three assessment points during one academic year. Results suggest strong internal consistency and test—retest stability. Analyses of receiver operating characteristics curves also suggest that the SRSS is more accurate for detecting externalizing than internalizing behaviors. The authors conclude by offering recommendations to school site teams and researchers interested in conducing systematic screenings at the elementary level. Limitations and future directions are offered.

Schoolwide Screening and Positive Behavior Supports: Identifying and Supporting Students at Risk for School Failure

Walker, B., Cheney, D., Scott, S. Blum, C., & Horner, R. H. (2005). Schoolwide Screening and Positive Behavior Supports: Identifying and Supporting Students at Risk for School Failure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 194-204

Schoolwide positive behavior supports (PBS) become more commonplace in public schools, efficiently and effectively identifying and supporting students who are at risk for school failure has become increasingly important. This descriptive study examines the functioning of 72 students identified as at risk in 3 elementary schools with established PBS systems, using schoolwide screening, rating scale instruments, and office discipline referrals. The students were identified through the use of the "Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders" (Walker & Severson, 1992) administered in the fall. School teams matched the identified students to existing supports and tracked their functioning twice monthly. Teachers completed the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham & Elliot, 1990) on each of the students in the following spring. The number of office discipline referrals for each student was monitored, as was the number of students referred to school-based support teams--such as a Student Study Team, a Functional Behavior Assessment Team--and the number of students who qualified for special education that year. Results suggest that students at risk for school failure are best identified by monitoring office discipline referrals and the use of a systematic schoolwide screening process.

Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Further Validation, Replication, and Normative Data

Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., Todis, B. J., Block-Pedego, A. E., & Williams, G. J. (1990). Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) Further Validation, Replication, and Normative Data. Remedial and Special Education, 11(2), 32-46.

Two studies probe validation, replication, and normative questions regarding the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) procedure. The first included teachers from 15 elementary schools, while the second drew from 2 school districts. Similar results from both studies supported SSBD validity. The second study also supported reliability and replicability factors.

Use of DBR in individualized intervention

Iovannone, R., & Briesch, A. M. (2016). Use of DBR in individualized intervention.  In A. M. Briesch, S. M. Chafouleas and T. C. Riley-Tillman (Eds.), Direct behavior rating: Linking assessment, communication, and intervention.  New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Grounded in state-of-the-art research, this practical guide comprehensively shows how to harness the potential of direct behavior rating (DBR) as a tool for assessment, intervention, and communication in schools. DBR can be used rapidly and efficiently in PreK-12 classrooms to support positive behavior and promote self-management. The authors and contributors provide concrete examples of ways to implement DBR strategies within multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS). The evidence base supporting each strategy is reviewed. More than 30 reproducible checklists and forms include step-by-step implementation blueprints, daily report cards, and more.

Inter-Rater Agreement of the Individualized Rating Scale Tool

Iovannone, R., Greenbaum, P.E., Wang, W., Dunlap, G., & Kincaid, D. (2014) Inter-Rater Agreement of the Individualized Rating Scale Tool. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 39(4), 195-207 Data assessment is critical for determining student behavior change in response to individualized behavior interventions in schools. This study examined the interrater agreement of the Individualized Behavior Rating Scale Tool (IBRST), a perceptual direct behavior rating tool that was used by typical school personnel to record behavior occurrence in students requiring individualized interventions. Two independent observers (teacher and data collector) used the IBRST to rate student-specific problem and appropriate behaviors during specified observation times. Data were collected across 19 students and agreement between raters was compared. Resulting linear- and quadratic-weighted kappa coefficients indicated generally adequate agreement between raters on problem behaviors and appropriate behaviors. When ratings were categorized into more or less salient behaviors, less than adequate agreement (<.60) was found for some behaviors that were less salient. Agreement remained stable from baseline to intervention. Implications for practice, limitations of the study, and directions for future research are discussed.

Creating Smarter Classrooms: Data-Based Decision Making for Effective Classroom Management

Gage, N.A. & McDaniel, S. (2012) Creating Smarter Classrooms: Data-Based Decision Making for Effective Classroom Management. Beyond Behavior, 22(1), 48-55 The term "data-based decision making" (DBDM) has become pervasive in education and typically refers to the use of data to make decisions in schools, from assessment of an individual student's academic progress to whole-school reform efforts. Research suggests that special education teachers who use progress monitoring data (a DBDM approach) adapt instructional practices and effectively use data more often than teachers who do not use progress monitoring. Using data in decision making helps teachers be objective in order to accurately identify a problem, identify a solution, and assess the solution's effectiveness. Students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD) demonstrate both academic and behavioral deficits. DBDM provides a framework that allows one to know whether something works or does not work, and based on that knowledge, to adapt or adopt new instructional practices to positively affect student outcomes.

The influence of alternative scale formats on the generalizability of data obtained from Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS)

Briesch, A.M., Kilgus, S.P., Chafouleas, S.M, Riley-Tillman, T.C., & Christ, T.J. (2013) The influence of alternative scale formats on the generalizability of data obtained from Direct Behavior Rating Single-Item Scales (DBR-SIS). Assessment for Effective Intervention, 38(2), 127-133 The current study served to extend previous research on scaling construction of Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) in order to explore the potential flexibility of DBR to fit various intervention contexts. One hundred ninety-eight undergraduate students viewed the same classroom footage but rated student behavior using one of eight randomly assigned scales (i.e., differed with regard to number of gradients, length of scale, discrete vs. continuous). Descriptively, mean ratings typically fell within the same scale gradient across conditions. Furthermore, results of generalizability analyses revealed negligible variance attributable to the facet of scale type or interaction terms involving this facet. Implications for DBR scale construction within the context of intervention-related decision making are presented and discussed.

The Influence of Observation Length on the Dependability of Data

Ferguson, T.D., Briesch, A.M., Volpe, R.J., & Daniels, B. (2012) The Influence of Observation Length on the Dependability of Data. School Psychology Quarterly, 27(4), 187-97 Although direct observation is one of the most frequently used assessment methods by school psychologists, studies have shown that the number of observations needed to obtain a dependable estimate of student behavior may be impractical. Because direct observation may be used to inform important decisions about students, it is crucial that data be reliable. Preliminary research has suggested that dependability may be improved by extending the length of individual observations. The purpose of the current study was, therefore, to examine how changes in observational duration affect the dependability of student engagement data. Twenty seventh grade students were each observed for 30-min across 2 days during math instruction. Generalizability theory was then used to calculate reliability-like coefficients for the purposes of intraindividual decision making. Across days, acceptable levels of dependability for progress monitoring (i.e., .70) were achieved through two 30-min observations, three 15-min observations, or four to five 10-min observations. Acceptable levels of dependability for higher stakes decisions (i.e., .80) required over an hour of cumulative observation time. Within a given day, a 15 minute observation was found to be adequate for making low-stakes decisions whereas an hour long observation was necessary for high-stakes decision making. Limitations of the current study and implications for research and practice are discussed.

Intensive Behavior Intervention: What Is It, What Is Its Evidence Base, and Why Do We Need to Implement Now?

Wehby, J. H. & Kern, L. (2014) The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained. TEACHING Exceptional Children, 46(4), 38-44 This article describes intensive behavior intervention that is used with students who have behavioural difficulties. Joseph H. Wehby and Lee Kern report on 35 years of research in this area and note two conclusions: (1) Students with significant behavioral difficulties, including those with emotional disturbance (ED), have among the poorest social and academic outcomes of any group of students; and (2) Teachers and other school personnel feel inadequately prepared to work with these students. A probable contributing factor to these poor school outcomes is that educators often receive inadequate training on managing and supporting students with significant behavior issues. Wehby and Kern introduce "Intensifying Behavioral Interventions with an Adaptive Intervention Approach," an idea that has its roots in the tradition of good clinical practice and DBI. Teachers can easily use their experience and history with a student or use response patterns shown on typical school measures to modify a particular behavior intervention. The article provides an example that illustrates the process of adaptation and uses the most frequently reported Tier 2 intervention (involving small-group support programs that incorporate validated methods to help students develop self-control strategies or enhance social relationships in addition to improving academic performance), then describes the intensive and individualized Tier 3--functional assessment process, a problem-solving approach that relies on selecting relevant environmental factors for identifying the primary motivations for problem behavior and using that information as the centerpiece for developing an individualized behavior intervention plan. As teachers move forward toward improving the outcomes for this difficult-to-teach population, systematic adaptations of Tier 2 interventions and individualization of support within a multitiered system may furnish the best avenue for meaningful change.

The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained

Riley-Tillman, T.C., Christ, T.J., Chafouleas, S.M., & Briesch, A. (2010) The Impact of Observation Duration on the Accuracy of Data Obtained. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 12(2)  In this study, evaluation of direct behavior rating (DBR) occurred with regard to two primary areas: (a) accuracy of ratings with varied instrumentation (anchoring: proportional or absolute) and procedures (observation length: 5 min, 10 min, or 20 min) and (b) one-week test-retest reliability. Participants viewed video clips of a typical third grade student and then used single-item DBR scales to rate disruptive and academically engaged behavior. Overall, ratings tended to overestimate the actual occurrence of behavior. Although ratings of academic engagement were not affected by duration of the observation, ratings of disruptive behavior were, as the longer the duration, the more the ratings of disruptive behavior were overestimated. In addition, the longer the student was disruptive, the greater the overestimation effect. Results further revealed that anchoring the DBR scale as proportional versus absolute number of minutes did not affect rating accuracy. Finally, test-retest analyses revealed low to moderate consistency across time points for 10-min and 20-min observations, with increased consistency as the number of raters or number of ratings increased (e.g., four 5-min vs. one 20-min). Overall, results contribute to the technical evaluation of DBR as a behavior assessment method and provide preliminary information regarding the influence of duration of an observation period on DBR data.

Usefulness of Different Types of Assessment Data in Diagnosing and Planning for a Student with High-Functioning Autism.

Spears, R., Tollefson, N., & Simpson, R. (2001) Usefulness of Different Types of Assessment Data in Diagnosing and Planning for a Student with High-Functioning Autism. Behavioral Disorders, v26 n3, 227-42 A study examined 149 urban and rural school psychologists' abilities to use formal and informal assessment data to diagnose autism and plan an effective educational program for a student with high-functioning autism. Respondents had difficulty recognizing autism but were able to select appropriate Individualized Education Program goals for the student.

Data-Based Program Modification: A Manual.

Deno, Stanley L. & Mirkin, Phyllis K. (1977). Data-Based Program Modification: A Manual. Presented is an empirically oriented, data based program modification (DBPM) manual for individualizing educational plans for any child with a learning or behavioral problem. The rationale for an empirically based program, the socio-legal context, and specific measurement and evaluation procedures (e.g. time series procedures and discrepancy measurement) are described in Part I. Covered in Part II is the sequencing of initial assessment and in Part III a program planning sequence is provided. Program implementation, adjustment, and certification are discussed in Parts IV, V, and VI. Consultation, training, and the indirect role of the resource teacher are treated in Part VII. Featured throughout is the application of DBPM to the case of a hypothetical child. Three appendixes provide appropriate questions for each decision area of the DBPM, case report summaries, and a list of change strategies.

Collecting Behavioral Data in General Education Settings: A Primer for Behavioral Data Collection

Lee, D. L., Vostal, B. R., Lylo, B., & Hua, Y. (2011). Collecting behavioral data in general education settings: A primer for behavioral data collection. Beyond Behavior, 20, 22-30. The article provides insights on the steps for collecting behavioral data in general education settings. Teachers are advised to create a schedule for data collection. The importance of defining the target behavior of interest after the creation of the schedule is emphasized. Among the features of graphed data used to identify intervention effectiveness are the level of the first data points compared with baseline and changes in behavior as a result of the intervention.

Impact of PCP and PBS Plan Tool

This tool is used to review the impact of the PCP and PBS plan on the student as reflected by the written report for intensive tertiary support. This could be considered as a more in depth analysis of a PBS plan for a very complex plan.

Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities

This book presents information and evidence-based practices for dealing with the full range curriculum and instruction for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and autism. Case studies throughout Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities look at students of various ages and with a variety of disabilities, and each chapter includes an application to a student with autism. The content is presented with citations of supportive research, and the evidence-based practices are presented in clearly defined ways to ensure that teachers understand the practices and how to apply them in their own classrooms. PowerPoint slides created by the chapter authors are available for course instructors.

School-Wide Screening for At-risk Students: Best Practices and School Examples

Lewis, T., Powers, L., & Dixon, E.

The presentation describes how information from behavior and academic screening tools can be used.

Team Driven Tertiary Process: The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model

The presentation describes an individual positive behavior support process for use in the classroom and list factors impacting the effectiveness of an individual behavior support process.

Behavior Intervention Planning: Using the Functional Behavior Assessment Data

A CD-Rom based training tool that trains individuals to develop behavior intervention plans using the results of functional assessment.

BSP Critical Features Checklist

It provides an excellent example of a method to track and evaluate the development of a behavior support and the necessary component steps for practical implementation.

FBA and BIP Technical Adequacy Tool for Evaluation (TATE)

This session describes the TATE, a tool used to evaluate the quality of completed FBA/BIPs. Participants will practice using the tool with case examples and leave the session with a copy of the tool.

BIP Template

Behavior Intervention Plan

F-BSP Protocol

Functional Behavioral Assessment Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP) Protocol

Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)

The FACTS is a two-page interview used by school personnel who are building behavior support plans for tertiary level supports. The FACTS is intended to be an efficient strategy for initial functional behavioral assessment. The FACTS is completed by people (teachers, family, clinicians) who know the student best, and used to either build behavior support plans, or guide more complete functional assessment efforts. The FACTS can be completed in a short period of time (5-15 min). Efficiency and effectiveness in completing the forms increases with practice.

Florida RtI:B

The RtI:B Database is a free online data system for Florida schools.

The Behavior Support Plan Critical Features Checklist

It provides an excellent example of a method to track and evaluate the development of a behavior support and the necessary component steps for practical implementation.

Data Tracking – PBIS World

Data Tracking Tools

Green Hills AEA Challenging Behavior Team Data Collection Resources

These tools may support you in conducting functional behavior assessments and progress monitoring intervention efforts. From single incidents to a years worth of behavior journals; we hope we can help you in organizing and interpreting information that will lead to a supportive and effective intervention.

Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR)

Solve serious behavior challenges in K–8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by typical behavior management strategies.

ABC Observation Form

This is a form that could be used to record the "Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence's" during a behavioral observation.

MyDBR Connect

DBR Connect is a behavioral assessment that can be used to screen at-risk students and monitor their behavior before, during, and after an intervention is implemented. It is one of the few behavior rating systems that allows users to enter data online and easily chart students’ progress over time.

Individual Student Intervention System, ISIS-SWIS

ISIS-SWIS completes the comprehensive, three-tiered information system by focusing data entry to Intensive (Tier III) interventions for individual students. ISIS-SWIS is a decision system for students receiving more intensive supports for academic, social, or mental health services.

Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples.

Scott, T., & Eber, L. (2003). Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples. Journal of Positive Behavior Supports, 5, 131–143.

This article proposes a framework for expanding the traditional presentation of wraparound and FBA to (a) view wraparound and FBA as concepts that are inextricably linked at the core of each level of the proactive systemic process of PBS and (b) understand how wraparound and FBA are critical features of prevention as well as intervention for creating safer schools for all students.

Practical Functional Behavioral Assessment Training Manual for School-Based Personnel

This guide is designed to train school-based personnel with flexible roles in a school to conduct practical functional behavioral assessments (FBA).

Behavior Support Plan Template

Behavior Support Team Planning Guide.  Incorporates Competing Pathway Chart along with other planning tools for creating a positive and proactive intervention plan.

Tier 3/Tertiary Series Training Resource Guide from Illinois PBIS

This training resource guide provides: 1) training course materials, 2) initial & advanced training activities, 3) evaluation tools, 4) wraparound, 5) team development and action planning strategies, 6) crisis planning, and 7) team planning tools for tertiary level support.

Using an RTI model to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment (Washington Association of School Administrators)

The presentation describes: 1) a summary of an integrated model for behavior support systems within a school, 2) the role of function-based support, and 3) a clarification of protocol for moving from functional behavioral assessment to behavior support plan design/implementation.

Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans Using Functional Behavior Assessments (APBS 08)

The presentation provides critical features and practices of behavior intervention plans based on FBA.

Interventions for Children with ADHD (APBS 08)

This additional resource shares various tips and tools for children with ADHD.

Designing Evaluation Measures for Tertiary Training Systems in Positive Behavior Support (APBS 08)

The presentation describes how the tertiary trainer of trainer system fits within Kansas. It also emphasizes how formative and summative evaluation is used to improve training and presents process for designing tools and data systems over 5 years.

Developing Feasible & Effective Interventions Based on Functional Behavior Assessment (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation focuses on: 1) Current updates on guidelines for conducting functional behavioral assessments, 2) Use of the Competing Behavior Model as a framework for moving from FBA to Behavior Support Plan, and 3) Elements and format for writing, monitoring and adapting behavior support plans.

Taking Positive Behavior Support to Scale in Juvenile Justice Settings (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation discusses what “going to scale” means in public schools and juvenile justice settings and provides exemplars (NC Department of Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention).

Interagency/Community-Based Planning: State & District Level Planning for Tertiary Support (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describes assessment and action planning for community involvement at the state and district level and provides an example of interagency collaboration in Kansas.

Family/Community Partnerships & PBS (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation provides opportunity to reflect on current status of school/family/community partnerships, discusses the larger systems context for this work from the state and district levels, focusing on training and technical assistance models, and finally reviews systems, data and practices which enhance these valuable partnerships between school, family and community.

RtI Model of Continuum of Support: Kansas-Illinois Tertiary Demo Center (Chicago Forum-07)

General overreview of K-I tertiary demo project using RtI model and current implementation status.

Team Driven Tertiary Process: The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation describe an individual positive behavior support process for use in the classroom and list factors impacting the effectiveness of an individual behavior support process.

Using Rewards Effectively within PBIS (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation focuses on: 1) challenges faced in many schools, 2) research foundations, and 3) examples of reward use at all grade levels.

Wraparound as a Tertiary Level Process (Chicago Forum-07)

The presentation session is about individualized wraparound service within SW PBS. It describes general features of wraparound and examples of implementation.

Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools

Moreno, G., Wong-Lo, M., & Bullock, L. M. (2014). Assisting Students From Diverse Backgrounds With Challenging Behaviors: Incorporating a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioral Assessment in Pre-referral Services. Preventing School Failure, 58(1), 58-68.

The student population across U.S. schools has become increasingly diverse and has presented educators with a number of concerns in assisting students demonstrating challenging behaviors. Educators have historically had difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine indicators of emotional and behavioral disorders. It is unfortunate that this difficulty has contributed to a disproportional representation of students from diverse backgrounds in the disability category of emotional and behavioral disorders. However, the functional behavioral assessment continues to serve as an effective process to better understand challenging behaviors, particularly when it is culturally attuned to the needs of diverse student populations. The authors discuss the significance in meeting the needs of diverse populations, provide an overview of the functional behavioral assessment process, and present considerations in creating a culturally attuned functional behavioral assessment.

An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies with School-Based Teams

Scott, T. M., McIntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., & Conroy, M. (2005). An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies With School-Based Teams. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4). 205-215

Although functional behavior assessment (FBA) is widely advocated as best practice in developing effective behavior intervention plans for students with challenging behaviors, there is no compelling evidence supporting the ability of school-based personnel to use the outcomes of FBA to develop effective interventions. In this study, selected staff members from four elementary schools were trained in how to use the outcomes of an FBA to develop function-based intervention plans. They then formed school-based intervention teams and served as facilitators for a total of 31 cases. The same cases also were distributed to three national FBA experts who selected interventions based on the identified function for each case. The number and type of selected intervention strategies were recorded and analyzed across cases. Comparisons between team and expert intervention strategy selection revealed that school-based personnel in this study were more likely to select punitive and exclusionary strategies, regardless of function. Thus, in real-world school settings, the link between FBA and intervention is far more complex than has been recognized or discussed in the literature. Discussion focuses on possible explanations for the finding that school-based teams tend to gravitate toward more negative and exclusionary strategies, even when mediated by a trained FBA facilitator.

Using Functional Behavior Assessment in General Education Settings: Making a Case for Effectiveness and Efficiency

Scott, T. M., Bucalos, M., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette K., & DeShea, L. (2004). Using Functional Behavior Assessment in General Education Settings: Making a Case for Effectiveness and Efficiency. Behavioral Disorders, 29(2), 189-201.

Under the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, schools have a legal obligation to conduct functional behavior assessments (FBAs) when developing intervention plans for students with disabilities whose behaviors lead their individualized education program teams to consider a change in educational placement, including suspension and expulsion. However, FBA also holds significant promise as a procedure to be used proactively with students with behavioral challenges who are educated in part, or wholly, in general education classrooms. Unfortunately, current conceptualizations of FBA as a methodologically rigorous procedure pose significant and possibly insurmountable barriers to proactive implementation in general education settings. The authors analyze these barriers through a targeted review of the literature, an examination of how the characteristics of general education settings promote the use of less demanding FBA methodologies, and a consideration of situations in which certain FBA procedures generally are contraindicated. Finally, they advocate an active research agenda that is responsive to the particular challenges of public school settings and FBA students with and at risk for mild disabilities.

Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems

Scott, T. M., & Caron, D. B. (2005). Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems. Preventing School Failure, 50(1), 13-20.

Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple and realistic team-driven assessment and intervention strategies aimed at students with mildly challenging behaviors. As tertiary prevention, FBA is complex, time-consuming, and rigorous--aimed at students for whom all previous intervention attempts have been unsuccessful. Whereas the concepts of prediction, function, and prevention remain constant at all levels of positive behavior support, the considerations for and form of FBA may vary greatly. The authors present the application of FBA practices at each of the three levels of a system of positive behavior support.

Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff FBA intervention measure

McIntosh, K., Borgmeier, C., Anderson, C. M., Horner, R. H., Rodriguez, B. J., & Tobin, T. J. (2008). Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff FBA intervention measure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 33-45.

With the recent increase in the use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) in school settings, there has been an emphasis in practice on the development and use of effective, efficient methods of conducting FBAs, particularly indirect assessment tools such as interviews. There are both benefits and drawbacks to these tools, and their technical adequacy is often unknown. This article presents a framework for assessing the measurement properties of FBA interview tools and uses this framework to assess evidence for reliability and validity of one interview tool, the Functional Assessment Checklist. Teachers and Staff (FACTS; March et al., 2000). Results derived from 10 research studies using the FACTS indicate strong evidence of test-retest reliability and interobserver agreement, moderate to strong evidence of convergent validity with direct observation and functional analysis procedures, strong evidence of treatment utility, and strong evidence of social validity. Results are discussed in terms of future validation research for FBA methods and tools.

Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA: Indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans

Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & George, S. (2005). Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA: Indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224-236.

Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) has been suggested for facilitating the development and effectiveness of behavior intervention plans. In this study, the researchers examined whether behavior intervention plans based on FBA information (function-based) were more effective than behavior intervention plans not based on FBA information (non-function- based) in affecting rates of problem behaviors displayed by two middle school students. Single- subject ABCBC designs were used to demonstrate a functional relationship between student responding and function-based and non-function-based behavior intervention plans. Results indicated that the use of FBA-based intervention plans was associated with greater improvements in lowering the number of problem behaviors. Implications and limitations for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

Adding functional behavioral assessment to First Step to Success: A case study

Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2007). Adding functional behavioral assessment to First Step to Success: A case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 229-238.

First Step to Success is a manualized early intervention program with documented success in reducing the problem behavior of young children. Walker and colleagues (2005) are now engaged in analyses of variables that will increase the proportion of children for whom First Step is effective. A possible enhancement to the First Step to Success protocol is the use of functional behavioral assessment and individualized, function-based behavior support. The present analysis provides a case study with one 6-year-old student who received First Step to Success. Following the coaching phase of First Step, a reversal design was employed in which function-based features of behavior support were withdrawn and then re-implemented. Analysis of problem behavior and academic engagement data suggests that incorporation of function based features enhanced the impact of First Step to Success. Implications for modifications of the First Step protocol and future research are provided.

An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements

Borgmeier, C., Horner, R. H., & Koegel, L. K. (2006). An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 100-105.

Faced with limited resources, schools require tools that increase the accuracy and efficiency of functional behavioral assessment. Yarbrough and Carr (2000) provided evidence that informant confidence ratings of the likelihood of problem behavior in specific situations offered a promising tool for predicting the accuracy of function-based hypotheses developed from staff interviews. The current study evaluated conditions in which a similar rating of informant confidence was effective in predicting the accuracy of functional assessment hypothesis statements. Nine students with problem behavior were identified, and functional behavioral assessment interviews with confidence scores were completed with 58 staff members. Between five and eight adults were interviewed about each student. The adults were selected based on their range of contact with the student (0 to 10+ hours per week) and their self-assessed knowledge about behavioral theory (no knowledge to extensive knowledge). Functional analyses were conducted to assess agreement with functional assessment hypotheses and the predictive value of confidence ratings. Results suggested limitations to the general use of confidence ratings in distinguishing accurate from inaccurate functional hypotheses across school staff with a broad range of contact with the target student. The study did find that informants who were both highly confident and who identified accurate functional assessment hypotheses had significantly higher levels of contact with the student in the target routine than those informants who had low confidence ratings and/or identified an incorrect function for the problem behavior.

Promoting Inclusion and Peer Participation through Assessment-Based Intervention

Blair, K. S. C., Umbreit, J., Dunlap, G., & Jung, G. (2007). Promoting Inclusion and Peer Participation through Assessment-Based Intervention. Early Childhood Special Education, 27(3), 134-147.

In the current investigation, the processes of functional assessment and function-based intervention were used to resolve the severe challenging behaviors of a boy with autism and mental retardation in an inclusive kindergarten in South Korea. A multicomponent intervention was developed in collaboration with classroom personnel and was implemented entirely by the teacher and an aide in the context of a multiple-baseline-across-activities experimental design. Results were empirical validation of hypotheses derived from the functional assessment, as well as lower levels of challenging behaviors and increased rates of appropriate behaviors associated with the intervention. Positive interactions with a designated classroom peer and with the teacher also increased. The findings are discussed as contributions to the growing literature on functional assessment and function-based supports and the importance of promoting successful inclusive experiences for young children with disabilities.

Effects of Behavior Support Team Composition on the Technical Adequacy and Contextual Fit of Behavior Support Plans

Benazzi, L., Horner R. H., & Good, R. H. (2006). Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans. The Journal of Special Education, 40(3), 160-170

This study examined how the composition of a behavior support team affected use of assessment information in the design of behavior support plans. Specifically, we examined if typical teams designed behavior support plans that differed in (a) technical adequacy and/or (b) contextual fit when (1) teams did not include behavior specialists, (2) teams included behavior specialists, or (3) behavior specialists worked alone. Fifty-eight school personnel on 12 behavior support teams from typical elementary schools and 6 behavior specialists participated in the study. Vignettes describing hypothetical students with functional behavior assessment outcome information were used to develop 36 behavior support plans (12 by teams alone, 12 by specialists alone, and 12 by teams with specialists). Results were assessed by 3 expert behavior analysts for technical adequacy and by all 64 team members for contextual fit. Technical adequacy tended to be rated high if specialists alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Contextual fit tended to be rated high when teams alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Team members ranked plans developed by the team alone and plans developed by the team with a specialist as preferred for implementation over plans developed by a specialist alone. Implications for the selection of behavior support team membership are discussed.

Team-Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers

Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., & Mclntyre, J. (2005). Team Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14(1), 57-71

Although functional behavior assessment (FBA) has been widely recognized as a promising practice for providing proactive interventions with students exhibiting challenging behaviors in typical schools, questions persist as to how FBA should best be trained and used in such public settings. Debate has balanced the issue of what is practical for public school personnel and whether FBA can ever reach that level of practicality while maintaining a level of integrity necessary to be a valid technology for behavior intervention. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the perceptions and practices of 13 school-based FBA teams that included one or more members who received a 1-day workshop on FBA. Teams were asked to respond to a brief questionnaire regarding their perceptions of the process, what information they found useful, and how that information was used. Results indicate several problem issues and barriers that must be addressed before team-based FBA is widely advocated and practiced in public school settings. Sample team responses and discussion of future directions are included.

Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions

Newcomer, L. L., & Lewis, T. J. (2004). Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(3), 168-181

This study investigated (a) the efficacy of using descriptive and experimental assessment methodologies to generate hypotheses regarding the function of problem behavior and (b) the efficiency and efficacy of function-based interventions compared to traditional intervention approaches that focus on the topography of behavior. Functional assessments were conducted with three elementary school students identified as at risk for failure due to problem behavior. Agreement among indirect measures, direct observation, and experimental manipulation of environmental variables supports the value of using convergent data from indirect assessment methods to develop valid hypotheses. In addition, behavioral interventions based on functional assessment were found to be more effective than alternative intervention approaches across all three case studies. Implications, study limitations, and future research directions are discussed.

Family involvement in functional assessment and positive behavior support

Dunlap, G., Newton, J. S., Fox, L., Benito, N., & Vaughn, B. (2001). Family Involvement in Functional Assessment and Positive Behavior Support. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(4), 215-221

Discussion of family involvement in functional assessment (FA) with individuals who have autism or related disabilities first provides a rationale for family involvement, then reviews the literature and offers guidelines including: recognize, respect, and accommodate families' individuality; create a context for family centered participation; take a comprehensive perspective; and develop and maintain a team partnership.

Person-centered Positive Behavior Support Plan Scoring Criteria and Checklist

This tool is used to review and score intensive person centered and positive behavior support plans. The critical features met are summarized and reported for training and evaluation purposes

Problem Behavior Pathway – “Analysis of the Problem Behavior”

This is a pathway chart that allows individuals to the "A-B-C" of behavior.

Person-centered Process Facilitator Tip Sheet

Provides quick tips to fill out a path.

Blank PATH Form

Blank PATH form to aid coach in person-centered planning.

Behavior Intervention Planning: Using the Functional Behavior Assessment Data

A CD-Rom based training tool that trains individuals to develop behavior intervention plans using the results of functional assessment.

Writing a Behavioral Intervention Plan Based on a Functional Assessment

This is a workbook format for anyone working with children who exhibit target behaviors. It takes the learner through ten days of data using an ABC data collection tool, uses competing pathways charts, and teaches how to look for the function of the behavior.

Self-Assessment of Contextual Fit in Schools

The purpose of this interview is to assess the extent to which the elements of a behavior support plan fit the contextual features of your school environment. The interview asks you to rate (a) your knowledge of the elements of the plan, (b) your perception of the extent to which the elements of the behavior support plan are consistent with your personal values, and skills, and (c) the school's ability to support implementation of the plan.

Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)

The FACTS is a two-page interview used by school personnel who are building behavior support plans for tertiary level supports. The FACTS is intended to be an efficient strategy for initial functional behavioral assessment. The FACTS is completed by people (teachers, family, clinicians) who know the student best, and used to either build behavior support plans, or guide more complete functional assessment efforts. The FACTS can be completed in a short period of time (5-15 min). Efficiency and effectiveness in completing the forms increases with practice.

Increasing Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Support meets Response to Intervention (Region XI, Ft. Worth Texas)

The slides show essential features of SWPBS and RtI. The content includes SWPBS overview, implementation examples, prevention & supports for identified and as-risk students, Maryland PBS case examples, small group intervention, individual support, and Rtl.

Function - based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Colorado PBS training)

Critical features of Functional Behavior Assessment. The presentation describes behavioral function, functional behavior assessment, behavior support elements, and competing pathways.

Understanding and Responding to Escalating Behavior

Corresponding document on 'Understanding and Responding to Escalating Behavior' presentation by Dr. Sugai and Dr. Colvin.

Functional Assessment & Positive Behavior Support Plans (OSEP Forum on IDEA)

The presentation describes basic Steps in FBA-BIP Process. Main topics include 1)Conduct functional behavioral assessment, 2) Create plan based on functional assessment outcome, 3) Develop infra-structure to support behavior change (system change), 4) Positive Behavior Support Plan, 5) Teach replacement behavior(s) that result in same/similar outcome, 6) Environment should not allow problem behavior to result in previous outcomes, and 7) Ideally replacement behavior should be more efficient than problem behavior.

PBIS, Functional Behavioral Assessment, BIP Development, and Manifestation Determination (OSEP Regional Meeting)

The slides were compiled by the OSEP PBIS TA Center with assistance on manifestation determination from Mitchell Yell at University of South Carolina. The slides were developed to assist school personnel and others in conducting FBAs, developing BIPs and conducting MDs based on current research and best practice. Opinions expressed are those of the authors and no endorsement from the Department of Education should be inferred. Research and best practice presented is not in conflict with the IDEA or subsequent regulation but may go beyond those requirements. This information is intended to be supplemental and NOT a replacement for careful study and application of IDEA and its regulations.

Function-based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Orange County training)

Critical features of: Functional Behavior Assessment. The presentation describes behavioral function, functional behavior assessment, behavior support elements, and competing pathways.