Tier 3 Supports

    Tier 3 Supports (Tertiary Level Prevention)

    Positive behavior intervention and support is an application of a behaviorally-based systems approach to enhance the capacity of schools, families, and communities to design effective environments that improve the fit or link between research-validated practices and the environments in which teaching and learning occurs. Attention is focused on creating and sustaining Tier 1 (universal for ALL students), Tier 2 (targeted group support for SOME students), and Tier 3 (individual support for a FEW students) systems of support that improve lifestyle results (personal, health, social, family, work, recreation) for all children and youth by making problem behavior less effective, efficient, and relevant, and desired behavior more functional.


    ISSET (Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool)

    The ISSET is a research tool designed to assess the implementation status of secondary (targeted) and tertiary (intensive) systems within a school.

    Benchmarks for Advanced Tiers (BAT)

    The BAT allows school teams to self-assess the implementation status of Tiers 2 (secondary, targeted) and 3 (tertiary, intensive) behavior support systems.

    Bridging Primary & Secondary/Tertiary Tier Practices & Systems: Responding to Unresponsive Behavior (Rhode Island PBIS)

    This presentation focuses on responding to norm-violating behavior and individualized behavior intervention plans as well as general overview of SWPBS.

    Responding to Non-Responsive Behavior: Basic Practices and Systems (Rhode Island PBIS)

    This document provides core components, tips, recommendations, and assessment tools for all levels of SWPBS implementation.

    Behavior Support Plan Template

    Behavior Support Team Planning Guide.  Incorporates Competing Pathway Chart along with other planning tools for creating a positive and proactive intervention plan.

    Tier 3/Tertiary Series Training Resource Guide from Illinois PBIS

    This training resource guide provides: 1) training course materials, 2) initial & advanced training activities, 3) evaluation tools, 4) wraparound, 5) team development and action planning strategies, 6) crisis planning, and 7) team planning tools for tertiary level support.

    SWPBS & RTI for All (CT Developmental Disabilities Conference-Cromwell, CT)

    The presentation provides brief overview of School-wide Positive Behavior Support & Response-to-Intervention for EVERYONE in school.

    SWPBS & Inclusion: Features, Examples, and Data (Global Summit on Disabilities and Inclusion-Washington DC)

    It describes Positive Behavior Support as it relates to inclusion in school for children with disabilities.

    Active Decision-making and Using Data within Individual Student Support (Lincoln Nebraska)

    The presentation describes: 1) collection and use of data for decision making and 2) extension of data-based decision making logic to individual student supports.

    Using an RTI model to Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment (Washington Association of School Administrators)

    The presentation describes: 1) a summary of an integrated model for behavior support systems within a school, 2) the role of function-based support, and 3) a clarification of protocol for moving from functional behavioral assessment to behavior support plan design/implementation.

    Impacting Classrooms for Students with EBD (APBS 08)

    The presentation introduces effective classroom management and a model for students with EBS.

    Writing Behavioral Intervention Plans Using Functional Behavior Assessments (APBS 08)

    The presentation provides critical features and practices of behavior intervention plans based on FBA.

    How to Make a PowerPoint Relationship Narrative (APBS 08)

    Use of PowerPoint or Windows Movie Maker for behavior support strategies.

    Interventions for Children with ADHD (APBS 08)

    This additional resource shares various tips and tools for children with ADHD.

    Designing Evaluation Measures for Tertiary Training Systems in Positive Behavior Support (APBS 08)

    The presentation describes how the tertiary trainer of trainer system fits within Kansas. It also emphasizes how formative and summative evaluation is used to improve training and presents process for designing tools and data systems over 5 years.

    Effectiveness Of The Continuum Of All Levels Of SWPBS In Classroom (APBS 08)

    The presentation shares a research case about individual students. It shows that the effectiveness of behavior support can be maximized when all three levels of PBS are inplace and balanced well.

    Developing Feasible & Effective Interventions Based on Functional Behavior Assessment (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation focuses on: 1) Current updates on guidelines for conducting functional behavioral assessments, 2) Use of the Competing Behavior Model as a framework for moving from FBA to Behavior Support Plan, and 3) Elements and format for writing, monitoring and adapting behavior support plans.

    Taking Positive Behavior Support to Scale in Juvenile Justice Settings (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation discusses what “going to scale” means in public schools and juvenile justice settings and provides exemplars (NC Department of Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention).

    Interagency/Community-Based Planning: State & District Level Planning for Tertiary Support (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation describes assessment and action planning for community involvement at the state and district level and provides an example of interagency collaboration in Kansas.

    Strategies for Reluctant Learners (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation shares current research, readiness tools, and successful activities with reluctant to change or low performers.

    Family/Community Partnerships & PBS (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation provides opportunity to reflect on current status of school/family/community partnerships, discusses the larger systems context for this work from the state and district levels, focusing on training and technical assistance models, and finally reviews systems, data and practices which enhance these valuable partnerships between school, family and community.

    Assessing Secondary/Tertiary Fidelity Using the Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (I-SSET) (Chicago Forum-07)

    Overview of newly developed the individual student systems evaluation tool (I-SSET)

    RtI Model of Continuum of Support: Kansas-Illinois Tertiary Demo Center (Chicago Forum-07)

    General overreview of K-I tertiary demo project using RtI model and current implementation status.

    Team Driven Tertiary Process: The Prevent-Teach-Reinforce Model (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation describe an individual positive behavior support process for use in the classroom and list factors impacting the effectiveness of an individual behavior support process.

    Using Rewards Effectively within PBIS (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation focuses on: 1) challenges faced in many schools, 2) research foundations, and 3) examples of reward use at all grade levels.

    Wraparound as a Tertiary Level Process (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation session is about individualized wraparound service within SW PBS. It describes general features of wraparound and examples of implementation.

    Evaluating Systems of Support for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) (Chicago Forum-07)

    The presentation is about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and PBS system. It includes: 1) Quick overview of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 2) ASD and Schools: Challenges for Systems, 3) Some Issues for Systems Change, and 4) Some Evaluation Issues.

    Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools

    Moreno, G., Wong-Lo, M., & Bullock, L. M. (2014). Assisting Students From Diverse Backgrounds With Challenging Behaviors: Incorporating a Culturally Attuned Functional Behavioral Assessment in Pre-referral Services. Preventing School Failure, 58(1), 58-68.

    The student population across U.S. schools has become increasingly diverse and has presented educators with a number of concerns in assisting students demonstrating challenging behaviors. Educators have historically had difficulties in distinguishing between cultural differences and genuine indicators of emotional and behavioral disorders. It is unfortunate that this difficulty has contributed to a disproportional representation of students from diverse backgrounds in the disability category of emotional and behavioral disorders. However, the functional behavioral assessment continues to serve as an effective process to better understand challenging behaviors, particularly when it is culturally attuned to the needs of diverse student populations. The authors discuss the significance in meeting the needs of diverse populations, provide an overview of the functional behavioral assessment process, and present considerations in creating a culturally attuned functional behavioral assessment.

    Supporting Successful Transition to Kindergarten: General Challenges and Specific Implications for Students with Problem Behavior

    The purpose of this review is to present factors that impede and promote successful transition to kindergarten, with a focus on the specific needs of students with problem behavior. The review addresses competencies that teachers report are critical for success in kindergarten, traditional transition practices, and challenges in implementing transition practices. Suggestions are provided to begin to attend to some of the issues affecting successful transition for children with challenging behavior and include an overarching framework to better support transition practices and specific suggestions for appropriate supports.

    An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies with School-Based Teams

    Scott, T. M., McIntyre, J., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., & Conroy, M. (2005). An Examination of the Relation Between Functional Behavior Assessment and Selected Intervention Strategies With School-Based Teams. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4). 205-215

    Although functional behavior assessment (FBA) is widely advocated as best practice in developing effective behavior intervention plans for students with challenging behaviors, there is no compelling evidence supporting the ability of school-based personnel to use the outcomes of FBA to develop effective interventions. In this study, selected staff members from four elementary schools were trained in how to use the outcomes of an FBA to develop function-based intervention plans. They then formed school-based intervention teams and served as facilitators for a total of 31 cases. The same cases also were distributed to three national FBA experts who selected interventions based on the identified function for each case. The number and type of selected intervention strategies were recorded and analyzed across cases. Comparisons between team and expert intervention strategy selection revealed that school-based personnel in this study were more likely to select punitive and exclusionary strategies, regardless of function. Thus, in real-world school settings, the link between FBA and intervention is far more complex than has been recognized or discussed in the literature. Discussion focuses on possible explanations for the finding that school-based teams tend to gravitate toward more negative and exclusionary strategies, even when mediated by a trained FBA facilitator.

    Using Functional Behavior Assessment in General Education Settings: Making a Case for Effectiveness and Efficiency

    Scott, T. M., Bucalos, M., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., Jolivette K., & DeShea, L. (2004). Using Functional Behavior Assessment in General Education Settings: Making a Case for Effectiveness and Efficiency. Behavioral Disorders, 29(2), 189-201.

    Under the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, schools have a legal obligation to conduct functional behavior assessments (FBAs) when developing intervention plans for students with disabilities whose behaviors lead their individualized education program teams to consider a change in educational placement, including suspension and expulsion. However, FBA also holds significant promise as a procedure to be used proactively with students with behavioral challenges who are educated in part, or wholly, in general education classrooms. Unfortunately, current conceptualizations of FBA as a methodologically rigorous procedure pose significant and possibly insurmountable barriers to proactive implementation in general education settings. The authors analyze these barriers through a targeted review of the literature, an examination of how the characteristics of general education settings promote the use of less demanding FBA methodologies, and a consideration of situations in which certain FBA procedures generally are contraindicated. Finally, they advocate an active research agenda that is responsive to the particular challenges of public school settings and FBA students with and at risk for mild disabilities.

    Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems

    Scott, T. M., & Caron, D. B. (2005). Conceptualizing Functional Behavior Assessment as Prevention Practice within Positive Behavior Support Systems. Preventing School Failure, 50(1), 13-20.

    Functional behavior assessment (FBA) is an integral component of a positive behavior support approach to preventing problem behavior across all students in the school. As primary prevention, FBA is a collaborative school-wide practice to predict common problems and to develop school-wide interventions. As secondary prevention, FBA involves simple and realistic team-driven assessment and intervention strategies aimed at students with mildly challenging behaviors. As tertiary prevention, FBA is complex, time-consuming, and rigorous--aimed at students for whom all previous intervention attempts have been unsuccessful. Whereas the concepts of prediction, function, and prevention remain constant at all levels of positive behavior support, the considerations for and form of FBA may vary greatly. The authors present the application of FBA practices at each of the three levels of a system of positive behavior support.

    Behavior management

    A book chapter in the book "Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy: Vol.3, Educational applications."

    Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff FBA intervention measure

    McIntosh, K., Borgmeier, C., Anderson, C. M., Horner, R. H., Rodriguez, B. J., & Tobin, T. J. (2008). Technical adequacy of the Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff FBA intervention measure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 10(1), 33-45.

    With the recent increase in the use of functional behavior assessment (FBA) in school settings, there has been an emphasis in practice on the development and use of effective, efficient methods of conducting FBAs, particularly indirect assessment tools such as interviews. There are both benefits and drawbacks to these tools, and their technical adequacy is often unknown. This article presents a framework for assessing the measurement properties of FBA interview tools and uses this framework to assess evidence for reliability and validity of one interview tool, the Functional Assessment Checklist. Teachers and Staff (FACTS; March et al., 2000). Results derived from 10 research studies using the FACTS indicate strong evidence of test-retest reliability and interobserver agreement, moderate to strong evidence of convergent validity with direct observation and functional analysis procedures, strong evidence of treatment utility, and strong evidence of social validity. Results are discussed in terms of future validation research for FBA methods and tools.

    Family Implementation of Positive Behavior Support with a Child with Autism: A Longitudinal, Single Case Experimental and Descriptive Replication and Extension

    As the number of schools implementing systemic, schoolwide positive behavior support (PBS) processes expands (nationally, at least 5,000 schools are participating), increasing attention is being paid to the efficacy of implementation. This article describes a case study of the experiences of Florida's Positive Behavior Support Project, which used a systematic process to understand barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of schoolwide positive behavior support by schools implementing at high and low levels of fidelity, and the degree to which the project could impact barriers and facilitators. Results indicate that schools implementing with low fidelity tend to identify practical, operational barriers, whereas schools implementing with high fidelity struggle with systems issues. Both high-implementing and low-implementing schools identified the same facilitators to implementation; however, they differed in their views of which facilitators the project could impact. Implications for state PBS project activities are discussed, along with suggestions for future data collection and providing a model of data-based decision making at a macro level.

    Applied behavior analysis and the education and treatment of students with emotional and behavioral disorders

    A book chapter in the book "Handbook of research in behavioral disorders."

    Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA: Indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans

    Ingram, K., Lewis-Palmer, T., & George, S. (2005). Function-based intervention planning: Comparing the effectiveness of FBA: Indicated and contra-indicated intervention plans, Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(4), 224-236.

    Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) has been suggested for facilitating the development and effectiveness of behavior intervention plans. In this study, the researchers examined whether behavior intervention plans based on FBA information (function-based) were more effective than behavior intervention plans not based on FBA information (non-function- based) in affecting rates of problem behaviors displayed by two middle school students. Single- subject ABCBC designs were used to demonstrate a functional relationship between student responding and function-based and non-function-based behavior intervention plans. Results indicated that the use of FBA-based intervention plans was associated with greater improvements in lowering the number of problem behaviors. Implications and limitations for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

    Toward a technology of “nonaversive” behavior support

    A book chapter in the book "Positive behavior support:  Critical articles on improving practice for individuals with severe disabilities."

    Positive support for behavioral, mental health, communication, and crisis needs

    A book chapter in the book "National goals and research for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities."

    Positive behavior support for individuals with severe disabilities

    A book chapter in the book "Instruction of students with severe disabilities."

    Trans-Situational Interventions: Generalization of Behavior Support across School and Home Environments

    Individualized trans-situational interventions (TSIs) were implemented with three middle-school students at risk for school failure. Problem behaviors in school were reduced and linked to problem behavior reduction in the home when concurrent behavior support was established in the home and at school.

    Positive behavior support and developmental disabilities: A summary and analysis of research

    A book chapter in the book "Handbook of developmental disabilities."

    Some Thoughts on the Evolving Arena of Autism Services

    It has been a mere four decades since autism emerged from the pernicious cul-de-sac of psychoanalytic conceptualization into the realm of constructive, systematic research, and real-life problem solving. It was in the 1960s that (1) Bernard Rimland (1964) published his ground-breaking book, "Infantile Autism"; (2) the National Society of Autistic Children (now the Autism Society of America) was founded; (3) the first empirical evidence of instrumental learning by children with autism was revealed by Ferster and DeMyer (1962); and (4) pioneering applied researchers, such as Lovaas, Berberich, Perloff, and Schaeffer (1966) and Wolf, Risley, and Mees (1965), began using the principles of learning to produce socially meaningful improvements in the behavior of children with autism. Since then, astonishing changes have occurred in the people's understanding of autism and their ability to deliver helpful supports and services. In this essay, the author shares his comment on two topics--families of children with autism and systems of service delivery--that are reflective of the massive changes that have occurred in the world of autism. He reflects on matters broader than the boundaries of data-based research reports, of which both Bryson et al. (2007) and McMahon, Malesa, Yoder, & Stone (2007) are excellent examples.

    Adding functional behavioral assessment to First Step to Success: A case study

    Carter, D. R., & Horner, R. H. (2007). Adding functional behavioral assessment to First Step to Success: A case study. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9(4), 229-238.

    First Step to Success is a manualized early intervention program with documented success in reducing the problem behavior of young children. Walker and colleagues (2005) are now engaged in analyses of variables that will increase the proportion of children for whom First Step is effective. A possible enhancement to the First Step to Success protocol is the use of functional behavioral assessment and individualized, function-based behavior support. The present analysis provides a case study with one 6-year-old student who received First Step to Success. Following the coaching phase of First Step, a reversal design was employed in which function-based features of behavior support were withdrawn and then re-implemented. Analysis of problem behavior and academic engagement data suggests that incorporation of function based features enhanced the impact of First Step to Success. Implications for modifications of the First Step protocol and future research are provided.

    The Efficacy of Function-Based Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities Who Exhibit Escape-Maintained Problem Behaviors: Preliminary Results from a Single-Case Experiment

    Burke, M. D., Hagan-Burke, S., & Sugai, G. (2003). The efficacy of function-based interventions for students with learning disabilities who exhibit escape-maintained problem behaviors: Preliminary results from a single-case experiment. Learning Disability Quarterly, 26, 15-25

    This single-subject experiment explored the use of functional behavioral assessment to develop an intervention plan for a third-grade student with a learning disability, who exhibited high rates of problem behaviors during reading instruction. A functional analysis of the subject's behaviors revealed a relation between his problem behaviors and the nature of the academic tasks presented during reading instruction. The results provide preliminary evidence to support the use of functional behavioral assessment to influence instructional planning designed to improve the behaviors of students who exhibit escape-maintained problem behaviors related to academic tasks. The results are of particular relevance as researchers continue to explore effective interventions that support students with learning disabilities.

    An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements

    Borgmeier, C., Horner, R. H., & Koegel, L. K. (2006). An evaluation of the predictive validity of confidence ratings in identifying accurate functional behavioral assessment hypothesis statements. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(2), 100-105.

    Faced with limited resources, schools require tools that increase the accuracy and efficiency of functional behavioral assessment. Yarbrough and Carr (2000) provided evidence that informant confidence ratings of the likelihood of problem behavior in specific situations offered a promising tool for predicting the accuracy of function-based hypotheses developed from staff interviews. The current study evaluated conditions in which a similar rating of informant confidence was effective in predicting the accuracy of functional assessment hypothesis statements. Nine students with problem behavior were identified, and functional behavioral assessment interviews with confidence scores were completed with 58 staff members. Between five and eight adults were interviewed about each student. The adults were selected based on their range of contact with the student (0 to 10+ hours per week) and their self-assessed knowledge about behavioral theory (no knowledge to extensive knowledge). Functional analyses were conducted to assess agreement with functional assessment hypotheses and the predictive value of confidence ratings. Results suggested limitations to the general use of confidence ratings in distinguishing accurate from inaccurate functional hypotheses across school staff with a broad range of contact with the target student. The study did find that informants who were both highly confident and who identified accurate functional assessment hypotheses had significantly higher levels of contact with the student in the target routine than those informants who had low confidence ratings and/or identified an incorrect function for the problem behavior.

    Promoting Inclusion and Peer Participation through Assessment-Based Intervention

    Blair, K. S. C., Umbreit, J., Dunlap, G., & Jung, G. (2007). Promoting Inclusion and Peer Participation through Assessment-Based Intervention. Early Childhood Special Education, 27(3), 134-147.

    In the current investigation, the processes of functional assessment and function-based intervention were used to resolve the severe challenging behaviors of a boy with autism and mental retardation in an inclusive kindergarten in South Korea. A multicomponent intervention was developed in collaboration with classroom personnel and was implemented entirely by the teacher and an aide in the context of a multiple-baseline-across-activities experimental design. Results were empirical validation of hypotheses derived from the functional assessment, as well as lower levels of challenging behaviors and increased rates of appropriate behaviors associated with the intervention. Positive interactions with a designated classroom peer and with the teacher also increased. The findings are discussed as contributions to the growing literature on functional assessment and function-based supports and the importance of promoting successful inclusive experiences for young children with disabilities.

    Reporting on studies using single-subject experimental methods

    This paper describes guidelines for reporting findings from studies using single subject methods, an approach from which early intervention has benefited substantially. Guidelines address: the foundations of the study, what was done to whom under what situations, what the data say, and what the findings mean.

    Family-centered intervention to resolve problem behaviors in a fast food restaurant: A case example

    Assess family-centered intervention to resolve problem behaviors of children with disabilities in fast-food restaurants in the United States. Measurement of disruptive behavior and task engagement; Impact of intervention on disruptive behavior during arrival, mealtime and departure; Use of multiple-baseline design.

    Positive behavior support as a family-centered endeavor

    This article presents information related to positive behavior support as a family-centred endeavor. Many authors have noted that optimal positive behavior support is conducted with sensitivity to the family's need, goals and circumstances. Such family-centered positive behavior support (PBS) has the potential to produce substantial and durable improvements in a child's behavior and, importantly, to yield lifestyle benefits for other family members. Although a number of authors have advanced these positions, there remains a need for more research and practical reports regarding the process and outcomes of family-centered PBS.

    An Analysis of Trends Regarding Proactive and Ecologically Valid Interventions in Applied Research

    Over the last two decades, considerable attention has been devoted to the potential of functional assessment and antecedent-based interventions, as well as to the importance of ecological validity in the evaluation of intervention practices. However, despite this increased interest, it is not clear to what degree trends in intervention research over the past two decades have mirrored this discussion. The current investigation was derived from a database of intervention research from the last 22 years across developmental as well as behavioral disabilities. The study was designed to ascertain to what degree the research literature is reflecting the increased interest in assessment and antecedent-based interventions, and to what extent it is achieving ecological validity by including the participation of typical intervention agents and settings. The results confirm anticipated increases in assessment and antecedent-based interventions, but fail to show evidence of overall increases in ecological validity. Potential implications of these findings, and future research directions, are explored in the discussion.

    Toward a Structural Assessment: Analyzing the Merits of an Assessment Tool for a Student with E/BD

    The past decade has given rise to a resurgence of interest in the investigation of antecedent events that "set the stage" for the occurrence of problem behaviors and, correspondingly, the role of these antecedents in developing preventative interventions. A growing literature supports the impact of teacher interactions and classroom structure on the overall classroom environment, specifically student behavior. Due to the complexity of natural settings, current protocols for assessing these setting factors for effective development of preventative strategies present limitations in external validity. The current investigation piloted a structural assessment tool (Setting Factors Assessment Tool-SFAT) designed to measure varying types of, as well as concurrent, classroom setting factors in a classroom context. The SFAT was employed to address the problem behaviors of a student with emotional/ behavioral disorders whose primary placement was in a general education second-grade classroom. The results of a traditional school-based functional assessment (descriptive assessment), an analog-based structural analysis, and the SFAT were compared. SFAT assessment results were provided to the teacher in the form of environmental and instructional recommendations. Results indicated that classroom-based environmental and instructional modifications were successful in reducing the student's problem behavior. Further, two-month follow-up data indicated maintenance of the original reductions. Implications for a school-based structural assessment protocol as well as directions for future research are discussed.

    Team-Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers

    Scott, T. M., Liaupsin, C., Nelson, C. M., & Mclntyre, J. (2005). Team Based Functional Behavior Assessment as a Proactive Public School Process: A Descriptive Analysis of Current Barriers. Journal of Behavioral Education, 14(1), 57-71

    Although functional behavior assessment (FBA) has been widely recognized as a promising practice for providing proactive interventions with students exhibiting challenging behaviors in typical schools, questions persist as to how FBA should best be trained and used in such public settings. Debate has balanced the issue of what is practical for public school personnel and whether FBA can ever reach that level of practicality while maintaining a level of integrity necessary to be a valid technology for behavior intervention. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the perceptions and practices of 13 school-based FBA teams that included one or more members who received a 1-day workshop on FBA. Teams were asked to respond to a brief questionnaire regarding their perceptions of the process, what information they found useful, and how that information was used. Results indicate several problem issues and barriers that must be addressed before team-based FBA is widely advocated and practiced in public school settings. Sample team responses and discussion of future directions are included.

    Functional assessment and wraparound as systemic school processes: Primary, secondary, and tertiary systems examples

    This article proposes a framework for expanding the traditional presentation of wraparound and FBA to (a) view wraparound and FBA as concepts that are inextricably linked at the core of each level of the proactive systemic process of PBS and (b) understand how wraparound and FBA are critical features of prevention as well as intervention for creating safer schools for all students.

    A research synthesis of social story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders

    Sansosti, F. J., Powell-Smith, K. A., & Koncaid D. (2004). A research synthesis of social story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 19(4), 194-204

    Recent trends in the frequency of diagnoses and special education referrals for children with autism spectrum disorders necessitate the demand for evidence-based educa- tional practices. Specifically, information related to improving social communication and social behavior domains in classrooms is needed. One method that is increasingly suggested for teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders is the use of Social Stories. Although the rationale behind Social Stories is strong, little research exists examining the effectiveness of Social Story interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. This article offers a synthesis of the available research regarding Social Stories and their effectiveness for educating children with autism spectrum disorders. In addition, future directions for research and implications for educators are provided.

    Mental health services for young children

     A book chapter in the book 'Handbook of mental health services for children, adolescents, and families.'

    Autism and related disorders

    A book chapter in the book 'A Comprehensive Guide to Intellectual and developmental disabilities.'

    The Social Lives of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Self-Contained Classrooms: A Descriptive Analysis

    Social lives of 14 children with emotional and behavioral disorders (E/BD) in segregated elementary school classrooms were compared with 14 typical students in general classrooms. Children with E/BD had little opportunity to engage in integrated school activities and their school social networks were dominated by individuals affiliated with special education.

    Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions

    Newcomer, L. L., & Lewis, T. J. (2004). Functional Behavioral Assessment: An Investigation of Assessment Reliability and Effectiveness of Function-Based Interventions. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(3), 168-181

    This study investigated (a) the efficacy of using descriptive and experimental assessment methodologies to generate hypotheses regarding the function of problem behavior and (b) the efficiency and efficacy of function-based interventions compared to traditional intervention approaches that focus on the topography of behavior. Functional assessments were conducted with three elementary school students identified as at risk for failure due to problem behavior. Agreement among indirect measures, direct observation, and experimental manipulation of environmental variables supports the value of using convergent data from indirect assessment methods to develop valid hypotheses. In addition, behavioral interventions based on functional assessment were found to be more effective than alternative intervention approaches across all three case studies. Implications, study limitations, and future research directions are discussed.

    Positive behavior support with families

    A book chapter in the book 'Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts.'

    Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts

    The parents and professionals who wrote this book have remarkable stories, insights, and research to share - all about children with a range of disabilities who overcame difficult behavior challenges with the help of positive behavior support (PBS).

    Long-term supports and ongoing evaluation

    A book chapter in the book 'Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing Positive Behavior Plans.'

    Person-centered planning

    A book chapter in the book 'Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy.'

    Antecedent intervention: Recent developments in community focused behavior support

    A book chapter in the book 'Antecedent intervention: Recent developments in community focused behavior support.'

    The construction of adulthood and disability

    The status of dental care for individuals with developmental disabilities in Kansas was examined. Dentists, family members, and case managers reported general, but partial, satisfaction with the availability, accessibility, appropriateness, and affordability of such care. Reasons for the results and recommendations for further improvement are discussed.

    Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based behavioral support: II. Assessing the relative importance of factor categories

    This study was conducted to identify relative priorities among variables mediating the outcomes of community-based behavioral support for individuals with severe disabilities. Data were obtained through questionnaires completed by individuals representing three constituency groups: parents/guardians, direct service providers, and trainers/consultants. The questionnaire asked participants to rate and rank 12 factor categories that were identified in a previous phase of this investigation (Hieneman & Dunlap, 2000). The results showed that all 12 factor categories were considered at least "somewhat important;' and the factor labeled "buy-in with intervention" was identified as the most important category. Comparisons of relative priorities revealed considerable consistency across the three constituency groups. The results add support to the notion that effective community-based support is based on an array of variables related to the context, individuals, and systems involved.

    Including children with autism in general education classrooms

    Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.

    Research partnership: One family’s experience with positive behavior support

    A book chapter from the book "Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts."

    “We can’t expect other people to understand”: The perspectives of families whose children have problem behavior

    Open-ended interviews in which 20 family members discussed issues related to their child's problem behavior revealed three major themes: the difficult process of coming to terms with the child's disability, the importance of having support from caring people, and the pervasive impact the problem behavior exerts on family functioning.

    Young children and challenging behavior: Issues and considerations for behavior support.

    The critical importance of intervening early to promote the social and emotional development of young children is a recurring theme in several reports commissioned by national organizations and leaders (i.e., Child Mental Health Foundations and Agencies Network; National Research Council of the Institute of Medicine; U.S. Surgeon General). There is an increasing awareness that social-emotional difficulties and problem behaviors in young children are highly likely to continue in school. In addition, young children who show the most chronicity and stability of problem behavior are more likely to be members of families who experience marital distress, parental depression, and poverty. Young children in urban environments who have problem behavior are likely to also face challenges in health, poverty, and access to quality childcare and other services. In this article, the complexity of the urban context is described with a focus on the lives of young children and their families. The authors present a discussion of appropriate practices and research that provides a foundation for the development of effective early intervention programs for young children affected by environmental and developmental challenges. The emphasis of program recommendations is on comprehensiveness in the design of family-centered behavioral support options.

    Early intervention, positive behavior support, and transition to school

    This article describes positive behavior support as it is applied in the context of early intervention and as children progress into elementary school. Variables that contribute to effective interventions are discussed, as are issues that must be considered in order to construct optimally beneficial transitions for children with behavioral challenges.

    Vincent’s story: From Head Start to fourth grade

    Positive behavior support is a longitudinal, team-based process. For
    children with developmental and behavioral challenges, it is often
    desirable to develop a dynamic milieu of support that involves school
    and family, and that is continually adjusted to meet the needs to the
    growing child in ever-changing environments. Functional behavioral
    assessment and positive behavior interventions can be key elements in
    support plans that enable children to benefit from appropriate, least
    restrictive educational opportunities.

    Early intervention with families of young children with autism and problem behaviors

    A book chapter from the book "Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts."

    Family involvement in functional assessment and positive behavior support

    Dunlap, G., Newton, J. S., Fox, L., Benito, N., & Vaughn, B. (2001). Family Involvement in Functional Assessment and Positive Behavior Support. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 16(4), 215-221

    Discussion of family involvement in functional assessment (FA) with individuals who have autism or related disabilities first provides a rationale for family involvement, then reviews the literature and offers guidelines including: recognize, respect, and accommodate families' individuality; create a context for family centered participation; take a comprehensive perspective; and develop and maintain a team partnership.

    ABA and academic instruction.

     This article discusses the contributions of applied behavior analysis (ABA) in effective instruction of students with autism spectrum disorders. Emphasis is on the use of antecedent interventions and curriculum-based assessment. It also notes that the principles and methods of ABA are being integrated into routine educational procedures, including recent mandates for functional behavioral assessments.

    Person-centered Positive Behavior Support Plan Scoring Criteria and Checklist

    This tool is used to review and score intensive person centered and positive behavior support plans. The critical features met are summarized and reported for training and evaluation purposes

    Onsite Observation Form for PCP and PBS Plan Facilitation (2 parts)

    This tool is used onsite to observe professionals facilitating PCP and PBS plan processes. The observer is assumed to be a highly trained specialist who can provide feedback using part 2 as a scoring criteria and part 1 for the documentation. In KIPBS training, professionals have mentors sign off to indicate completion.

    KIPBS Course Syllabus

    This syllabus contains the training timelines and expectations for an online and onsite course supported through state human services resources. This intensive class takes 8 hours a week. However, school professionals are currently signed up to audit the course as part of a collaborative agreement through statewide PBS planning.

    Impact of PCP and PBS Plan Tool

    This tool is used to review the impact of the PCP and PBS plan on the student as reflected by the written report for intensive tertiary support. This could be considered as a more in depth analysis of a PBS plan for a very complex plan.

    Four Phases of Wraparound Implementation

    This document provides a description of what steps are involved in the Four Phases of Wraparound Implementation.

    Intensive Level PBIS: Integrating Wraparound Approaches in PBIS Schools

    This is a powerpoint presentation that is a 2-Day training for schools implementing School-Wide PBIS. The goals of the training are to: proivide Understand about key features of wraparound value base and process, have participants Gain experience with components of the wraparound process, and Learn to apply data-based decision-making, self-assessment and monitoring procedures to ensure effectiveness of practices.

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): Behavioral Intervention Planning (BIP) Systems and Practices Targeted Level

    This is a powerpoint presentation in which participants will be able to identify why a standing targeted team is needed, the skill capacities needed on the team, the mission of the targeted team, and referral process.

    ABC Observation Form

    This is a form that could be used to record the "A-B-C's" during a behavioral observation.

    Problem Behavior Pathway – “Analysis of the Problem Behavior”

    This is a pathway chart that allows individuals to the "A-B-C" of behavior.

    Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Youth Satisfaction Tool (YS-T)

    This survey is intended to reflect youth’s experience with a previous team (if any) such as a special education IEP team.

    Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Individual Student Evaluation System (ISES) Wraparound Integrity Tool (WIT)

    This is a tool that describes activities involved in Phases I through IV of the Wraparound intervention.

    Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Home, School, Community Tool (HSC-T)

    This is a questionnaire in which a teacher, parent/caregiver, and youth's facilitator complete in order measure a student's needs and/or strengths.

    Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Family/Caregiver Satisfaction Tool (FS-T)

    This is a checklist in which parent's/caregiver's rate their experience in working with teams (i.e., IEP Team).

    Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Educational Information Tool (EI-T)

    This is a questionnaire in which a teacher rates a student's classroom functioning and his/her academic performance.

    Illinois Statewide Technical Assistance Center (ISTAC) Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes (SIMEO) Big Behavior Tool (BB-T)

    This is a checklist which reflects the caregiver/facilitator/team's rating of a student's externalized, internalized and expressive behavior.

    Initial Training Activities for Core Elements of Wraparound from Illinois PBIS - PBIS Intensive Level: Integrating Wraparound in Schools

    This is a training manual which provides information on how to integrate Wraparound Approaches in PBIS Schools.

    Coaches' Training - Individual Student Level

    Provides an overview of application of PBS at the individual student level. The introduction is best used with experienced coaches to describe the possible next steps after establishing a school-wide behavior support system.

    Anger Mangement Programs

    The purpose of this resource is to provide a list of empirically-supported andger management programs.

    Sample Reinforcer Inventory

    This is a checklist of possible reinforcement tools that could be used within the school.

    Online Academy Positive Behavior Support Modules

    These materials are used to train professionals to facilitate teams implementing individualized positive behavior support plans. The content is meant to be completed in conjunction with onsite case study support and field-based activities.

    Kansas Institute for Positive Behavioral Support Modules

    These materials are used to train professionals to facilitate teams implementing individualized positive behavior support plans. The content is meant to be completed in conjunction with onsite case study support and field-based activities.

    Facilitator's Guide for Individual PBS

    Provides narrative forms necessary to assist a team in implementing a five step PBS process with students. http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/resources_indstudents.asp

    Individual Student Training

    Person-Centered Planning, PBS Overview, Teaming/Collaboration, Functional Analysis/Assessment, Behavior Support Plan, implementation Plan.

    Person-Centered Planning Presentation.

    This is a power-point that introduces person-centered planning and how to do a PATH.

    Person-centered Process Facilitator Tip Sheet

    Provides quick tips to fill out a path.

    Blank PATH Form

    Blank PATH form to aid coach in person-centered planning.

    Original Britney Case Study

    This is a case study for walking through PBS for an individual with disabilities (7 yr old).

    Principles of Behavior: ABC Activity

    Teaching/training of A-B-C analysis to aid in determining the function of a students problematic behavior.

    Behavior Support Plan

    Blank form to do a behavior support plan for an individual student after a functional assessment has been conducted.

    Behavior Intervention Planning: Using the Functional Behavior Assessment Data

    A CD-Rom based training tool that trains individuals to develop behavior intervention plans using the results of functional assessment.

    Understanding Problem Behavior (An Interactive Tutorial)

    An on-line beginning level tutorial on the foundations of applied behaivor analysis. An excellent precursor to functional assessment training.

    Writing a Behavioral Intervention Plan Based on a Functional Assessment

    This is a workbook format for anyone working with children who exhibit target behaviors. It takes the learner through ten days of data using an ABC data collection tool, uses competing pathways charts, and teaches how to look for the function of the behavior.

    Using Information Technology To Prepare Personnel To Implement Functional Behavioral Assessment and Positive Behavioral Support

     This article examines impediments to effective dissemination of training in positive behavioral support, such as school discipline policies and the inadequacy of training models. It suggests ways new information technologies can overcome these obstacles and reviews some new approaches using CD-ROM and online instructional methodologies to advance the training agenda.

    Using Functional Assessment to Develop Interventions for Challenging Behaviors in the Classroom: Three Case Studies

    This article presents three case studies of elementary students with learning disabilities whose behavior interfered with the quantity and quality of their classroom instruction. In each case, interventions involved teaching and reinforcing specific replacement behaviors that were identified through functional behavioral assessment.

    Maximizing Student Learning: The Effects of a Comprehensive School-Based Program for Preventing Problem Behaviors

    A study evaluated a comprehensive school-wide program based on an effective behavioral support approach for preventing disruptive behaviors implemented in seven elementary schools. The program included a school-wide discipline program, tutoring, conflict resolution, and functional behavioral intervention plans. Schools showed positive effects on student discipline and academic performance.

    Integrated Approaches to Preventing Antisocial Behavior Patterns among School-Age Children and Youth

    This article proposes that schools take on the role of coordinating intervention efforts with school-age children who exhibit antisocial behavior patterns. Collaboration with families and social service agencies is urged. A generic prevention/intervention approach for reducing antisocial behavior risk factors is suggested, with recommendations for each prevention level.

    Including the Functional Behavioral Assessment Technology in Schools

    This introductory article to a special series discusses requirements under the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to base behavioral intervention planning and positive behavioral support on information obtained through a functional behavioral assessment (FBA) process. The lack of guidance on FBAs and strategies for preventing FBA misrules are addressed.

    Ensuring Student Success through Team-Based Functional Behavioral Assessment

    This article presents a detailed example of how faculty and staff at one middle school implemented team-based functional behavioral assessment (FBA) planning procedures with a student exhibiting recurring minor problems. Insets list tasks and considerations for an FBA, a sample formatted antecedent-behavior-consequence summary of team member experiences with the student, and tasks and considerations for team-based intervention planning.

    Elements of Behavior Support Plans: A Technical Brief

    Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., Todd, A. W., & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2000). Elements of Behavior support plans: A technical brief. Exceptionality, 8(3), 205-215

    This article reviews features of behavioral support plans that teams should consider as they develop positive, effective responses to problem behavior, including investing in prevention occurrences of problem behavior and developing instructional objectives, avoiding rewarding problem behaviors, rewarding positive behaviors, and knowing what to do in the most difficult situations.

    Description of Wraparound and Case Example

    The newsletter article provides research base, relevant target population, case example, and suggested readings for wraparound service.

    Preparing for an FBA Meeting: What Should I Bring?

    The newsletter provides detailed information on FBA preparation as a team.

    Laying the Foundation for Positive Behavior Support through Person-Centered Planning

    The newsletter explains person centered planning (PCP) and effective PBS process for individual students.

    Building Connections Between Individual Behavior Support Plans and Schoolwide Systems of Positive Behavior Support

    The newsletter shows an individual support case study using functional behavior assessment and behavior intervention plan. The authors learned that larger overall school-wide systems are required to increase the likelihood that individual support plans are implemented with a high degree of integrity.

    Proactive Functional Behavior Assessment as a Collaborative Team Process

    The newsletter shows a brief explanation of functional assessment, how it is connected to PBS, and how it provides a proactive approach to behavioral problem solving. In addition, it describes the value of a collaborative approach to functional assessment and answer some basic questions regarding how such an approach can be systematically developed at the school level.

    Tips for Educators: IEPs as an Essential Element of Individual Support Within Schoolwide PBS

    The newsletter focuses on the development of IEPs that fully incorporate PBS. The article especially describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of IEPs as a tool for ensuring the effective delivery of individual PBS support.

    Functional Behavioral Assessment in Schools

    Exceptionality Vol 8(3) 1999-2000 is a special issue devoted to articles reviewing the role of functional behavioral assessment in schools. This newsletter describes key point of each article and provides key components of functional behavioral assessment (FBA).

    Behavior Function: Staying Close to What We Know

    Since the reauthorization of IDEA in 1997, attempts to implement function-based behavior supports have increased. We view these efforts as important enhancements toward improving the effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of educational programming for students with problem behaviors. However, we are becoming increasingly concerned by the potential for misapplication and over-extension of the function-based approach to behavior support programming. Thus, the purpose of this brief commentary is to describe considerations in the identification of behavior functions. This commentary describes potential misapplications in the identification of behavioral functions and offers readings for a more complete review of the issues and process.

    Functional Behavior Support Plan (F-BSP)

    The F-BSP is a planning tool for used by school personnel who are building a behavior support plan using function based behavioral assessment. This form was written by Horner and Crone 2005. This also has a Competing Pathway Chart or Competing Behavior Chart available for planning purposes.

    Functional Assessment Checklist for Teachers and Staff (FACTS)

    The FACTS is a two-page interview used by school personnel who are building behavior support plans for tertiary level supports. The FACTS is intended to be an efficient strategy for initial functional behavioral assessment. The FACTS is completed by people (teachers, family, clinicians) who know the student best, and used to either build behavior support plans, or guide more complete functional assessment efforts. The FACTS can be completed in a short period of time (5-15 min). Efficiency and effectiveness in completing the forms increases with practice.

    1,3,3.5,5 and 10 day trainings in individual level PBS

    This resource is no longer available.

    Increasing Social and Academic Success: Positive Behavior Support meets Response to Intervention (Region XI, Ft. Worth Texas)

    The slides show essential features of SWPBS and RtI. The content includes SWPBS overview, implementation examples, prevention & supports for identified and as-risk students, Maryland PBS case examples, small group intervention, individual support, and Rtl.

    Advanced Topics in PBS: Secondary/Tertiary Interventions (New England PBS)

    The presentation was about efficient strategies for secondary or targeted interventions. The content includes common secondary intervention features, overview of check-in check-out (CICO) system, evidence of CICO, and so on.

    Function-Based Support: Selected Topics (New England PBS Training)

    The presentation provides information on function based behavior system including functional approach logic, functional behavior assessment, competing pathways for behavior support plan.

    Creating School Environments to Prevent Problem Behaviour and Support Students At-Risk and Those with Disabilities through School-wide Positive Behaviour Support (Australian Association for Special Education)

    The presentation describes all levels of SWPBS implementation strategies and RtI logic application for student success (for academic and behavior). Essential elements and practical resources of SWPBS are presented with data.

    Critical features of function based support with an overview of Positive Behavior Support, Classroom Management and Active Supervision (Australian Guidance Counseling Association Conference)

    The presentation provides information on critical features of function based support with an overview of Positive Behavior Support, Classroom Management and Active Supervision.

    Function - based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Colorado PBS training)

    Critical features of Functional Behavior Assessment. The presentation describes behavioral function, functional behavior assessment, behavior support elements, and competing pathways.

    Understanding and Responding to Escalating Behavior

    Corresponding document on 'Understanding and Responding to Escalating Behavior' presentation by Dr. Sugai and Dr. Colvin.

    Function-Based Behavior Support: Big Ideas (MN PBIS team follow-up Training)

    The presentation was made to provide overview of critical features of function-based approach to addressing problem behavior. The content includes examples and non-examples of function-based approach, logic of functional approach, functional behavior assessment, and so on.

    Beyond Classroom Management: School-based Mental Health & Positive Behavior Support (Inside Schoolhouse Door Conference)

    The presentation focused on critical features of classroom management. It includes general overview of SW-PBS including classroom and individual support system, application of continuum of instructional and PBS, and RTI model approaches.

    Building a Realistic Pyramid of Instructional and Behavioral Supports for Prevention and Intervention

    The presentation is about critical features of linking academic and behavioral support using positive, proactive, and research based interventions.

    Functional Assessment & Positive Behavior Support Plans (OSEP Forum on IDEA)

    The presentation describes basic Steps in FBA-BIP Process. Main topics include 1)Conduct functional behavioral assessment, 2) Create plan based on functional assessment outcome, 3) Develop infra-structure to support behavior change (system change), 4) Positive Behavior Support Plan, 5) Teach replacement behavior(s) that result in same/similar outcome, 6) Environment should not allow problem behavior to result in previous outcomes, and 7) Ideally replacement behavior should be more efficient than problem behavior.

    PBIS, Functional Behavioral Assessment, BIP Development, and Manifestation Determination (OSEP Regional Meeting)

    The slides were compiled by the OSEP PBIS TA Center with assistance on manifestation determination from Mitchell Yell at University of South Carolina. The slides were developed to assist school personnel and others in conducting FBAs, developing BIPs and conducting MDs based on current research and best practice. Opinions expressed are those of the authors and no endorsement from the Department of Education should be inferred. Research and best practice presented is not in conflict with the IDEA or subsequent regulation but may go beyond those requirements. This information is intended to be supplemental and NOT a replacement for careful study and application of IDEA and its regulations.

    Function-based Behavior Support at the Team, School and District Levels (Orange County training)

    Critical features of: Functional Behavior Assessment. The presentation describes behavioral function, functional behavior assessment, behavior support elements, and competing pathways.

    Features of model programs for children and youths with problem behaviors

    Addressing the Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs of Students with Challenging Behavior in Inclusive and Alternative Settings. Highlights from the Forum on Comprehensive Programming for a Diverse Population of Children and Youth with Challenging Behavior: Addressing Social, Academic, and Behavioral Needs within Inclusive and Alternative Settings (Las Vegas, Nevada, February 9-10, 2001).

    Functional communication training with toddlers

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of functional communication training when used by mothers to address the serious challenging behaviors of toddlers. Multiple baseline (across home routines) designs were used with two mother-child dyads. The data showed mothers used the procedures correctly and interventions produced reductions in the children's challenging behaviors and increases in their use of communicative replacement skills. Social validity data supported the clarity of the effects and indicated that the procedures were viewed by the mothers as feasible and as having acceptable contextual fit. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of resolving challenging behaviors early in a child's life, and the need for additional research on effective strategies that can be used by typical intervention agents in natural settings.

    Autistic self-stimulation and intertrial interval duration

    The relationship of short vs. long intertrial intervals to autistic children's correct responding and autistic self-stimulatory behavior was examined. Measures were also obtained on the children's other types of self-stimulatory behavior during all conditions of the experiment. The results showed that: (a) for any given child/task combination, short intertrial intervals produced decreased levels of autistic self-stimulatory responding, (b) increased levels of correct responding occurred during the short intertrial interval conditions, and (c) the category of "other" self-stimulatory behavior was not systematically related to either correct responding or to the length of the intertrial interval. These results were discussed in terms of their implications for understanding self-stimulatory behavior and for teaching autistic children.

    Choice making to promote adaptive behavior for students with emotional and behavioral challenges

    Two analyses investigated the effects of choice making on the responding of elementary school students with emotional and behavioral challenges. In the first analysis, 2 participants were given choices from menus of academic tasks, all of which were pertinent to their educational objectives in English and spelling, respectively. Reversal designs showed that the choice-making conditions increased task engagement and reduced disruptive behavior for both students. An additional analysis was performed with a 3rd student in an effort to further distinguish the effects of choice making from preference. In this study, one of the no-choice phases was yoked to a previous choice-making condition. This analysis demonstrated that the choice-making condition was superior to baseline and yoked control phases as determined by levels of task engagement and disruptive behavior. The findings of the two analyses contribute information relevant to students with emotional and behavioral disorders, and to a growing literature on the desirable effects of choice making for students with disabilities and challenging behaviors.

    An analysis of trends in JABA authorship

    Because the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis is recognized as a prominent journal in applied behavior analysis, a description of authorship trends may be important for discerning developments in the discipline. The analyses reported herein address trends from 1975 through 1997 in the publication of articles by new authors and the appearance of articles authored by frequent contributors. The data reveal a trend away from the appearance of new authors with an increase in the publication of works by frequent contributors. These trends are shown to be more conspicuous than in comparison data from the American Journal on Mental Retardation.

    The influence of task size on the unsupervised task performance of students with developmental disabilities

    This study, with a young autistic child and a young adult with profound mental retardation, demonstrated the effectiveness of a gradual, changing criterion process of stimulus shaping in training subjects to independently perform tasks with relatively high task requirements.

    Motivating autistic children through stimulus variation

    The study evaluated the differential effectiveness of two methods of presenting discrimination tasks with two autistic children (7 and 5 years of age). In a constant task condition, the common method of presenting a single task throughout a session was used. In a varied task condition, the same task was interspersed with a variety of other tasks.

    Modifying instructional activities to promote desirable behavior: A conceptual and practical framework

    Summarizes a framework for conceptualizing and implementing a model to improve student behavior through individualized, assessment-based modifications of curricular activities. Includes a summary of research documenting the influence of curricular variables and presents a practical model of functional assessment and curricular revision. Concludes with a discussion of practical issues and limitations.

    Increasing the independent responding of autistic children with unpredictable supervision

    Multiple baseline analysis of responses of three autistic children (5-12 years old) revealed that unpredictable supervision (in which the therapist was present on a random, intermittent, and unpredictable basis) produced much higher levels of on-task responding during the therapist's absence. Analysis of work completed during the therapist's absence also favored the unpredictable supervision condition.

    Parent-Professional Partnerships: A Valuable Context for Addressing Challenging Behaviours

    Partnerships between professionals and parents of children with disabilities can be valuable ingredients in efforts to design and implement strategies of intervention and support. In this article, we provide a rationale in support of parent-professional partnerships and describe research and programmes that exemplify such partnership practices. We also describe approaches for facilitating the development of partnerships and a framework in which partnerships are placed at the optimal end of a continuum of parent involvement and parent support.

    Supporting families of young children with autism

    This article identifies characteristics and challenges encountered by families that include young children with autism. Emphasis is on three issues in providing needed support services: (1) enhancing family competence and confidence; (2) addressing support from a lifestyle perspective; and (3) arranging for stability and continuity in support relationships.

    Intervention Research in Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: An Analysis of Studies from 1980-1993

    This study surveyed 12 journals in the field of emotional and behavior disorders to explore trends in five dimensions of research: (1) subject characteristics; (2) settings; (3)research design; (4) dependent variables; and (5) independent variables (interventions). Negligible trends were found and few studies reported interventions that were individualized on the basis of assessment data.

    Consensus, engagement, and family involvement for young children with autism

    After reviewing articles that discuss educational approaches for young children with autism, this article concludes that engagement is a critical feature, it is not clear that one approach is more effective than another, applied behavior analysis is a common foundation, and approaches may benefit from a more complete consideration of the family system.

    The Influence of Task Variation and Maintenance Tasks on the Learning and Affect of Autistic Children

    Evaluates autistic children's affect and rate of task acquisition under three experimental conditions: constant task, varied acquisition task, and varied with maintenance task. Results showed significantly more efficient learning under the varied maintenance condition.

    The widening world of functional assessment: Comments on four manuals and beyond

    An escalating number of materials have been published recently on the topic of functional assessment and assessment-based behavioral interventions. We review four manuals that purport to provide practical guidance for conducting functional assessment. An examination of these manuals yields encouraging evidence that the field of behavioral support has made notable progress in adopting a functional (behavior-analytic) approach to unwanted behaviors. The content of the manuals, considered in the context of merging perspectives in behavioral support, suggests a number of important issues and directions that should be addressed by future functional assessment research and practice.

    The IDEA amendments of 1997: A school-wide model for conducting functional behavioral assessments and developing behavior intervention plans

    This article presents Individuals with Disabilities Education Act requirements on functional behavioral assessments (FBAs), describes the process of conducting an FBA, explains the legal requirements for developing measurable goals and benchmarks or short-term objectives, describes the development of a behavior intervention plan, and presents a school model.

    A descriptive analysis of positive behavioral intervention research with young children with challenging behavior

    The purpose of this study was to critically examine the positive approaches to behavioral intervention research and young children demonstrating challenging behavior. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of articles published between 1984 and 2003 across 23 peer-reviewed journals. Each article that met the criteria for inclusion in the study was scored on the following variables: disability type; age and gender of participants; availability of demographic data (e.g., race, socioeconomic status); intervention setting; dependent measures; intervention type; intervention agents; study design; and reporting of generalization data, treatment fidelity, and social validity measures. The results indicate an increasing trend of research using positive behavioral interventions with young children who demonstrate challenging behaviors. Most of the research has been conducted with children with disabilities between 3 and 6 years old. Primarily, teachers and family members have served as the intervention agents, implementing studies in special education classes and home settings, respectively. Most studies have employed single-subject design methodologies to examine multicomponent, instructional, or function-based interventions. The authors discuss areas for future research.

    Improving the conduct of students with behavioral disorders by incorporating student interests into curricular activities

    Systematic curricular accommodations reduced the problem behaviors of four elementary students with behavioral disorders. Assessments identified student interests and curricular assignments associated with high levels of problem behavior. Curricular modification was then implemented. Results support adaptations that incorporate student interests to decrease undesirable and increase desirable behaviors.

    Twenty years of intervention research in emotional and behavioral disorders: A descriptive analysis and a comparison with research in developmental disabilities

    The current study was conducted to examine the trends involved with experimental intervention research designed to modify behaviors of children and youth with emotional and/or behavioral disorders (EBD). Trends are summarized and compared to the intervention research that has been conducted in developmental disabilities (DD). The contents of 10journals published between 1980and 1999 were analyzed. Descriptive dimensions of the research including participant demographics, settings, research designs, dependent and independent variables, intervention agents, and measures of ecological validity were investigated. In addition, the databases were examined to determine whether interventions were based on individualized processes of assessment. The results showed strikingly similar trends across interventions with EBD and DD participants. The discussion addresses the general status of intervention research across both populations, as well as the importance of extending the current research to examine additional variables and measures with various populations.

    Effects of a recreation fitness program on psychological parameters among persons with psychiatric disabilities

    Concern exists nationally about the excessive mortality rates of persons with psychiatric disabilities. Comorbidity of disabilities and disabling conditions has been shown to place a disproportionately large burden on the healthcare system. An investigation was undertaken that examined the impact of a structured recreation fitness program on selected psychological parameters in a population of persons with psychiatric disabilities. Further, the research sought to investigate specific factors influencing fitness within a psychiatric population. Thirty individuals with psychiatric disabilities were randomly selected from an available population of 177 such persons and were further randomly ordered into experimental and control groups of 15 persons each in a pretest/post-test design. The experimental group received a seven-month recreation fitness program but the control group did not. The two groups, which were determined to have been equivalent in levels of activity and depression at the onset of the study, differed significantly in a therapeutically positive direction in favor of the experimental group. The effects were more pronounced in reducing levels of depression over time as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results of the study suggest there are potential benefits from integrating recreational and fitness programs into a regimen of psychiatric rehabilitation of persons with psychiatric disabilities.

    Bridging the Research-to-Practice Gap

    This paper presents a rationale and suggestions for increasing the quality of and demand for research findings as a vital component of educational improvement efforts. Addresses issues of trustworthiness, useability, and accessibility and suggests ways to nurture demand for research among influence producers, knowledge producers, knowledge consumers, and regulation producers.

    Use of functional assessment and a self-management system to increase academic engagement and work completion

    This study investigates whether a functional relationship exists between self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement and an increase in both on-task behavior and assignment completion. The study further assesses whether self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement is associated with generalization of performance gains to untrained settings. Training in self-management procedures included systematic instruction of behavior and general case programming to promote generalization of skills. An ABCAC design was used to assess the effects of self-management procedures in the training setting, and a multiple-baseline-across-settings design was used to assess generalization effects. The results demonstrated that a functional relationship existed between self-monitoring with self-recruited reinforcement and an increase in on-task behavior and assignment completion. Generalization of self-management skills to novel school contexts varied. The role of self-management procedures in promoting generalization is discussed.

    Translating what we know about the context of antisocial behavior in to a lower prevalence of such behavior

    This paper calls for research on reducing the incidence and prevalence of antisocial behavior, focusing on testing such interventions as advocacy and community organizing within small communities. Availability of validated school and clinical behavior interventions can assist communities in increasing forms of youth supervision and social and material support to families.

    Effects of behavior support team composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans

    This study examined how the composition of a behavior support team affected use of assessment information in the design of behavior support plans. Specifically, we examined if typical teams designed behavior support plans that differed in (a) technical adequacy and/or (b) contextual fit when (1) teams did not include behavior specialists, (2) teams included behavior specialists, or (3) behavior specialists worked alone. Fifty-eight school personnel on 12 behavior support teams from typical elementary schools and 6 behavior specialists participated in the study. Vignettes describing hypothetical students with functional behavior assessment outcome information were used to develop 36 behavior support plans (12 by teams alone, 12 by specialists alone, and 12 by teams with specialists). Results were assessed by 3 expert behavior analysts for technical adequacy and by all 64 team members for contextual fit. Technical adequacy tended to be rated high if specialists alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Contextual fit tended to be rated high when teams alone or teams including a specialist designed the plan. Team members ranked plans developed by the team alone and plans developed by the team with a specialist as preferred for implementation over plans developed by a specialist alone. Implications for the selection of behavior support team membership are discussed.

    First Step to Success: An early intervention for elementary children at risk for antisocial behavior

    The increased prevalence and seriousness of antisocial behavior displayed by today's youths have become serious concerns for parents, educators, and community members. Antisocial behavior has a developmental course that starts with minor offenses in preschool (e.g., whining, teasing, noncompliance) and develops into major offenses (e.g., vandalism, stealing, assault, homicide) in older children and adolescents. Research results suggest that if interventions are implemented in the early elementary years, the likelihood of preventing future antisocial behavior is improved. Furthermore, interventions are said to be more successful if family members and teachers are involved. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an early intervention strategy, First Step to Success, involving (a) teacher-directed and (b) a combination of teacher- and parent-directed strategies on the behaviors of elementary school children at risk for antisocial behavior. The results suggest that interventions involving teachers and parents were associated with decreases in problem behavior in the classroom that maintained over 1 academic school year after intervention. Implications and recommendations are presented based on the outcomes and limitations of the study. (Contains 4 tables and 6 figures.)

    A team training model for building the capacity to provide positive behavioral supports in inclusive settings

    A book chapter from the book 'Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community.'

    Objectives and processes of comprehensive training in community-referenced behavior management.

    A book chapter from the book 'Communicative approaches to the management of challenging behavior.'

    Violence and youth: Psychology’s response

    This summary report by the American Psychological Association's Commission on Violence and Youth examines individual and societal factors that contribute to youth violence in the United States and offers intervention strategies to reduce such violence. It examines biological, family, school, emotional, cognitive, social, and cultural factors which contribute to violent behavior. The report reviews what psychologists have learned about the factors that accompany and contribute to youth violence. It recommends a variety of specific efforts to reduce youth violence through: (1) early childhood interventions; (2) school-based interventions; (3) heightened awareness of cultural diversity; (4) development of the mass media to be part of the solution; (5) limiting access to firearms by children and youth; (6) reduction of youth involvement with alcohol and drugs; (7) psychological health services for young perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violence; and (8) education programs to reduce prejudice and hostility. Two appendixes list the table of contents of the commission's full report (volume 2) and describe the commission's work.

    Social judgments of integrated and segregated students with mental retardation toward their same-age peers

    The study with 60 mildly retarded students (at elementary, junior, and senior high levels) found that elementary level retarded students and students in primarily segregated settings rated peers (both retarded and nonretarded) more negatively than did older students or students in primarily integrated settings. Junior high students, however, favored retarded peers.