All Publications

Don’t know what kind of publication you’re looking for? Start here. Publications listed below include every eBook, monograph, brief, and guide written by the PBIS Technical Assistance Center.

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Why Implement Tier 1 PBIS for Students with Disabilities? What Does Research Say?

Students with Disabilities
Restraint/Seclusion
School-Wide
Behavior
Discipline
Research
Residential
This brief summarizes empirical research on the effects of Tier 1 PBIS for students with disabilities. In general, when schools implement PBIS with fidelity, students with disabilities experience: (a) improved SEB outcomes and (b) reduced exclusionary discipline (i.e., office discipline referrals, suspensions, restraint, seclusion). Given the promising empirically-supported effects of Tier 1 PBIS, we recommend schools continue to prioritize Tier 1 supports that are inclusive, robust, and supportive of all students, including students with disabilities.
Last Updated:
October 24, 2022

Supporting Schools During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting States, Districts, Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Framework

Classroom PBIS
District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework, like positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS), to restart classrooms and schools in a manner that all students, families, and educators are supported effectively, efficiently, and relevantly. This guide is not a primer on MTSS or PBIS. (For a basic introduction, visit PBIS.org.6) This guide is a set of considerations for experienced leadership teams to enhance, adjust, or adapt state, district, school, and classroom action plans to (a) meet their needs during the phases of crisis response and recovery and (b) return to a safe and positive learning environment.
Last Updated:
October 21, 2022

When Do Schools Receive Tier 2 and 3 PBIS Training?

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Implementation
Research
Systems Alignment
Tier 2
This evaluation brief identifies the average time between initial PBIS training at each tier and identifies criteria state-level leadership teams use to determine readiness for Tier 2 and 3 training. The sample includes 2,488 U.S. schools across five states trained between the 2005-06 and 2018-19 school years. Findings indicate that the average time between Tier 2 and 3 training was shorter compared to Tier 1 and Tier 2. In addition, state-level leadership teams used a variety of policies and procedures for determining school readiness for training at Tiers 2 and 3.
Last Updated:
October 12, 2022

Collecting Fidelity Data to Support and Sustain PBIS/MTSS in Schools

Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Action plan
Assessment
Evaluation
Fidelity
Brief for states and district on using fidelity data to guide action planning.
Last Updated:
September 28, 2022

Establishing a Rural Regional Cohort: Supporting Fidelity of PBIS Implementation in Rural Schools

Coaching
District & State PBIS
Community
Evaluation
Fidelity
Implementation
This demonstration features the collaborative work of a state-funded project matching university-based PBIS trainers with school level implementers in a rural setting. Strategies and lessons learned when implementing PBIS with fidelity during challenging times is shared. The information learned from this regional example highlights the need for considering adaptations to support the culture and context of rural settings while maintaining robust levels of fidelity and sustaining momentum for continued implementation. 
Last Updated:
September 22, 2022

Strategies for De-escalating Student Behavior in the Classroom

Classroom PBIS
School-Wide
Restraint/Seclusion
Behavior
Discipline
Implementation
Social skills
This practice brief provides practical, research-based strategies educators can use to de-escalate challenging student behavior in the classroom. Despite the development of supportive, safe, and predictable school environments, students may, at times, become agitated, and their behavior may escalate to unsafe levels. With some advance planning, educators can reduce reliance on reactive strategies, such as punitive or exclusionary practices (e.g., restraint, seclusion, suspension, expulsion) in favor of safer, more instructive, and inclusive approaches.
Last Updated:
September 20, 2022

PBIS Implementation in Rural Schools in the U.S.

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Evaluation
Fidelity
Implementation
Rural
The demonstration of positive impact has accelerated the adoption of the PBIS framework across the country in different school settings. The purpose of this evaluation brief is to provide an initial descriptive snapshot of the current status of PBIS implementation in rural schools.
Last Updated:
August 17, 2022

Supporting Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Through School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports

Classroom PBIS
Students with Disabilities
School-Wide
Behavior
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Social skills
Students with disabilities benefit from positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS; Meyer et al., 2021). The use of schoolwide and classwide PBIS shows promise in helping educators to integrate evidence-based practices for the benefit of all students, including those diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The purpose of this brief is to provide educators with a quick and easy resource for identifying effective practices for supporting all students, especially those diagnosed with ASD within general education contexts.
Last Updated:
August 16, 2022

A Literature Review of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Students with Extensive Support Needs

Students with Disabilities
Evaluation
Research
Special education
In response to two calls for continued research focused on PBIS and students with extensive support needs, researchers from the TIES Center and Center on PBIS conducted this literature review to summarize the current literature. This report summarizes the characteristics of the literature and implications for practice and future research initiatives.
Last Updated:
August 12, 2022

Creating a Classroom Teaching Matrix

Classroom PBIS
School-Wide
Behavior
PBIS Foundations
Social skills
Tier 1
Establishing positive classroom expectations, or norms, that reflect the shared values of a classroom community (i.e., educators, students, families) is an important step toward creating a positive teaching and learning environment. This brief provides guidance for creating and using a classroom teaching matrix to explicitly identify, define, and teach (a) predictable classroom routines, (b) positive classroom expectations, and (c) critical social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) skills.
Last Updated:
August 12, 2022

Centering Equity within the PBIS Framework: Overview and Evidence of Effectiveness

Equity
School-Wide
Climate
Discipline
Ethnicity
Evaluation
Racial and ethnic inequities in school discipline are widespread and persistent, even in schools implementing PBIS with fidelity. Yet integrating components of a multicomponent equity-centered approach into existing tiered frameworks is showing promise for improving equity in student outcomes. This brief describes the Center on PBIS’s 5-Point Equity Approach and the evidence for its positive effects on discipline disproportionality.
Last Updated:
July 21, 2022

Psychometric Properties of Behavior Screening Tools

Data-based Decision Making
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Assessment
Behavior
Screening
Psychometric properties reflect the overall quality of behavioral screening tools. Understanding such concepts helps you select a behavioral screener that best fits your district or school context and provides accurate and valuable information for data-based decision-making. This brief describes key elements of reliable screening tools.
Last Updated:
July 19, 2022

Providing Access to School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities

Students with Disabilities
School-Wide
Special education
This brief discusses ways to design PBIS systems that are accessible to all students. It describes the importance of including all students in PBIS structures, gives practical strategies to help schools achieve this goal, and includes the story of a student who benefited from full access to his school’s PBIS system.
Last Updated:
July 19, 2022

Tier 3 District-Level Systems Guide

School-Wide
Behavior
FBA/BIP/BSP
Implementation
Intensive
The purpose of this guide is to assist Tier 3 or MTSS District Teams in supporting school level and student level implementation of Tier 3 supports. These system features include procedures for teaming, professional development/training, coaching, data systems and evaluation, student support provisions and student and family engagement.
Last Updated:
June 16, 2022

Drilling Down District Data: Analyzing Reach and Fidelity of PBIS Implementation

Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Action plan
Assessment
Fidelity
This brief provides district PBIS leadership teams a framework to examine school-level fidelity and self-assessment data to guide resource, professional development, and technical assistance decision making.
Last Updated:
June 10, 2022

PBIS Implementation in Rural Schools: Voices from the Field

Coaching
District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Action plan
Community
Evaluation
Implementation
This brief summarizes themes from interviews with seven district- and school-level leaders who were asked to share experiences and lessons learned while implementing PBIS in their rural school(s). The results offer a starting place for discussion on what is important to consider when implementing PBIS in rural school settings. 
Last Updated:
June 7, 2022

Wise Use of Coordinated Early Intervening Services (CEIS) to Achieve Equity in School Discipline

Equity
Alignment
Climate
Discipline
Ethnicity
Disproportionality in exclusionary school discipline is a longstanding challenge in general and special education. To reduce disproportionality in discipline in a way that produces measurable results, federal law provides a mechanism referred to as Coordinated Early Intervening Services (CEIS). Whether a school district has been cited for significant disproportionality, is out of compliance, or is voluntarily directing funds to reducing disproportionality in discipline, this brief provides background on CEIS and outlines best practices for how state, district, and building administrators can invest these funds most effectively to achieve equity in school discipline.
Last Updated:
June 6, 2022

Remote Instruction as Suspension: Concerns and Guidance

Classroom PBIS
Students with Disabilities
School-Wide
Alternatives to Suspension
Behavior
Discipline
Special education
Removing students from the classroom and placing them in remote instruction for their behavior is an emerging form of discipline (Jones, 2020). The purpose of this brief is to describe this form of discipline, examine its implications and potential negative impacts, and provide guiding principles for improving behavior through evidence-based approaches.
Last Updated:
June 3, 2022

Beginning to Address Equity in Tier 1 Systems

Equity
Tier 1
Equity work has long been associated with the notion that educational outcomes will improve if practitioners provide individual support to the "right students," typically meaning students of color, students from marginalized groups, or students underserved by our social institutions. While well-intentioned, this approach is shortsighted and ignores the role of systems, including education, in outcomes. This brief explains how school teams can begin to address long-standing systemic inequities via PBIS core components to create and sustain change.
Last Updated:
May 26, 2022

How School Teams Use Data to Make Effective Decisions: Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS)

Data-based Decision Making
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
School-Wide
Action plan
Assessment
Fidelity
Implementation
With multiple sources of information available, knowing how to use data efficiently and effectively with limited resources is critical to the successful implementation of schoolwide, classroom, and individual interventions. In this practice guide, we describe a scientifically-based approach for data-based decision-making called Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) that includes guidance for school-based teams on (a) the foundations needed to run more effective meetings, (b) a process for using data to identify school needs and goals for change as well as for planning practical and effective solutions, and (c) a process for using, monitoring, and adapting solutions.
Last Updated:
April 8, 2022

School Refusal: Assessment and Intervention

High School PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Behavior
This brief provides an overview of how to identify and determine why a student may be avoiding or refusing to attend school, and ways that schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) teams can help to assess and address school refusal. We will introduce a research-based framework to engage in problem-solving to better support students who exhibit school refusal that can supplement more detailed reviews of assessment and intervention (e.g., Kearney, 2007).
Last Updated:
April 6, 2022

Promoting Positive Discipline Approaches and Reducing Restraint and Seclusion: The American School for the Deaf’s Model of Success

Students with Disabilities
Restraint/Seclusion
School-Wide
Alignment
Alternative Settings
Discipline
Evaluation
This brief describes a school’s transformation from using ineffective and punitive disciplinary practices to implementing effective and proactive responses to behavior by installing the PBIS framework in a unique setting. Specifically, this demonstration highlights the work of the PBIS school leadership team at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) and describes ASD’s use of PBIS strategies in alignment with the Six Core Strategies© to reduce their use of restraint and seclusion.
Last Updated:
April 6, 2022

Considerations for Conducting Virtual Functional Behavior Assessments & Behavior Intervention Plans (FBAs & BIPs)

Family
Behavior
FBA/BIP/BSP
Intensive
Tier 3
This brief provides considerations for conducting and implementing functional behavior assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) using virtual technology.
Last Updated:
March 9, 2022

Is Tier 1 PBIS Feasible and Effective in Rural, High Poverty Secondary Schools? Initial Examination of a Model Demonstration

Coaching
Data-based Decision Making
Behavior
Community
Evaluation
Implementation
To better understand the supports needed to positively impact student outcomes, the Center on PBIS has been examining several model demonstrations of PBIS implementation in schools residing within high need Local Education Agencies (LEAs). In particular, this brief provides an initial examination on the impact of PBIS implementation in two rural, high poverty, and majority Black/African American schools at the secondary level (5-12th grade) from a high need LEA. The information learned from this model demonstration may assist others working in and supporting schools in similar settings.
Last Updated:
February 18, 2022

Tier 3 Student-level Systems Guide

Students with Disabilities
Restraint/Seclusion
FBA/BIP/BSP
Individual
Intensive
Special education
Tier 3 Student Level Systems support all students who are not responding to Tier 1 and Tier 2 supports and would benefit from intensive strategies matched to individual student needs. Student challenges may include behaviors that range from disruptive behaviors to aggression (externalizing) and/or suicidal ideation, depression, or anxiety (internalizing). These behaviors might be impacted by trauma or crisis situations (temporary or permanent) or driven by mental health needs. Tier 3 behavioral supports may be helpful for any student, no matter the (dis)ability, who needs support to meet intensive social, emotional, and behavioral needs. This guide can assist all educators with understanding the systems that must be established to support students with intensive needs.
Last Updated:
January 31, 2022

Tier 3 School-level Systems Guide

School-Wide
Behavior
FBA/BIP/BSP
Intensive
Tier 3
The purpose of this practice guide is to assist Tier 3 Systems Teams, or combined Advanced Tiers (Tier 2 and 3) Systems Teams, in developing the foundational Tier 3 school-level systems features.
Last Updated:
January 31, 2022

Tier 3 Brief Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Guide

School-Wide
Assessment
Behavior
Evaluation
FBA/BIP/BSP
The purpose of this guide is to describe how school-based personnel can build and implement a continuum of function-based supports at Tier 3 that are designed to more effectively meet the needs of a broader range of students who struggle with persistent challenging behavior. This guide is intended to be a resource for individuals and teams with a working knowledge of Tier 3 who regularly design and implement supports for students with intensive needs.
Last Updated:
January 31, 2022

Tier 3 Comprehensive Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Guide

School-Wide
Assessment
Behavior
Evaluation
FBA/BIP/BSP
The purpose of this practice guide is to help teams conduct a comprehensive functional behavior assessment, develop a function-linked behavior intervention/support plan, and make data-based decisions. Functional behavior assessments help teams to identify the relation of targeted serious and intense (i.e., challenging) behavior to the environmental events that occur before and after the behavior is performed.
Last Updated:
January 31, 2022

How are Schools Using the Parent and Personnel School Climate Surveys?

Data-based Decision Making
Family
School-Wide
Climate
Social relationships
Tier 1
When school personnel and parents complete school climate surveys, results can inform team action planning to improve perceptions of school climate. This brief is intended to guide how districts and schools collect and disaggregate school climate data at the personnel and parent level to support data-based decision making.
Last Updated:
January 31, 2022

Function-Based Support: An Overview

Data-based Decision Making
Family
School-Wide
Behavior
FBA/BIP/BSP
Individual
Intensive
This brief describes how educators use a function-based approach to (a) prevent contextually inappropriate behaviors and (b) teach and encourage social, emotional, and behavioral skills throughout the PBIS continuum of support. In addition, this brief highlights critical features of effective functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and behavior support plans (BSP).
Last Updated:
January 7, 2022

The Whys and Hows of Screening: Frequently Asked Questions for Families

Data-based Decision Making
Family
School-Wide
PBIS Foundations
Screening
Tier 1
Using academic and behavior screening tools, educators actively look for students who might need extra help to be successful in school. This practice brief helps families understand the logic and steps taken as part of school-wide universal screening, and answers some frequently asked questions about systematic behavior screening.
Last Updated:
January 7, 2022

Interpreting Universal Behavior Screening Data: Questions to Consider

Coaching
Data-based Decision Making
School-Wide
Assessment
Behavior
Implementation
Screening
Universal behavior screening data can be used with other school data to provide educators with valuable information about the overall level of students’ performance at Tier 1 as well as an indicator of students who may need additional supports. In this brief, we offer guiding questions to interpret screening data in a three-step process: examine student performance for the school as a whole, consider teacher-delivered, low-intensity supports, and make decisions for students who might require Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports.
Last Updated:
January 7, 2022

Installing a Universal Behavior Screening Tool: Questions to Consider

Data-based Decision Making
School-Wide
Assessment
Behavior
Evaluation
Screening
Systematic screening is one proactive way educators can identify students who might need additional support, even when Tier 1 practices are being implemented with fidelity. In this brief, we offer guiding questions for installing a universal behavior screening tool in your school or district centered around five topics: setting up structures, providing professional learning, before your screening window opens, during your screening window, and after your screening window closes.
Last Updated:
January 7, 2022

Supporting and Responding to Students’ Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Needs: Evidence-Based Practices for Educators

Classroom PBIS
Behavior
Discipline
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
This practice guide is an updated version of Supporting and Responding to Student Behavior (Office of Special Education Programs, 2015). "Supporting and Responding" summarizes evidence-based, positive, and proactive practices that support and respond to students’ social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) needs in classrooms and similar teaching and learning environments (e.g., small-group activity).
Last Updated:
January 4, 2022

Strengthening Family Participation in Addressing Behavior in an IEP

Data-based Decision Making
Students with Disabilities
Family
Assessment
Behavior
Discipline
FBA/BIP/BSP
The Individualized Education Plan (IEP) document is a legal plan for special education created by a team that includes educators and family members. The IEP contains goals that promote student success, and, if needed, might include goals on ways to improve behavior. As families might find it helpful to plan ahead for IEP meetings, this brief is designed to help families prepare for an IEP meeting with tips to help strengthen the IEP team planning for any needed behavioral goals and supports.
Last Updated:
December 10, 2021

Helping Families Prepare for an IEP Meeting

Students with Disabilities
Family
Academics
Behavior
Individual
Special education
The IEP document is a legal plan for special education which is created by a team of educators and the child's family. This team meets yearly to create an IEP that provides information about the specifically designed instruction, related services, and other supports for the child. This tip sheet shares some ideas in how families can prepare for the IEP meeting to promote full participation in their child's education program.
Last Updated:
December 9, 2021

Questions for Families to Consider when Concerned about their Child’s Behavior

Students with Disabilities
Family
Assessment
Behavior
Individual
Intensive
Are you concerned about your child’s behavior in school? This document is intended to assist families of children with disabilities that already have an Individualized Education Program (IEP) in asking questions to learn more about their child’s behavior in school. Some examples of questions families can ask their school are included and organized by the level of behavior concern, followed by a list of additional resources to consider.
Last Updated:
December 8, 2021

Are Fewer Students with Disabilities Suspended When Schools Implement PBIS?

Students with Disabilities
Alternatives to Suspension
Discipline
Evaluation
Outcome
This evaluation brief explores the relationship between (a) schools’ implementation of Tier 1 (universal) support within a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework and (b) the proportion of students with disabilities suspended.
Last Updated:
November 16, 2021

Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) in the Classroom

Classroom PBIS
Behavior
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
Tier 2
This guide provides guidance to educators implementing positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in the classroom across the continuum of student need. Educators regularly provide a range of supports for students in the classroom—from universal supports for all students to intensive and individualized supports for a few students. This guide will help educators familiar with PBIS organize classroom supports for preventing, teaching, and responding to students’ social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) needs across the continuum.
Last Updated:
November 2, 2021

Supporting Child and Student Social, Emotional, Behavioral, and Mental Health Needs

District & State PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Alignment
Behavior
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Systems Alignment
This US Department of Education Resource "highlights seven key challenges to providing school- or program-based mental health support across early childhood, K–12 schools, and higher education settings, and presents seven corresponding recommendations. The appendix provides additional useful information, including (a) numerous examples corresponding to the recommendations highlighting implementation efforts throughout the country; (b) a list of federal resource centers; (c) a list of resources to assist educators (teachers, providers, and administrators) in implementing the recommendations; and (d) guidance on existing programs that can support social, emotional and mental health services for students."
Last Updated:
October 20, 2021

Remote Instruction Strategy Matrix for Collaboration with Families

Family
Academics
Behavior
Implementation
Social relationships
Successful partnerships between schools and parents/families benefit the academic success and social-emotional development of students. The Remote Instruction Strategy Matrix for Collaboration with Families is designed for educators (e.g., teachers, administrators, school counselors) to use as they collaborate with parents or families to be used within a continuum of supports based on available technology. This allows schools to coordinate efforts that match the regularity and depth of communication and supports based on identified student needs.
Last Updated:
October 14, 2021

Restraint and Seclusion Alternatives in All U.S. States and Territories: A Review of Legislation and Policies

Students with Disabilities
District & State PBIS
Restraint/Seclusion
Discipline
Evaluation
Policy
This evaluation brief (a) describes methods of a systematic review of state policy and legislation on R/S, (b) summarizes how R/S is addressed in state policy and legislation, (c) discusses the extent to which policy and legislation emphasizes alternatives to R/S, and (d) based on this review, provides considerations for preventing or reducing R/S, such as organizing a continuum of evidence-based prevention practices within a positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) framework to address the use of R/S.
Last Updated:
August 30, 2021

Using a PBIS Framework: Working Smarter, Not Harder in Rural Schools

Coaching
Data-based Decision Making
School-Wide
Action plan
Climate
Evaluation
Tier 1
Given some of the barriers faced by schools, especially those in rural areas, the Working Smarter Matrix matches interventions with current PBIS resources to assist a school team in using an efficient and effective problem-solving process. As part of the problem-solving process and after PBIS teams have identified and analyzed the problem, they can use this matrix to select an appropriate intervention approach and locate corresponding, hyperlinked resources to support that approach.
Last Updated:
August 2, 2021

Discussing Race, Racism, and Important Current Events with Students: A Guide with Lesson Plans and Resources

Classroom PBIS
Equity
School-Wide
Climate
Ethnicity
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This guide is intended to increase the frequency and quality of conversations about race, racism, and current events regarding race in K-12 classrooms to support students and provide voice and self-reflection. It includes recommendations and tips for creating statements of support, preparing for and facilitating constructive classroom discussions, addressing harmful statements, and designing lesson plans and units for ongoing learning.
Last Updated:
July 26, 2021

Enhancing Family-School Collaboration with Diverse Families

Equity
Family
School-Wide
Administrator
Climate
Community
Ethnicity
This brief is designed to help inform school leaders about how intentional collaboration with diverse families can be created through environments in which educators work alongside families on behalf of the students they serve. Recommendations for action are included.
Last Updated:
June 23, 2021

Early Childhood Program-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (EC-BOQ) Cultural Responsiveness Companion

Early Childhood PBIS
Equity
Climate
The EC-BOQ Cultural Responsiveness Companion is a resource for coaches and teams implementing the Pyramid Model to improve the fit of their Pyramid systems with the needs of children and their families. Teams may use this tool either during the initial Pyramid Model implementation to build cultural responsiveness into systems from the beginning or after initial implementation to enhance equity within existing systems.
Last Updated:
May 27, 2021

Leveraging Short Term Funding to Build Long Term Capacity

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Equity
Action plan
Implementation
Systems Alignment
PBIS Foundations
Recommendations for spending American Rescue Plan Act education funds.
Last Updated:
May 26, 2021

Promising Practices for Improving the Middle to High School Transition for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

Students with Disabilities
High School PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Social relationships
Special education
Systems Alignment
Tier 3
In this practice brief, we describe several current examples of approaches that are aimed at improving outcomes for students entering high school. Additionally, we present strategies to disrupt the negative trajectory for students with EBD, who seldom receive coordinated, individualized supports during the critical transition from middle to high school.
Last Updated:
May 10, 2021

Obtaining Stakeholder Feedback to Improve the Middle to High School Transition

Family
High School PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Action plan
Implementation
Outcome
Systems Alignment
In this practice brief, we explore feedback from a group of eighth and ninth grade students, families, and educators on what has been challenging, what has been missing, and what is needed during the transition from middle to high school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. We also discuss the process for gathering stakeholder feedback and some feasible next steps for schools and districts who are interested in utilizing such valuable input for improving their systems of support.
Last Updated:
May 10, 2021

Advanced Tiers in High School: Lessons Learned from Initial Implementation

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Implementation
Tier 2
Tier 3
An increasing number of high schools have adopted Tier 1 PBIS; however, implementation of advanced tiers of PBIS in high schools is less common and specific guidance is scarce. To address this need and better understand the level of support needed to successfully implement advanced tiers of PBIS at the high school level, the National Center on PBIS is conducting a model demonstration with a cohort of four high schools. The intent of this brief is to share lessons learned related to strengths and challenges that have influenced the initial implementation of advanced tiers of support for schools and lessons learned for district leaders and trainers to consider when supporting high schools.
Last Updated:
May 3, 2021

PBIS Academy Model Demo Brief: Impact of Statewide Support Model on High-Needs Schools

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Behavior
Discipline
Evaluation
An evaluation of a state-wide support model targeting high-needs schools across the state of Massachusetts. This evaluation brief reviews the state-wide model in addition to reviewing both discipline and academic outcomes.
Last Updated:
May 3, 2021

Selecting a Universal Behavior Screening Tool: Questions to Consider

Data-based Decision Making
School-Wide
Screening
In this practice brief, we offer five questions for you to consider as you decide which systematic screening tool to adopt, install, and sustain. These questions are intended to support you to identify your available resources and your screening needs.
Last Updated:
May 3, 2021

Guidance for Systematic Screening: Lessons Learned from Practitioners

Data-based Decision Making
Screening
Tier 1
In this brief, we describe experiences of three school districts in various U.S. geographic regions as they installed screening tools as part of their screening processes. Education leaders have generously shared their advice for practitioners throughout the nation. We share five lessons learned from district leaders, including some selected quotes (see boxes). Leaders’ insights may be helpful for educators already involved in systematic screening as well as those who are newer to the process.
Last Updated:
May 3, 2021

Returning to School: Considerations for Students With the Most Intensive Behavioral Needs, A Guide to Supporting Students With Disabilities, Their Families, and Educators

Classroom PBIS
Students with Disabilities
School-Wide
Behavior
Intensive
Social relationships
Social skills
This document is a set of strategies and key practices to restart classrooms and schools in a manner that students, their families, and educators can use effectively, efficiently, and relevantly in the current climate.
Last Updated:
April 20, 2021

Responding to the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak through PBIS

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Classroom PBIS
Social relationships
Trauma
Climate
One of the key principles of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is to focus on building prosocial skills, not simply attempting to eliminate challenging or problem behavior. We encourage all schools to continue that focus, as well as other key principles of PBIS, as you address the COVID-19 pandemic. The following are a few simple recommendations educators can embed across a continuum of supports.
Last Updated:
April 15, 2021

Responding to the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak through PBIS (Versión en español)

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Classroom PBIS
Social relationships
Trauma
Climate
One of the key principles of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is to focus on building prosocial skills, not simply attempting to eliminate challenging or problem behavior. We encourage all schools to continue that focus, as well as other key principles of PBIS, as you address the COVID-19 pandemic. The following are a few simple recommendations educators can embed across a continuum of supports.
Last Updated:
April 15, 2021

PBIS Cultural Responsiveness Field Guide: Resources for Trainers and Coaches

Equity
Action plan
Ethnicity
Tier 1
This field guide outlines an integrated framework to embed equity efforts into school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) by aligning culturally responsive practices to the core components of SWPBIS. The goal of using this guide is to make school systems more responsive to the cultures and communities that they serve. This guide is part of a 5-point intervention approach for enhancing equity in student outcomes within a SWPBIS approach.
Last Updated:
March 29, 2021

Why Prioritize Behavior Support?

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Administrator
Behavior
PBIS Foundations
Policy
This brief describes why it's critical to continue to prioritize behavior support in addition to academic, social, and emotional supports. Without effective behavior support, research has documented that students and educators experience negative outcomes. With effective behavior support implemented within a PBIS framework, rigorous research has demonstrated that students and educators experience positive outcomes.
Last Updated:
March 25, 2021

PBIS Forum 17 Practice Brief: Facility-wide PBIS Implementation as Viewed by Roundtable Participants and From the Field

Juvenile Justice
Implementation
Secure Care
Systems Alignment
Participants in the 2017 PBIS Forum's juvenile justice strand were invited to a Roundtable discussion on issues related to PBIS implementation in juvenile justice settings. Attendees chose one of four topical small groups to share ideas about commonly-asked questions from practitioners who are considering or implementing PBIS in juvenile justice settings. Highlights of the small group discussions are presented in this Practice Brief.
Last Updated:
March 25, 2021

A State Guide for Returning to School During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting States, Districts, Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Framework

District & State PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This abbreviated state guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework to support students, families, and educators during the transitions back to school during and following the global pandemic in a manner that prioritizes their health and safety, social and emotional needs, and behavioral and academic growth.
Last Updated:
March 5, 2021

A School Guide for Returning to School During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Framework

School-Wide
Classroom PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This abbreviated school guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework to support students, families, and educators during the transitions back to school during and following the global pandemic in a manner that prioritizes their health and safety, social and emotional needs, and behavioral and academic growth.
Last Updated:
March 5, 2021

A District Guide for Returning to School During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting Districts, Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi- Tiered Systems of Support Framework

District & State PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This abbreviated district guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework to support students, families, and educators during the transitions back to school during and following the global pandemic in a manner that prioritizes their health and safety, social and emotional needs, and behavioral and academic growth.
Last Updated:
March 5, 2021

PBIS High School Implementation: Leveraging Features of the PBIS Framework to Support College and Career Readiness

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Alignment
Systems Alignment
The purpose of this brief is to provide guidance and concrete examples to school personnel of how schools can leverage an existing PBIS framework to support CCR efficiently and effectively.
Last Updated:
March 3, 2021

Building a Culture of Staff Wellness Through Multi-Tiered System of Supports

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Administrator
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Tier 1
Tier 2
The purpose of this brief is to provide recommendations to district and school leadership teams on how the components of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) can be used to prioritize staff health and wellbeing.
Last Updated:
March 2, 2021

Supporting PBIS Implementation Through Phases of Crisis Recovery

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Action plan
Implementation
Trauma
As school and district communities consider options for effectively supporting students, educators, and families during and after a crisis, it can be difficult to identify critical impactful actions. The PBIS framework can serve as a road map to meeting this challenge. This practice brief provides strategies to guide implementation efforts through the various phase of crisis recovery for schools and districts that are (a) getting started or (b) strengthening and maintaining current implementation. 
Last Updated:
February 19, 2021

School Mental Health Quality Framework and Tools Alignment Guide

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Alignment
Evaluation
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
The National Center for School Mental Health provides practitioners a summary of PBIS, the Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF), and Comprehensive School Mental Health Systems (CSMHS) tools and resources that districts and schools might use to improve their efforts to support the social-emotional-behavioral health and wellness of every student. The guidance includes consideration for use of high-quality resources, what the frameworks have in common, and how to add value in their use to enhance existing efforts.
Last Updated:
February 19, 2021

Installing an Interconnected Systems Framework at the School Level: Recommendations and Examples to Guide School Leadership Teams, Practitioners and Coaches

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Systems Alignment
This Practice Guide describes and illustrates how schools, with support from coaches and district/community leaders, can benefit from the integration of mental health supports within the PBIS Framework. District/school leaders and coaches can use this information to support their efforts building an Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) of mental health and PBIS. This Guide highlights practical strategies from one school’s successful experiences, including indications of the impact on students’ success while building strong partnerships with families and community partners. Suggested Technical Assistance strategies for coaches are provided.
Last Updated:
February 18, 2021

Installing an Interconnected Systems Framework at the District/Community Level: Recommendations and Strategies for Coaches and District Leaders

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Systems Alignment
The Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) is a process to create a more stream-lined approach to school mental health and wellness by connecting all social-emotional-behavioral (SEB) efforts through one system, while eliminating barriers inherent in systems that previously have operated separately. This Practice Guide describes and illustrate how district/community leaders can embed mental health supports within the PBIS framework to create a unified and comprehensive system of social-emotional-behavioral (SEB) supports in schools. One district’s experience building such an Interconnected System Framework (ISF) is portrayed including how they engaged community partners, families and school personnel. Technical assistance strategies and tools for coaches guiding the ISF process in districts/communities and schools are included.
Last Updated:
February 18, 2021

Addressing the Growing Problem of Domestic Sex Trafficking in Minors through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Action plan
Screening
Tier 1
Tier 2
The aim of this practice brief is to highlight the broader issue of domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and suggest a framework for integrating school-based prevention and intervention strategies through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). We provide a brief review of DMST and connections to PBIS; we then discuss how actions within the PBIS framework may help prevent DMST and provide assistance to student victims and their families. 
Last Updated:
January 29, 2021

Effective Instruction as a Protective Factor

Classroom PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Academics
Behavior
Tier 1
Effective instruction can be a protective factor for student wellness, mitigating competing risk factors. In this brief, we highlight key considerations and resources for educators to (a) create an effective context for learning, (b) emphasize appropriate content, and (c) use data-driven instructional practices to increase the likelihood that all students experience academic, social, emotional, and behavioral benefit.
Last Updated:
January 25, 2021

Integrated Tiered Fidelity Inventory Companion Guide

Equity
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Alignment
Evaluation
Fidelity
Tier 1
This guide is intended to support school teams, coaches, and trainers working to focus on cultural responsiveness and support for mental health and wellness within the PBIS framework while also navigating the ongoing challenges of the 2020-2021 school year. This companion guide is not an additional fidelity of implementation measure. It is an action planning tool to use alongside the validated TFI to focus PBIS implementation to better meet the complex needs of students and staff.
Last Updated:
January 25, 2021

Improving Attendance in a Remote Learning Environment

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Administrator
Assessment
Behavior
Outcome
This brief adapts the suggestions and strategies provided in Improving Attendance and Reducing Chronic Absenteeism to guide practice during remote instruction. Latest revision includes a case study that illustrates the guidance.
Last Updated:
December 23, 2020

Habits of Effective Classroom Practice

Classroom PBIS
Behavior
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This practice brief describes how we (a) develop habits of effective classroom practice and (b) expand effective habits in our schools, districts, and states.
Last Updated:
December 18, 2020

Systematic Screening for Behavior in Current K-12 Instructional Settings

Data-based Decision Making
Screening
Tier 1
With the new range of instructional contexts being offered, many educators are seeking guidance regarding how to conduct systematic screenings for behavior across these different environments. In this brief, we offer three considerations for those preparing to screen for the first time and for those continuing with screening within a tiered system for in-person, remote, or hybrid instructional environments.
Last Updated:
November 23, 2020

Facility-Wide Tiered Fidelity Inventory v0.2 Technical Brief

Juvenile Justice
Alternative Settings
Assessment
Evaluation
Fidelity
This resource describes the process used for development, content validation, and usability evaluation of the FW-TFI v0.2.
Last Updated:
November 23, 2020

Adapting PBIS Practices for Rural Settings: Remote Instruction Strategy Matrix

Classroom PBIS
School-Wide
Rural
Behavior
Implementation
Social relationships
Rural education settings often have accessibility strengths and weaknesses that can make virtual instruction challenging. A range of resources are needed that can be tailored in intensity to meet various student needs (social, emotional, behavioral well-being, academic engagement) adapted to different types of technology. The Remote Instruction Strategy Matrix with corresponding resources provides educators with a continuum of learning support strategies that can be followed by adaptations for implementation based on available technology. 
Last Updated:
November 20, 2020

Integrating a Trauma-Informed Approach within a PBIS Framework

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Systems Alignment
Trauma
As educators have become increasingly aware of the impact of trauma on the school success of children and youth, they have been investing in professional development about how to address childhood trauma in schools. However, evaluation to support evidence of impact are lacking.This Guide describes how to integrate trauma-informed approaches into the PBIS framework to ensure efforts are linked to student outcomes. Strategies and tools to ensure effectiveness are included.
Last Updated:
November 17, 2020

Building Momentum for PBIS Implementation in High Need Districts

Coaching
Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
Urban Implementation
Rural
Building district capacity for implementing PBIS in high need school districts is challenging. This practice brief summarizes the lessons learned one year into an intensive 5-year partnership with Southbridge Public Schools, a district identified as high-need. The intent of the brief is to provide district leaders, trainers, and state leaders with lessons learned and suggestions they may consider when supporting high need LEAs.
Last Updated:
October 23, 2020

Remote Learning for Families: Keeping it Accessible, Keeping it Positive

Family
Academics
Special education
This practice brief describes information and tips for families regarding accessibility during remote learning.
Last Updated:
October 13, 2020

An Overview of Endrew F.: Implications for Student Behavior

Students with Disabilities
Family
Policy
Special education
Tier 3
This 2017 U.S. Supreme Court case clarified what is meant by a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA, 2004) while highlighting the role of supporting a student’s behavior to enable the student to make progress. Endrew F. is an important and relevant case for the PBIS community in terms of encouraging stakeholder involvement and engaging in effective data-based decision making. This brief highlights some implications of Endrew F. for IEP teams, including the importance of the input of parents in designing appropriate educational support plans for students with disabilities.
Last Updated:
September 23, 2020

Creating a PBIS Behavior Teaching Matrix for Remote Instruction

Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This practice brief shares tips for maintaining continuity of learning through defining classroom expectations for remote (i.e., distance) instruction and online learning environments. With a few adaptations, teachers can use a PBIS framework to make remote learning safe, predictable, and positive.
Last Updated:
September 22, 2020

Creating a PBIS Behavior Teaching Matrix for Remote Instruction (Versión en español)

Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This practice brief shares tips for maintaining continuity of learning through defining classroom expectations for remote (i.e., distance) instruction and online learning environments. With a few adaptations, teachers can use a PBIS framework to make remote learning safe, predictable, and positive.
Last Updated:
September 22, 2020

Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School-Wide PBIS, Volume 2: An Implementation Guide

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Alignment
Community
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Screening
This implementation guide provides step by step process with examples, activities, and resources for district and school teams to install and implement an Interconnected Systems Framework.
Last Updated:
September 21, 2020

Conducting the Tiered Fidelity Inventory and Walkthrough Remotely

Data-based Decision Making
School-Wide
Action plan
Evaluation
Fidelity
Implementation
Evidence-based frameworks, such as positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS), provide a critical foundation to meet the needs of students, families, and educators in this new context, but only when implemented with fidelity. This practice brief (a) provides a rationale for conducting the Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI)l; (b) shares guidance on how to complete the TFI, including the walkthrough, remotely; and (b) responds to frequently asked questions related to conducting the TFI remotely.
Last Updated:
September 11, 2020

Is School-wide Positive Behavior Support an Evidence-based Practice?

School-Wide
Research
The purpose of this document is to lay out the current evidence assessing SWPBIS and the considerations that may be relevant for state, district and national decision-makers. School-wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports is a systems approach to establishing the social culture and behavioral supports needed for all children in a school to achieve both social and academic success. PBIS is not a packaged curriculum, but an approach that defines core elements that can be achieved through a variety of strategies.
Last Updated:
September 8, 2020

Supporting Students with Disabilities in the Classroom within a PBIS Framework

Classroom PBIS
Students with Disabilities
Behavior
Special education
Tier 1
Students with disabilities are more likely to experience exclusionary and reactive discipline practices than students without disabilities. Fortunately, when educators implement positive, proactive, and evidence-based practices within a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework, students with disabilities benefit. In this practice brief, we describe the “top ten” intervention strategies effective educators implement to support all students, including students with disabilities, in their classroom.
Last Updated:
September 1, 2020

High School Acknowledgement Systems

High School PBIS
School-Wide
PBIS Foundations
Social relationships
Youth Voice
This practice brief focuses on effective ways to build an acknowledgement system that works in high school. We start by suggesting why considering a formal acknowledgment system is appropriate in high school, and then review examples of strategies that have been demonstrated (descriptively or empirically) to be effective.
Last Updated:
August 14, 2020

Adjusting PBIS for Students New to School: Starting the Year with Increased Support

Classroom PBIS
Data-based Decision Making
Behavior
Implementation
Social skills
Tier 1
Young students new to school experience a shift in their typical environment. This practice brief provides strategies for how school teams can increase behavior support at the beginning of the school year to support these students.
Last Updated:
June 8, 2020

Supporting Students with Disabilities at School and Home: A Guide for Teachers to Support Families and Students

Students with Disabilities
Family
Classroom PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
PBIS Foundations
This guide highlights 5 key practices for teachers and families to support all students, including students with disabilities, at school and home. For each practice, the guide provides (a) tips for teachers to support students with disabilities during instruction; (b) tips for families that educators can share to support or enhance learning at home, especially during periods of remote instruction; and (c) free-access resources that include strategies shown to be effective by research (e.g., informational guides, downloadable materials, research-based programs).
Last Updated:
May 20, 2020

Guidance on Adapting Check-in Check-out (CICO) for Distance Learning

Classroom PBIS
Family
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Behavior
Screening
Tier 2
This brief provides considerations and suggestions for adapting Check-in Check-out (CICO), an evidence-based Tier 2 school intervention, for situations where students are learning from home.
Last Updated:
May 8, 2020

PBIS in Juvenile Justice Programs: Planning for Long-Term Implementation Juvenile Justice

Juvenile Justice
Alternative Settings
Secure Care
Residential
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL and is intended to be a practical tool and resource for anyone who is leading or supporting PBIS in juvenile justice programs or other types of alternative, residential programs. Common reasons that can prevent sustainability of PBIS over time and recommendations for enhancing sustainability will be described.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

PBIS in Rural America: Addressing Barriers and Building on Strengths

School-Wide
Implementation
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

Embedding Culturally Responsive Practices in Tier I

Equity
Tier 1
Community
Climate
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

PBIS in Early Childhood Classrooms on School Campuses

Early Childhood PBIS
Implementation
Tier 1
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL for the purpose of exploring how all classes on school campuses can meet the developmental needs of students, specifically our youngest students.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

IDEA & Students with Disabilities

Students with Disabilities
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Special education
Policy
Tier 3
Climate
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL and is not intended to provide comprehensive legal guidance. Districts/schools should consult with their district’s legal resources for deciding on legal actions and procedures.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

Tier II Data, Systems & Practices

School-Wide
Targeted
Tier 2
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL and provides an overview of the process of designing and implementing Tier 2 systems and practices within a Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) framework. Approaching Tier 2 design from the district-level is encouraged; however, considerations and suggestions for schools implementing Tier 2 independent of a district-level initiative are included.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

Universal Screening – Systematic Screening to Shape Instruction

Data-based Decision Making
Screening
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

Advancing Family-School Collaboration in PBIS Through the FSCA

Family
Community
Implementation
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL with the purpose to describe the Family-School-Community Alliance (FSCA) and the FSCA’s recent work focused on family-school collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). An introduction to the FSCA is provided, followed by the rationale and current challenges of family- school collaboration. Finally, the features of the FSCA’s model for family-school collaboration are reviewed along with suggestions for integrating and aligning family-school collaboration efforts within existing practice.
Last Updated:
May 6, 2020

How are Schools Using the School Climate Surveys

District & State PBIS
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
School-Wide
Climate
Evaluation
Tier 1
The purpose of this brief is to provide information about how to evaluate school climate at the primary and secondary levels. Norms and ranges are provided and based on a national data; this data can help schools to contextualize local data. Information for interpreting the data and unit if for data-based decision making is also included.
Last Updated:
May 1, 2020

Supporting Families with PBIS at Home (Versión en español)

Family
Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Families and caregivers should consider using positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in their homes on a daily basis. It is especially helpful when events disrupt normal routines – events like worldwide health pandemics. This practice brief provides recommendations for families and caregivers on how to use PBIS to continue to support their students’ social and emotional growth and minimize behavioral disruptions in the home.
Last Updated:
March 31, 2020

Supporting Families with PBIS at Home

Family
Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Families and caregivers should consider using positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in their homes on a daily basis. It is especially helpful when events disrupt normal routines – events like worldwide health pandemics. This practice brief provides recommendations for families and caregivers on how to use PBIS to continue to support their students’ social and emotional growth and minimize behavioral disruptions in the home.
Last Updated:
March 31, 2020

Positive Greetings at the Door

Classroom PBIS
Equity
Social relationships
Tier 1
Positive greetings at the door is an effective strategy for increasing academic engagement, decreasing unwanted behavior, and improving student-teacher relationships. This strategy brief breaks it down into easy steps for daily implementation.
Last Updated:
March 27, 2020

Getting Back to School after Disruptions: Resources for Making Your School Year Safer, More Predictable, and More Positive

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Trauma
Students experiencing trauma, such as from public health crises, weather disasters, or other upsetting events, may have been exposed to unpredictable schedules, inconsistent supervision, or food insecurity and desperately need school to be their safest, most predictable, and most positive setting, especially if they have been displaced or are without utilities or basic comforts. Multi-tiered Systems of Supports (MTSS), such as PBIS, are ideal frameworks for implementing strategies to support students coming back to school and to prevent and address further challenges. We recommend the following six strategies for school teams to ensure a safe, predictable, and positive school year. These strategies are beneficial for all students if the school has been closed, as well as for individual students returning from extended time away from school.
Last Updated:
March 13, 2020

Getting Back to School after Disruptions: Resources for Making Your School Year Safer, More Predictable, and More Positive (Versión en español)

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Trauma
Students experiencing trauma, such as from public health crises, weather disasters, or other upsetting events, may have been exposed to unpredictable schedules, inconsistent supervision, or food insecurity and desperately need school to be their safest, most predictable, and most positive setting, especially if they have been displaced or are without utilities or basic comforts. Multi-tiered Systems of Supports (MTSS), such as PBIS, are ideal frameworks for implementing strategies to support students coming back to school and to prevent and address further challenges. We recommend the following six strategies for school teams to ensure a safe, predictable, and positive school year. These strategies are beneficial for all students if the school has been closed, as well as for individual students returning from extended time away from school.
Last Updated:
March 13, 2020

Preventing & Responding to Violent Behavior in Schools

District & State PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Community
Implementation
Systems Alignment
This practice brief is intended to be a practical tool and brief overview resource for educators interested in leveraging the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework to support school and district-level prevention and recovery efforts related to school violence and other trauma-inducing critical incidents.
Last Updated:
March 1, 2020

DITCH THE CLIP! Why Clip Charts Are Not a PBIS Practice and What to Do Instead

Classroom PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
School-Wide
Behavior
Implementation
Trauma
Clip charts have been a common classroom strategy for many years. Once considered an effective tool for displaying behavioral progress and adherence to classroom rules, they may not be as helpful as once thought. In this practice brief, we describe how such strategies are inconsistent with a PBIS approach and, more importantly, can be harmful. We also provide alternative strategies that are evidence based and more likely to improve student behavior while promoting a safe, positive classroom.
Last Updated:
February 5, 2020

Using the PBIS Framework to Address the Opioid Crisis in Schools

Opioid Crisis and Substance Misuse
Family
School-Wide
Behavior
Community
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
In October 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared a public health emergency to address rising overdose deaths related to the opioid epidemic. With the effects of the opioid crisis affecting students at multiple levels, it is important to identify clear targets for school-based interventions. We describe here the ways students and families may be affected, and how school teams can leverage the PBIS framework to support them.
Last Updated:
January 28, 2020

Improving Attendance and Reducing Chronic Absenteeism

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Alignment
Systems Alignment
This brief provides guidance for schools or districts looking to integrate strategies for improving attendance within the PBIS framework.
Last Updated:
January 16, 2020

Four Key Actions for State Education Agency Teams to Support Implementation of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

District & State PBIS
Administrator
Fidelity
Implementation
As states and districts adopt policies that address the “whole child,” many look to multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) that attend to academic and social-emotional-behavioral needs of students. Key features of MTSS include a continuum of supports with increasing intensity matched to student need, the use of research informed practices, and data for decision making. School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) is an example of an effective MTSS for behavior.
Last Updated:
December 20, 2019

Basic FBA to BSP Trainer's Manual

Coaching
Students with Disabilities
Data-based Decision Making
Behavior
Assessment
Screening
This manual presents procedures to train school-based personnel to conduct basic functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and design function-based behavior support plans (BSP).
Last Updated:
October 28, 2019

PBIS Technical Guide on Classroom Data: Using Data to Support Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support Practices and Systems

Classroom PBIS
Coaching
High School PBIS
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
Evaluation
This technical guide is intended to support data selection and use at the Tier 1 level for classrooms and is not intended to describe the more intensive data collection strategies required to support students or educators receiving Tier 2 or 3 supports.
Last Updated:
October 7, 2019

Using Outcome Data to Implement Multi-tiered Behavior Support (PBIS) in High Schools

High School PBIS
Data-based Decision Making
Outcome
Evaluation
In this Practice Brief we propose that there are at least four core types of data needed by high school PBIS Leadership Teams and that these data can be used to problem-solve at the (a) whole school, (b) at-risk group, or (c) individual student levels.
Last Updated:
September 25, 2019

High School PBIS Implementation: Student Voice

High School PBIS
Youth Voice
Implementation
This brief discusses the importance of student voice, describes the unique features of high school settings that can make it challenging to include students, and offers strategies to address these barriers.
Last Updated:
September 12, 2019

Use of I-SWIS by Elementary Schools to Monitor Tier 3 Behavior Supports

Data-based Decision Making
Tier 3
Research
In this Evaluation Brief we focus on the extent to which Tier 3 (individual) support teams collect, summarize, and use data to guide implementation of behavior support plans. Our specific focus is a descriptive summary of how elementary school teams use the Individual School Wide Information System (I-SWIS) online application to guide their Tier 3 decision-making as well as general use of PBIS-focused data systems that support overall fidelity to critical components of the PBIS framework.
Last Updated:
September 9, 2019

Preventing Restraint and Seclusion in Schools

Restraint/Seclusion
Policy
Behavior
Climate
This practice brief defines restraint and seclusion, addresses prevalance, describes prevention approaches, and reviews policy implications.
Last Updated:
May 1, 2019

10 Lessons Learned from SEA and LEA SCTG Sites

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
School-Wide
Implementation
Outcome
This guide shares lessons learned from the past five years working with State Education Agency (SEA) and Local Education Agency (LEA) School Climate Transformation Grantees. SEAs and LEAs are more likely to use SCTG resources
Last Updated:
April 16, 2019

High School PBIS Implementation: Staff Buy-In

High School PBIS
School-Wide
Buy-in from stakeholders is important for the successful adoption, full implementation and sustainability of any school-based initiative. It’s also one of the critical elements for implementation of Tier 1 PBIS included in the TFI, BoQ, and the Blueprint. This brief describes the unique features of high school settings that can make building buy-in more difficult and identifies strategies that have been successful for securing staff buy-in in high schools.
Last Updated:
April 1, 2019

Do Wisconsin Schools Implementing an Integrated Academic and Behavior Support Framework Improve Equity in Academic and School Discipline Outcomes?

Equity
PBIS Foundations
Ethnicity
Community
This evaluation brief describes how Wisconsin is implementing an equitable multi-level system of supports (MLSS) framework, also known as a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS), and how schools implementing this framework with both a behavior and reading focus have shown positive outcomes for all students. The data analyzed in this brief were derived from a small, Wisconsin RtI Center staff directed project. The focus was on the impact of an equitable multi-level system of supports (MLSS).
Last Updated:
March 1, 2019

Family-School Collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Creating a School Atmosphere to Promote Collaboration

Family
Community
Tier 1
The purpose of this practice brief is to describe family-school collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and review approaches that help to create conditions that promote collaboration. A brief background on family-school collaboration is provided, followed by guidance on a schoolwide approach for collaborating with families that strengthens family-school connections and improves student performance.
Last Updated:
February 1, 2019

Facility-wide PBIS Implementation: Possible Barriers and Potential Solutions for Six Salient Topics as Viewed by Roundtable Participants and Facilitators

Juvenile Justice
Secure Care
The 2018 PBIS Leadership Forum juvenile justice roundtable dialogue gave a voice to the conference participants who work with youth in restrictive settings. This is a summary of their ideas to spur additional conversations and to continue the growth of FW-PBIS with this population of vulnerable and marginalized youth in restrictive settings.
Last Updated:
January 31, 2019

Cultivating Positive Student-Teacher Relationships

School-Wide
Social relationships
The significance of the student-teacher relationship is substantial. The brief discusses key elements of positive student-teacher relationships and approaches for strengthening teachers' relational skills with students.
Last Updated:
January 31, 2019

Fidelity of SW-PBIS in High Schools: Patterns of Implementation Strengths and Needs

High School PBIS
Fidelity
Research
PBIS Foundations
The purpose of this brief is to summarize patterns in SW-PBIS implementation fidelity in 996 high schools across 31 U.S. states. We specially aimed to evaluate how high schools are implementing the components of SW-PBIS, and identify implementation strengths and needs.
Last Updated:
November 1, 2018

Lessons Learned on Implementation of PBIS in High Schools: Current Trends and Future Directions

High School PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Implementation
This monograph was designed to provide information and strategies for emerging topics that can be used as needed by administrators, coaches and Leadership Teams to address unique needs of high schools.
Last Updated:
September 5, 2018

How are Schools Using the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI)?

District & State PBIS
Assessment
Research
PBIS Foundations
To understand how schools are using the TFI, this evaluation brief aims to answer the following research questions: 1. How often do schools complete the TFI per year? 2. How many tiers are assessed during each TFI administration? 3. What are the average scores at each tier of the TFI? 4. What subscales and items on the TFI have the highest and lowest scores?
Last Updated:
June 1, 2018

Teaching Social-Emotional Competencies within a PBIS Framework

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Systems Alignment
Social skills
Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) provides an ideal framework for promoting social-emotional competencies to improve outcomes for the whole child. The purpose of this brief is to describe how school personnel can teach social-emotional competencies within a PBIS framework to support systematic, school-wide implementation through one system, rather than trying to improve student outcomes through separate, competing initiatives.
Last Updated:
April 24, 2018

Classroom Integrated Academics and Behavior Brief

Classroom PBIS
High School PBIS
Coaching
Alignment
This brief was developed to provide core features and strategies for integrating academic and behavior practices to support students in a “whole child” approach at the classroom level.
Last Updated:
March 20, 2018

What are Patterns and Predictors of CICO Participation in U.S. Schools?

District & State PBIS
Classroom PBIS
Tier 2
Research
Targeted
This evaluation brief looks to develop an understanding of current patterns of CICO enrollment and its potential impact on intervention fidelity and effectiveness.
Last Updated:
March 1, 2018

Do Schools Implementing SWPBIS Have Decreased Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality in School Discipline?

Equity
Research
Ethnicity
The purpose of this study was to examine discipline disproportionality among schools implementing SWPBIS compared to the entire population of schools in the U.S. Examining patterns in a large-scale evaluation of schools implementing and not implementing SWPBIS could help determine the extent to which implementation of SWPBIS is related to lower, higher, or unchanged discipline disparities.
Last Updated:
March 1, 2018

A 5-Point Intervention Approach for Enhancing Equity in School Discipline

Equity
The results of decades of research consistently show that students of color, particularly African American students (and even more so for African American boys and those with disabilities), are at significantly increased risk for receiving exclusionary discipline practices, including office discipline referrals and suspensions. We describe here a 5-point multicomponent approach to reduce disproportionality in schools.
Last Updated:
February 1, 2018

What are the Economic Costs of Implementing PBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

High School PBIS
Evaluation
Outcome
In this brief, we provide initial evidence that PBIS is less expensive to implement than the longer-term costs related to suspensions and dropout. This finding is important as the benefits of reducing suspensions and dropout go far beyond simple fiscal savings. An analysis of the available data suggests that PBIS may be an economical alternative to not only ineffective approaches, like suspension, but also traditional dropout prevention programs.
Last Updated:
November 8, 2017

Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Systems Alignment
This monograph is about improving the quality of life and outcomes for children and youth, especially those children who are at risk for or experiencing emotional and behavioral challenges. The editors have wisely chosen a title for the monograph that signals the pivotal role of education in this endeavor. Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School- wide Positive Behavioral Support clearly conveys the message that effective education is the primary goal and linking two important processes will be the strategy promoted to achieve this goal. The Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) is described in the following chapters as the proposed mechanism that can effectively link School Mental Health (SMH) and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in order to leverage the individual strengths of each of these processes and produce enhanced teaching and learning environments through their strategic linkage.
Last Updated:
September 28, 2017

Guidance for States on ESSA State Plans: Aligning the School Climate Indicator and SW-PBIS

District & State PBIS
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Alignment
Policy
Climate
New to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, is specific language supporting state and local educational agencies in implementing schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SW-PBIS). This evaluation brief offers guidance to states on how to align PBIS efforts with the student success indicator in Student Support and Academic Enrichment grants.
Last Updated:
June 1, 2017

Aligning and Integrating Family Engagement in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): Concepts and Strategies for Families and Schools in Key Contexts

Family
PBIS Foundations
Community
Research
This e-book, supported by the Technical Assistance Center for PBIS funded by the Office of Special Education Programs comprehensively reviews reasons for and ways to significantly enhance family engagement in schools, toward improved tiered systems involving promotion/ prevention, early intervention, and intervention for students, contributing to removed and reduced academic and non-academic barriers to learning, and improved academic, social, emotional, behavioral, and occupational out- comes for them. Following the example of other e-books and monographs the center has supported, the intent of this e-book is to broadly disseminate and make accessible a free, downloadable resource (on www.pbis.org) that can be used by families, schools, collaborating staff from other youth-serving systems, policy makers, educators/practitioners, government officials, advocates, university staff and others to advance family engagement in PBIS/MTSS in realms of policy, research, and practice, and to promote linked progress across these realms.
Last Updated:
March 8, 2017

PBIS Technical Brief on Systems to Support Teachers' Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support

Classroom PBIS
High School PBIS
Coaching
Tier 1
Implementation
The purpose of this technical brief is to summarize proactive, efficient, and evidence-based systems for supporting teachers’ implementation of positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices school-wide. Specifically, this technical brief is designed to inform and support school and district leadership teams as they address the following questions while implementing PCBS school wide.
Last Updated:
February 3, 2017

Addressing School Climate: 5 Ways Schools Can Positively and Proactively Support All Students

School-Wide
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Climate
Bullying incidents and other concerning behaviors present educators with significant, immediate challenges in supporting students. Rather than waiting for these behaviors to occur and reacting, we encourage educators to adopt positive and proactive practices to support students and prevent these behaviors from occurring.
Last Updated:
January 27, 2017

Technical Guide for Alignment of Initiatives, Programs and Practices in School Districts

District & State PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Alignment
The purpose of this technical guide is to provide a structured alignment process with concrete steps to assist educational leaders as they examine current practices across educational units and systems (instruction, support, improvement, special education, mental health, justice), consider the extent to which current practices are implemented with fidelity and produce meaningful academic and social/behavioral outcomes, and establish support systems to select install and implement new practices.
Last Updated:
January 18, 2017
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Aligning and Integrating Mental Health and PBIS to Build Priority for Wellness

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Alignment
The purpose of this document is to summarize the Mental Health Integration strand, including the roundtable dialogue, from the 2017 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, Illinois. Recognizing that the ISF provides an example of effective alignment of initiatives, programs and practices in schools, this summary will be organized around the steps included in the Technical Guide for Alignment (see Figure 1 below). Illustrations from sites working to implement the ISF are included as examples of the alignment process. Input and discussion from presenters and participants at the 2017 PBIS Leadership Forum Mental Health Integration sessions and roundtable dialogue, including responses to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), are included in this Brief.
Last Updated:
January 1, 2017

Status of High School PBIS Implementation in the U.S.

School-Wide
High School PBIS
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to provide a description of the current state of PBIS implementation in US high schools, as reflected by data collected by the National PBIS Technical Assistance Center.
Last Updated:
January 1, 2017

Every Student Succeeds Act: Why School Climate* Should Be One of Your Indicators

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Policy
Climate
With the new Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), State education agencies (SEA) have a great opportunity to revisit and update their state-wide school improvement plans. A particularly important emphasis of ESSA is school climate and safety, which are so integrally linked to academic achievement, active student and teacher engagement, and tiered systems of support for all students, but especially students with high failure risk (e.g., students with disabilities English language learners, students from disadvantaged and diverse backgrounds and environments).
Last Updated:
November 29, 2016

School Climate: Academic Achievement and Social Behavior Competence

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
An operational and applied overview of school climate that can guide decisions related to policy, professional development, and practice and systems implementation at the classroom, school, district, and state levels.
Last Updated:
September 15, 2016

Does Implementation of SWPBIS Enhance Sustainability of Specific Programs, such as Playworks?

District & State PBIS
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
Alignment
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to assess whether schools implementing SWPBIS with adequate fidelity of implementation were more likely to sustain specific school practices, such as Playworks, than schools not implementing SWPBIS with fidelity.
Last Updated:
February 1, 2016

District Level Coaching

Coaching
District & State PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Coaching is important and necessary to maximize transfer and translation of skills and practices acquired during training into sustainable and high fidelity implementation of evidence-based practices and systems. Coaching has been identified as the most critical factor in successful implementation. This brief quickly defines coaching at the district level. It includes a graphic representation of how the role fits within a district structure and outlines the functions a district coach is expected to conduct.
Last Updated:
December 1, 2015

Classroom PBIS: Discussion of Outcomes, Data, Practices, & Systems

Classroom PBIS
Tier 1
PBIS Foundations
This document is intended to be a practical tool and resource for educators interested in implementing, sustaining, or enhancing PBIS in the classroom practices. (RDQ)
Last Updated:
October 22, 2015

The Role of the Clinician in a Multi-Tiered System of Support

Mental Health/Social-Emotional-Behavioral Well-Being
Data-based Decision Making
For the purpose of this brief, clinicians are considered school social workers, school psychologists, school counselors, guidance deans and community mental health clinicians based in the school setting. These clinicians play an integral role in helping build, support, and sustain a MTSS framework in schools and districts. (RDQ)
Last Updated:
October 22, 2015

When to use Functional Behavioral Assessment? A State-by-State Analysis of the Law

Students with Disabilities
FBA/BIP/BSP
To provide students with disabilities and their families the best educational experience, the use of the functional behavioral assessment should be a viable option when challenging behaviors are interfering with learning opportunities. As the technology of FBA continues to improve through systematic research, educators should not default to the legal requirements, which may, as we have outlined here, leave considerable gaps. States should strive to close those gaps by, at a minimum, including reference to FBA in provisions on evaluation, re-evaluation, IEP development and restraint and seclusion.
Last Updated:
October 1, 2015

Examples of Engaging Instruction to Increase Equity in Education

Equity
This technical brief is based on the 5-point multicomponent approach to reduce disproportionality. This brief elaborates on point one, regarding academic instruction, by defining key principles of evidence-based instructional practices.
Last Updated:
September 1, 2015

Key Elements of Policies to Address Discipline Disproportionality: A Guide for District and School Teams

Equity
District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Policy
The guides are based on a 5-point multicomponent intervention described. This guide addresses equity policies.
Last Updated:
September 1, 2015

Preventive Classroom Behavior Management Practices

Classroom PBIS
This guide was developed to provide an overview of recommended practices for student behavior within effective school-wide and classroom systems. To be most useful, the implementation of these practices and supports should be led by a team and integrated within a multi-tiered positive support framework in which all students have maximum opportunities and direct access to effective academic and behavior instruction curricula school and classroom wide.
Last Updated:
August 31, 2015
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Do Out-of-School Suspensions Prevent Future Exclusionary Discipline?

School-Wide
Discipline
Evaluation
This evaluation brief examines the use of suspensions in 1,840 public middle schools in the United States and assesses the extent to which they are effective at reducing future problem behavior for students who receive them.
Last Updated:
May 1, 2015

Do High Schools Implementing SWPBIS Have Lower Rates of Illegal Drug and Alcohol Use?

Opioid Crisis and Substance Misuse
Behavior
Research
This evaluation brief investigated the effects of SWPBIS implementation on reported illegal drug and alcohol use in high schools. The specific question examined for this evaluation brief was: to what extent do high schools implementing SWPBIS have lower reported use of illegal drugs and alcohol?
Last Updated:
March 1, 2015

Drill Down Tool Evaluation Brief

Data-based Decision Making
Behavior
Discipline
This paper provides an overview of the School-wide Information System (SWIS) Drill Down tool, shares information about its usage, the number and variety of filters being used, and offers suggestions for more effective and efficient use.
Last Updated:
January 1, 2015

Coaching For Competence and Impact—Brief 1: Defining Coaching

Coaching
Implementation
The purpose of this brief is to help build a common language and a common understanding of the critical role Coaching plays in ensuring the EBP/EIIs can be implemented as intended (fidelity) and sustain over time.
Last Updated:
October 17, 2014

When to Use Functional Behavioral Assessment? Best Practice vs. Legal Guidance

Juvenile Justice
FBA/BIP/BSP
Tier 3
Special education
Policy
When a behavior interferes with academic or social progress, practitioners should consider an FBA as a viable option. An FBA should not be reserved for solely students who receive special education services or have a particular disability. District-level capacity to perform technically adequate FBAs related to valuable behavior support plans, should continue to increase as the technology of the FBA becomes more accessible.
Last Updated:
October 1, 2014

Using Discipline Data within SWPBIS to Identify and Address Disproportionality: A Guide for School Teams

Equity
Data-based Decision Making
PBIS Foundations
The guides are based on a 5-point multicomponent intervention described. This guide addresses use of data.
Last Updated:
September 1, 2014

Do Schools with Adequate Tier 1 SWPBIS Implementation Have Stronger Implementation at Tiers 2 and 3?

District & State PBIS
Assessment
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to answer the following questions: 1. To what extent do schools with adequate Tier I SWPBIS implementation have stronger implementation at Tiers II and III? 2. Which components of Tier I systems are most strongly related to implementation of Tier II and III systems?
Last Updated:
September 1, 2014

Have Schools Increased Their Use of the SWIS School Ethnicity Report?

Equity
Data-based Decision Making
Ethnicity
To ensure an equitable education for all students, there is a need for school teams to review their data informing whether the implementation of PBIS has improved the outcomes for each racial-ethnic minority group. The Schoolwide Information System (SWIS) and the SWIS School Ethnicity Report may help in the use of such data. Any school that uses SWIS has real-time access to the School Ethnicity Report.
Last Updated:
February 1, 2014

Patterns of Minor Office Discipline Referrals in Schools using SWIS

School-Wide
Data-based Decision Making
Evaluation
Schools using the School-Wide Information System (SWIS) database are often collecting information on Minor Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs), as well as Major ODRs. In this evaluation brief we examined the role of Minor ODRs in elementary, middle and high schools. We investigated what types of Minor ODRs are most prevalent at each grade level and where these Minor ODRs occur. This information was compared to what types of Major ODRs are most prevalent and where Major ODRs occur. Finally, we examined the relative rates of Minor and Major ODRs over the course of an academic year.
Last Updated:
November 12, 2013

Out-of-School Suspension for Minor Misbehavior

Classroom PBIS
Data-based Decision Making
Discipline
Training
This evaluation brief examines the practice of using out-of-school suspension as a consequence for behavior coded as “minor” on office discipline referral forms. This report looks at the statistics surrounding these occurrences, discusses possible rationales, and outlines a strategy PBIS Coaches and SWIS Facilitators can use to determine whether schools are involved in this practice. If they are, we suggest these schools improve data entry procedures or reconsider the use of school suspension for behavior that is described as minor.
Last Updated:
January 1, 2013

If Discipline Referral Rates for the School as a Whole are Reduced, Will Rates for Students with Disabilities also be Reduced?

Equity
FBA/BIP/BSP
Tier 3
The primary purpose of the study was to answer the question: “If schools are able to reduce discipline referral rates for major offences for the school as a whole, will the number of students in special education (i.e., students with an IEP) who receive discipline referrals be reduced?”
Last Updated:
October 6, 2012

What Does it Cost to Implement School-wide PBIS?

District & State PBIS
Evaluation
PBIS Foundations
This model emphasizes the importance of specifying assumptions about the content of SWPBIS and how these affect costs related to implementation. We provide below a condensed summary of projected cost considerations for three common scenarios.
Last Updated:
August 1, 2012

How to Measure School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Implementation Fidelity with the Team Implementation Checklist: Percent of Points or Percent of Items Fully Implemented?

Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Assessment
Evaluation
PBIS Foundations
This evaluation brief focuses on comparing different ways to calculate the criterion score for the Team Implementation Checklist (TIC), a fidelity of implementation measure widely used by schools engaged in SWPBS implementation. It examines if schools that optained 80% or more of all TIC points differ on their Benchmarks of Quality score from schools that rated 80% or more of all TIC items as "achieved."
Last Updated:
March 1, 2012

The Revised School-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)

Data-based Decision Making
Classroom PBIS
Assessment
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
This evaluation brief addresses some of the questions that have arisen during the on-going and widespread utilization of the Benchmarks of Quality. Specifically the questions include: (1) Does a factor analysis indicate that the critical elements of the BoQ “hang together,” that all items are of adequate strength, and do the factors hold true across years of administration? (2) Do the 7 new classroom items form a consistent factor? And (3) Does the BoQ/SET concurrent validity hold true with a greater number of schools than that used in the initial validation study?
Last Updated:
March 1, 2011

Stability in Variant Administration Methods of the School-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)

Data-based Decision Making
School-Wide
Assessment
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
One of the most frequently asked questions regarding the Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) has been related to the procedures used for scoring.This brief investigates the following question: Is the BoQ stable and will similar scores result if administered in the method used in the validation study versus other methods?
Last Updated:
March 1, 2011

How Many States Reference SWPBS in Their Restraint-Seclusion Policies

Restraint/Seclusion
District & State PBIS
Intensive
Policy
Given the current focus on regulating restraint and seclusion, this brief assesses the extent to which states include school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) in their legislation regulating the use of restraint and seclusion.
Last Updated:
July 1, 2010

Monograph on SWPBS Implementation in High Schools: Current Practice and Future Directions

High School PBIS
School-Wide
Tier 1
PBIS Foundations
Youth Voice
The TA Center conducted a second forum on high school SWPBS implementation in the summer of 2009 in Naperville, Illinois. The purpose of the forum was to bring together a small number of high schools that have been identified as successful implementers of SWPBS. This monograph provides a description and summary of the implementation efforts of SWPBS practices and systems in these high schools (9-12th grade) with an emphasis on shaping future demonstration and research projects, and giving high school implementers guidance on promising practices and systems.
Last Updated:
March 29, 2010

Influence of School Level Socioeconomic Status and Racial Diversity on School-wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation

Equity
District & State PBIS
Ethnicity
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
This evaluation brief examines the capacity of schools of varying levels of socioeconomic and racial diversity to implement Tier 1 of school-wide positive behavior support with integrity. The three main evaluation questions addressed are: (1) What percentage of schools are able to achieve 80%-80% implementation status on the School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) within 1 year? (2) Is school socioeconomic status associated with implementation effectiveness? (3) Is school racial diversity associated with implementation outcomes?
Last Updated:
December 1, 2009

What Are the Patterns of Office Discipline Referrals Across Grade Levels?

Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Discipline
Behavior
The goal of this brief is to examine if the overall ODR frequency patterns across grade levels that have been documented in the literature can be replicated with a large national sample of schools using the School-wide Information System (SWIS) to record ODRs.
Last Updated:
December 1, 2009

Do elementary schools that document reductions in overall office discipline referrals document reductions across all student races and ethnicities?

Equity
Data-based Decision Making
Ethnicity
Given the overwhelming evidence of inequitable disciplinary practices and the availability of an extensive database of ODR, our goal was to examine if elementary schools that record a decrease of their overall ODR rate across a 3 year time span in SWIS show similar decreases in ODR rates for students from different racial and ethnic backgrounds.
Last Updated:
September 1, 2009

The Relation Between Office Discipline Referrals and School Enrollment Status: Do Rates Differ Based on Enrollment Size?

Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Discipline
Behavior
This evaluation brief examines the rate of office discipline referrals (ODRs) for different school-grade levels based on student enrollment. Using a cohort of schools that recorded ODRs over 3-years with the School-wide Information System (SWIS), rates are compared across years for elementary, middle, high school, and K-8/12 grade levels. The two evaluation questions addressed are (1) Based on school size, what is the number of schools with ODRs for each grade level across a 3-year cohort? and (2) Based on school size, what is rate of ODRs for each grade level, across each year?
Last Updated:
June 1, 2009

Comparison of Office Discipline Referrals in U.S. Schools by Population Densities: Do Rates Differ According to School Location?

Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
This evaluation brief examines the rate of office discipline referrals (ODRs) for different school-grade levels based on locale. Using a cohort of schools that recorded ODRs over 3-years with the School-wide Information System (SWIS), rates are compared across years for elementary, middle, high school, and K-8/12 grade levels. The two questions addressed by this brief are: (1) Based on lacale, what is the number of schools with ODRs for each grade level across a 3-year cohort? (2) Based on locale, what is the rate of ODRs for each grade level, across each year?
Last Updated:
June 1, 2009

Implementation of School-wide PBIS Across the United States

District & State PBIS
Evaluation
PBIS Foundations
This evaluation brief examines the proportion of U.S. schools engaged in School-wide PBIS (SWPBIS) implementation, as of October 1, 2008, as reported to the National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
Last Updated:
November 1, 2008

Do Schools Using SWIS Take Advantage of the "School Ethnicity Report"?

Equity
Data-based Decision Making
Ethnicity
Although disproportionate referral patterns have been documented, it is unclear to what extent schools actively address this issue. Given the current policy mandates holding schools accountable for equitable educational environments where all students can succeed (NCLB, IDEA), our goal was to examine to what extent schools using SWIS take advantage of its ability to record and aggregate ethnicity data.
Last Updated:
November 1, 2008

Positive Behavior Support in High Schools: Monograph from the 2004 Illinois High School Forum of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

High School PBIS
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
Systems of school-wide positive behavior support have been adopted, sustained, and expanded in elementary and middle schools. However, the same levels of implementation have not been documented widely and replicably at the high school level, especially, in large enrollment urban environments. The purpose of this monograph is to describe what we generally are learning about the implementation of school-wide positive behavior support in high schools, and give recommendations about what educators might do to improve behavior support for all high school students. Recommendations for future research directions also are discussed.
Last Updated:
November 2, 2004

Final Regulations and the Reauthorized Functional Behavioral Assessment

School-Wide
Students with Disabilities
Policy
This article discusses school administrators’ continued legal support for their use of functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral interventions and strategies for supporting children with disabilities who exhibit problem behaviors under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and its implementing regulations. This article will help school and legal administrators unacquainted with concepts versant to behaviorists, close the knowledge gap and learn the functional behavioral assessment’s purpose, application and implementation to more effectively train and manage personnel through the process.
Last Updated:
January 1, 2004