All Publications

Don’t know what kind of publication you’re looking for? Start here. Publications listed below include every eBook, monograph, brief, and guide written by the PBIS Technical Assistance Center.

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Using Outcome Data to Implement Multi-tiered Behavior Support (PBIS) in High Schools

High School PBIS
Outcome
Evaluation
In this Practice Brief we propose that there are at least four core types of data needed by high school PBIS Leadership Teams and that these data can be used to problem-solve at the (a) whole school, (b) at-risk group, or (c) individual student levels.

High School PBIS Implementation: Student Voice

High School PBIS
Youth Voice
Implementation
This brief discusses the importance of student voice, describes the unique features of high school settings that can make it challenging to include students, and offers strategies to address these barriers.

Use of I-SWIS by Elementary Schools to Monitor Tier 3 Behavior Supports

Data-based Decision Making
Tier 3
Research
In this Evaluation Brief we focus on the extent to which Tier 3 (individual) support teams collect, summarize, and use data to guide implementation of behavior support plans. Our specific focus is a descriptive summary of how elementary school teams use the Individual School Wide Information System (I-SWIS) online application to guide their Tier 3 decision-making as well as general use of PBIS-focused data systems that support overall fidelity to critical components of the PBIS framework.

Preventing Restraint and Seclusion in Schools

Restraint/Seclusion
Policy
Behavior
This practice brief defines restraint and seclusion, addresses prevalance, describes prevention approaches, and reviews policy implications.

10 Lessons Learned from SEA and LEA SCTG Sites

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Implementation
Outcome
This guide shares lessons learned from the past five years working with State Education Agency (SEA) and Local Education Agency (LEA) School Climate Transformation Grantees. SEAs and LEAs are more likely to use SCTG resources

High School PBIS Implementation: Staff Buy-In

High School PBIS
Buy-in from stakeholders is important for the successful adoption, full implementation and sustainability of any school-based initiative. It’s also one of the critical elements for implementation of Tier 1 PBIS included in the TFI, BoQ, and the Blueprint. This brief describes the unique features of high school settings that can make building buy-in more difficult and identifies strategies that have been successful for securing staff buy-in in high schools.

Do Wisconsin Schools Implementing an Integrated Academic and Behavior Support Framework Improve Equity in Academic and School Discipline Outcomes?

Equity
PBIS Foundations
Ethnicity
This evaluation brief describes how Wisconsin is implementing an equitable multi-level system of supports (MLSS) framework, also known as a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS), and how schools implementing this framework with both a behavior and reading focus have shown positive outcomes for all students. The data analyzed in this brief were derived from a small, Wisconsin RtI Center staff directed project. The focus was on the impact of an equitable multi-level system of supports (MLSS).

Family-School Collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Creating a School Atmosphere to Promote Collaboration

Family
Community
Tier 1
The purpose of this practice brief is to describe family-school collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and review approaches that help to create conditions that promote collaboration. A brief background on family-school collaboration is provided, followed by guidance on a schoolwide approach for collaborating with families that strengthens family-school connections and improves student performance.

Facility-wide PBIS Implementation: Possible Barriers and Potential Solutions for Six Salient Topics as Viewed by Roundtable Participants and Facilitators

Juvenile Justice
Secure Care
The 2018 PBIS Leadership Forum juvenile justice roundtable dialogue gave a voice to the conference participants who work with youth in restrictive settings. This is a summary of their ideas to spur additional conversations and to continue the growth of FW-PBIS with this population of vulnerable and marginalized youth in restrictive settings.

Cultivating Positive Student-Teacher Relationships

School-Wide
Social relationships
The significance of the student-teacher relationship is substantial. The brief discusses key elements of positive student-teacher relationships and approaches for strengthening teachers' relational skills with students.

Fidelity of SW-PBIS in High Schools: Patterns of Implementation Strengths and Needs

High School PBIS
Fidelity
Research
The purpose of this brief is to summarize patterns in SW-PBIS implementation fidelity in 996 high schools across 31 U.S. states. We specially aimed to evaluate how high schools are implementing the components of SW-PBIS, and identify implementation strengths and needs.

Early Childhood Program-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (EC-BOQ) Cultural Responsiveness Companion

Early Childhood PBIS
Climate
The EC-BOQ Cultural Responsiveness Companion is a resource for coaches and teams implementing the Pyramid Model to improve the fit of their Pyramid systems with the needs of children and their families. Teams may use this tool either during the initial Pyramid Model implementation to build cultural responsiveness into systems from the beginning or after initial implementation to enhance equity within existing systems.

Lessons Learned on Implementation of PBIS in High Schools: Current Trends and Future Directions

High School PBIS
Academics
Alignment
This monograph was designed to provide information and strategies for emerging topics that can be used as needed by administrators, coaches and Leadership Teams to address unique needs of high schools.

How are Schools Using the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI)?

District/State PBIS
Assessment
Research
To understand how schools are using the TFI, this evaluation brief aims to answer the following research questions: 1. How often do schools complete the TFI per year? 2. How many tiers are assessed during each TFI administration? 3. What are the average scores at each tier of the TFI? 4. What subscales and items on the TFI have the highest and lowest scores?

Teaching Social-Emotional Competencies within a PBIS Framework

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Systems Alignment
Social skills
Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) provides an ideal framework for promoting social-emotional competencies to improve outcomes for the whole child. The purpose of this brief is to describe how school personnel can teach social-emotional competencies within a PBIS framework to support systematic, school-wide implementation through one system, rather than trying to improve student outcomes through separate, competing initiatives.

Classroom Integrated Academics and Behavior Brief

Classroom PBIS
Alignment
This brief was developed to provide core features and strategies for integrating academic and behavior practices to support students in a “whole child” approach at the classroom level.

Do Schools Implementing SWPBIS Have Decreased Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality in School Discipline?

Equity
Research
Ethnicity
The purpose of this study was to examine discipline disproportionality among schools implementing SWPBIS compared to the entire population of schools in the U.S. Examining patterns in a large-scale evaluation of schools implementing and not implementing SWPBIS could help determine the extent to which implementation of SWPBIS is related to lower, higher, or unchanged discipline disparities.

What are Patterns and Predictors of CICO Participation in U.S. Schools?

District/State PBIS
Tier 2
Research
This evaluation brief looks to develop an understanding of current patterns of CICO enrollment and its potential impact on intervention fidelity and effectiveness.

A 5-Point Intervention Approach for Enhancing Equity in School Discipline

Equity
The results of decades of research consistently show that students of color, particularly African American students (and even more so for African American boys and those with disabilities), are at significantly increased risk for receiving exclusionary discipline practices, including office discipline referrals and suspensions. We describe here a 5-point multicomponent approach to reduce disproportionality in schools.

PBIS Technical Guide on Classroom Data: Using Data to Support Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support Practices and Systems

Classroom PBIS
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This technical guide is intended to support data selection and use at the Tier 1 level for classrooms and is not intended to describe the more intensive data collection strategies required to support students or educators receiving Tier 2 or 3 supports.

What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

High School PBIS
Evaluation
Outcome
In this brief, we provide initial evidence that SWPBIS is less expensive to implement than the longer-term costs re- lated to suspensions and dropout. This finding is important as the benefits of reducing suspensions and dropout go far beyond simple fiscal savings. An analysis of the available data suggests that SWPBIS may be an economical alterna- tive to not only ineffective approaches, like suspension, but also traditional dropout prevention programs.

Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Systems Alignment
This monograph is about improving the quality of life and outcomes for children and youth, especially those children who are at risk for or experiencing emotional and behavioral challenges. The editors have wisely chosen a title for the monograph that signals the pivotal role of education in this endeavor. Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School- wide Positive Behavioral Support clearly conveys the message that effective education is the primary goal and linking two important processes will be the strategy promoted to achieve this goal. The Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) is described in the following chapters as the proposed mechanism that can effectively link School Mental Health (SMH) and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in order to leverage the individual strengths of each of these processes and produce enhanced teaching and learning environments through their strategic linkage.

Getting Back to School after Disruptions: Resources for Making Your School Year Safer, More Predictable, and More Positive

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Trauma
Students experiencing trauma, such as from recent weather disasters or other upsetting events, may have been exposed to unpredictable schedules, inconsistent supervision, or food insecurity and desperately need school to be their safest, most predictable, and most positive setting, especially if they have been displaced or are without utilities or basic comforts. Multi-tiered Systems of Supports (MTSS), such as PBIS, are ideal frameworks for implementing strategies to support students coming back to school and to prevent and address further challenges. We recommend the following six strategies for school teams to ensure a safe, predictable, and positive school year. These strategies are beneficial for all students if the school has been closed, as well as for individual students returning from extended time away from school.

Guidance for States on ESSA State Plans: Aligning the School Climate Indicator and SW-PBIS

District/State PBIS
Alignment
Policy
New to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, is specific language supporting state and local educational agencies in implementing schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SW-PBIS). This evaluation brief offers guidance to states on how to align PBIS efforts with the student success indicator in Student Support and Academic Enrichment grants.

Aligning and Integrating Family Engagement in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): Concepts and Strategies for Families and Schools in Key Contexts

Family
PBIS Foundations
Community
This e-book, supported by the Technical Assistance Center for PBIS funded by the Office of Special Education Programs comprehensively reviews reasons for and ways to significantly enhance family engagement in schools, toward improved tiered systems involving promotion/ prevention, early intervention, and intervention for students, contributing to removed and reduced academic and non-academic barriers to learning, and improved academic, social, emotional, behavioral, and occupational out- comes for them. Following the example of other e-books and monographs the center has supported, the intent of this e-book is to broadly disseminate and make accessible a free, downloadable resource (on www.pbis.org) that can be used by families, schools, collaborating staff from other youth-serving systems, policy makers, educators/practitioners, government officials, advocates, university staff and others to advance family engagement in PBIS/MTSS in realms of policy, research, and practice, and to promote linked progress across these realms.

PBIS Technical Brief on Systems to Support Teachers' Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support

Classroom PBIS
Tier 1
Implementation
The purpose of this technical brief is to summarize proactive, efficient, and evidence-based systems for supporting teachers’ implementation of positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices school-wide. Specifically, this technical brief is designed to inform and support school and district leadership teams as they address the following questions while implementing PCBS school wide.

Addressing School Climate: 5 Ways Schools Can Positively and Proactively Support All Students

School-Wide
Climate
Bullying incidents and other concerning behaviors present educators with significant, immediate challenges in supporting students. Rather than waiting for these behaviors to occur and reacting, we encourage educators to adopt positive and proactive practices to support students and prevent these behaviors from occurring.

Technical Guide for Alignment of Initiatives, Programs and Practices in School Districts

District/State PBIS
Alignment
The purpose of this technical guide is to provide a structured alignment process with concrete steps to assist educational leaders as they examine current practices across educational units and systems (instruction, support, improvement, special education, mental health, justice), consider the extent to which current practices are implemented with fidelity and produce meaningful academic and social/behavioral outcomes, and establish support systems to select install and implement new practices.
Download
Word Doc

Aligning and Integrating Mental Health and PBIS to Build Priority for Wellness

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Alignment
The purpose of this document is to summarize the Mental Health Integration strand, including the roundtable dialogue, from the 2017 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, Illinois. Recognizing that the ISF provides an example of effective alignment of initiatives, programs and practices in schools, this summary will be organized around the steps included in the Technical Guide for Alignment (see Figure 1 below). Illustrations from sites working to implement the ISF are included as examples of the alignment process. Input and discussion from presenters and participants at the 2017 PBIS Leadership Forum Mental Health Integration sessions and roundtable dialogue, including responses to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), are included in this Brief.

Status of High School PBIS Implementation in the U.S.

School-Wide
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to provide a description of the current state of PBIS implementation in US high schools, as reflected by data collected by the National PBIS Technical Assistance Center.

Every Student Succeeds Act: Why School Climate* Should Be One of Your Indicators

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Policy
With the new Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), State education agencies (SEA) have a great opportunity to revisit and update their state-wide school improvement plans. A particularly important emphasis of ESSA is school climate and safety, which are so integrally linked to academic achievement, active student and teacher engagement, and tiered systems of support for all students, but especially students with high failure risk (e.g., students with disabilities English language learners, students from disadvantaged and diverse backgrounds and environments).

PBIS Cultural Responsiveness Field Guide: Resources for Trainers and Coaches

Equity
Action plan
Ethnicity
This field guide outlines an integrated framework to embed equity efforts into school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) by aligning culturally responsive practices to the core components of SWPBIS. The goal of using this guide is to make school systems more responsive to the cultures and communities that they serve. This guide is part of a 5-point intervention approach for enhancing equity in student outcomes within a SWPBIS approach.

School Climate: Academic Achievement and Social Behavior Competence

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
An operational and applied overview of school climate that can guide decisions related to policy, professional development, and practice and systems implementation at the classroom, school, district, and state levels.

Does Implementation of SWPBIS Enhance Sustainability of Specific Programs, such as Playworks?

District/State PBIS
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to assess whether schools implementing SWPBIS with adequate fidelity of implementation were more likely to sustain specific school practices, such as Playworks, than schools not implementing SWPBIS with fidelity.

District Level Coaching

Coaching
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Coaching is important and necessary to maximize transfer and translation of skills and practices acquired during training into sustainable and high fidelity implementation of evidence-based practices and systems. Coaching has been identified as the most critical factor in successful implementation. This brief quickly defines coaching at the district level. It includes a graphic representation of how the role fits within a district structure and outlines the functions a district coach is expected to conduct.

Classroom PBIS: Discussion of Outcomes, Data, Practices, & Systems

Classroom PBIS
Tier 1
PBIS Foundations
This document is intended to be a practical tool and resource for educators interested in implementing, sustaining, or enhancing PBIS in the classroom practices. (RDQ)

The Role of the Clinician in a Multi-Tiered System of Support

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
For the purpose of this brief, clinicians are considered school social workers, school psychologists, school counselors, guidance deans and community mental health clinicians based in the school setting. These clinicians play an integral role in helping build, support, and sustain a MTSS framework in schools and districts. (RDQ)

PBIS Forum in Brief: TIPS

Data-based Decision Making
Action plan
Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is a model that addresses these barriers by breaking down problem solving into six critical steps to guide teams through a data-based decision making procss that leads to desired outcomes.

When to use Functional Behavioral Assessment? A State-by-State Analysis of the Law

Disability
FBA/BIP/BSP
To provide students with disabilities and their families the best educational experience, the use of the functional behavioral assessment should be a viable option when challenging behaviors are interfering with learning opportunities. As the technology of FBA continues to improve through systematic research, educators should not default to the legal requirements, which may, as we have outlined here, leave considerable gaps. States should strive to close those gaps by, at a minimum, including reference to FBA in provisions on evaluation, re-evaluation, IEP development and restraint and seclusion.

Examples of Engaging Instruction to Increase Equity in Education

Equity
This technical brief is based on the 5-point multicomponent approach to reduce disproportionality. This brief elaborates on point one, regarding academic instruction, by defining key principles of evidence-based instructional practices.

Key Elements of Policies to Address Discipline Disproportionality: A Guide for District and School Teams

Equity
Policy
The guides are based on a 5-point multicomponent intervention described. This guide addresses equity policies.

Preventive Classroom Behavior Management Practices

Classroom PBIS
This guide was developed to provide an overview of recommended practices for student behavior within effective school-wide and classroom systems. To be most useful, the implementation of these practices and supports should be led by a team and integrated within a multi-tiered positive support framework in which all students have maximum opportunities and direct access to effective academic and behavior instruction curricula school and classroom wide.
Download
Word Doc

Do Out-of-School Suspensions Prevent Future Exclusionary Discipline?

School-Wide
Discipline
Evaluation
This evaluation brief examines the use of suspensions in 1,840 public middle schools in the United States and assesses the extent to which they are effective at reducing future problem behavior for students who receive them.

Do High Schools Implementing SWPBIS Have Lower Rates of Illegal Drug and Alcohol Use?

Opioid Crisis and Substance Misuse
Behavior
Research
This evaluation brief investigated the effects of SWPBIS implementation on reported illegal drug and alcohol use in high schools. The specific question examined for this evaluation brief was: to what extent do high schools implementing SWPBIS have lower reported use of illegal drugs and alcohol?

Drill Down Tool Evaluation Brief

Data-based Decision Making
Behavior
Discipline
This paper provides an overview of the School-wide Information System (SWIS) Drill Down tool, shares information about its usage, the number and variety of filters being used, and offers suggestions for more effective and efficient use.

Coaching For Competence and Impact—Brief 1: Defining Coaching

Coaching
Implementation
The purpose of this brief is to help build a common language and a common understanding of the critical role Coaching plays in ensuring the EBP/EIIs can be implemented as intended (fidelity) and sustain over time.

When to Use Functional Behavioral Assessment? Best Practice vs. Legal Guidance

Juvenile Justice
FBA/BIP/BSP
Tier 3
When a behavior interferes with academic or social progress, practitioners should consider an FBA as a viable option. An FBA should not be reserved for solely students who receive special education services or have a particular disability. District-level capacity to perform technically adequate FBAs related to valuable behavior support plans, should continue to increase as the technology of the FBA becomes more accessible.

Using Discipline Data within SWPBIS to Identify and Address Disproportionality: A Guide for School Teams

Equity
PBIS Foundations
The guides are based on a 5-point multicomponent intervention described. This guide addresses use of data.

Do Schools with Adequate Tier 1 SWPBIS Implementation Have Stronger Implementation at Tiers 2 and 3?

District/State PBIS
Assessment
Fidelity
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to answer the following questions: 1. To what extent do schools with adequate Tier I SWPBIS implementation have stronger implementation at Tiers II and III? 2. Which components of Tier I systems are most strongly related to implementation of Tier II and III systems?

Have Schools Increased Their Use of the SWIS School Ethnicity Report?

Equity
Ethnicity
To ensure an equitable education for all students, there is a need for school teams to review their data informing whether the implementation of PBIS has improved the outcomes for each racial-ethnic minority group. The Schoolwide Information System (SWIS) and the SWIS School Ethnicity Report may help in the use of such data. Any school that uses SWIS has real-time access to the School Ethnicity Report.

Patterns of Minor Office Discipline Referrals in Schools using SWIS

School-Wide
Evaluation
Schools using the School-Wide Information System (SWIS) database are often collecting information on Minor Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs), as well as Major ODRs. In this evaluation brief we examined the role of Minor ODRs in elementary, middle and high schools. We investigated what types of Minor ODRs are most prevalent at each grade level and where these Minor ODRs occur. This information was compared to what types of Major ODRs are most prevalent and where Major ODRs occur. Finally, we examined the relative rates of Minor and Major ODRs over the course of an academic year.

Out-of-School Suspension for Minor Misbehavior

Classroom PBIS
Discipline
Training
This evaluation brief examines the practice of using out-of-school suspension as a consequence for behavior coded as “minor” on office discipline referral forms. This report looks at the statistics surrounding these occurrences, discusses possible rationales, and outlines a strategy PBIS Coaches and SWIS Facilitators can use to determine whether schools are involved in this practice. If they are, we suggest these schools improve data entry procedures or reconsider the use of school suspension for behavior that is described as minor.

If Discipline Referral Rates for the School as a Whole are Reduced, Will Rates for Students with Disabilities also be Reduced?

Equity
FBA/BIP/BSP
Tier 3
The primary purpose of the study was to answer the question: “If schools are able to reduce discipline referral rates for major offences for the school as a whole, will the number of students in special education (i.e., students with an IEP) who receive discipline referrals be reduced?”

What Does it Cost to Implement School-wide PBIS?

District/State PBIS
Evaluation
PBIS Foundations
This model emphasizes the importance of specifying assumptions about the content of SWPBIS and how these affect costs related to implementation. We provide below a condensed summary of projected cost considerations for three common scenarios.

How to Measure School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Implementation Fidelity with the Team Implementation Checklist: Percent of Points or Percent of Items Fully Implemented?

Data-based Decision Making
Assessment
Evaluation
This evaluation brief focuses on comparing different ways to calculate the criterion score for the Team Implementation Checklist (TIC), a fidelity of implementation measure widely used by schools engaged in SWPBS implementation. It examines if schools that optained 80% or more of all TIC points differ on their Benchmarks of Quality score from schools that rated 80% or more of all TIC items as "achieved."

Stability in Variant Administration Methods of the School-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)

Data-based Decision Making
Assessment
Fidelity
One of the most frequently asked questions regarding the Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) has been related to the procedures used for scoring.This brief investigates the following question: Is the BoQ stable and will similar scores result if administered in the method used in the validation study versus other methods?

The Revised School-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)

Data-based Decision Making
Assessment
Fidelity
This evaluation brief addresses some of the questions that have arisen during the on-going and widespread utilization of the Benchmarks of Quality. Specifically the questions include: (1) Does a factor analysis indicate that the critical elements of the BoQ “hang together,” that all items are of adequate strength, and do the factors hold true across years of administration? (2) Do the 7 new classroom items form a consistent factor? And (3) Does the BoQ/SET concurrent validity hold true with a greater number of schools than that used in the initial validation study?

How Many States Reference SWPBS in Their Restraint-Seclusion Policies

Restraint/Seclusion
Intensive
Policy
Given the current focus on regulating restraint and seclusion, this brief assesses the extent to which states include school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) in their legislation regulating the use of restraint and seclusion.

Monograph on SWPBS Implementation in High Schools: Current Practice and Future Directions

High School PBIS
Tier 1
PBIS Foundations
The TA Center conducted a second forum on high school SWPBS implementation in the summer of 2009 in Naperville, Illinois. The purpose of the forum was to bring together a small number of high schools that have been identified as successful implementers of SWPBS. This monograph provides a description and summary of the implementation efforts of SWPBS practices and systems in these high schools (9-12th grade) with an emphasis on shaping future demonstration and research projects, and giving high school implementers guidance on promising practices and systems.

Influence of School Level Socioeconomic Status and Racial Diversity on School-wide Positive Behavior Support Implementation

Equity
Ethnicity
Implementation
This evaluation brief examines the capacity of schools of varying levels of socioeconomic and racial diversity to implement Tier 1 of school-wide positive behavior support with integrity. The three main evaluation questions addressed are: (1) What percentage of schools are able to achieve 80%-80% implementation status on the School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) within 1 year? (2) Is school socioeconomic status associated with implementation effectiveness? (3) Is school racial diversity associated with implementation outcomes?

What Are the Patterns of Office Discipline Referrals Across Grade Levels?

Data-based Decision Making
Discipline
Behavior
The goal of this brief is to examine if the overall ODR frequency patterns across grade levels that have been documented in the literature can be replicated with a large national sample of schools using the School-wide Information System (SWIS) to record ODRs.

Do elementary schools that document reductions in overall office discipline referrals document reductions across all student races and ethnicities?

Equity
Ethnicity
Given the overwhelming evidence of inequitable disciplinary practices and the availability of an extensive database of ODR, our goal was to examine if elementary schools that record a decrease of their overall ODR rate across a 3 year time span in SWIS show similar decreases in ODR rates for students from different racial and ethnic backgrounds.

Comparison of Office Discipline Referrals in U.S. Schools by Population Densities: Do Rates Differ According to School Location?

Data-based Decision Making
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
This evaluation brief examines the rate of office discipline referrals (ODRs) for different school-grade levels based on locale. Using a cohort of schools that recorded ODRs over 3-years with the School-wide Information System (SWIS), rates are compared across years for elementary, middle, high school, and K-8/12 grade levels. The two questions addressed by this brief are: (1) Based on lacale, what is the number of schools with ODRs for each grade level across a 3-year cohort? (2) Based on locale, what is the rate of ODRs for each grade level, across each year?

The Relation Between Office Discipline Referrals and School Enrollment Status: Do Rates Differ Based on Enrollment Size?

Data-based Decision Making
Discipline
Behavior
This evaluation brief examines the rate of office discipline referrals (ODRs) for different school-grade levels based on student enrollment. Using a cohort of schools that recorded ODRs over 3-years with the School-wide Information System (SWIS), rates are compared across years for elementary, middle, high school, and K-8/12 grade levels. The two evaluation questions addressed are (1) Based on school size, what is the number of schools with ODRs for each grade level across a 3-year cohort? and (2) Based on school size, what is rate of ODRs for each grade level, across each year?

Do Schools Using SWIS Take Advantage of the "School Ethnicity Report"?

Equity
Ethnicity
Although disproportionate referral patterns have been documented, it is unclear to what extent schools actively address this issue. Given the current policy mandates holding schools accountable for equitable educational environments where all students can succeed (NCLB, IDEA), our goal was to examine to what extent schools using SWIS take advantage of its ability to record and aggregate ethnicity data.

Implementation of School-wide PBIS Across the United States

District/State PBIS
Evaluation
PBIS Foundations
This evaluation brief examines the proportion of U.S. schools engaged in School-wide PBIS (SWPBIS) implementation, as of October 1, 2008, as reported to the National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Final Regulations and the Reauthorized Functional Behavioral Assessment

School-Wide
Policy
This article discusses school administrators’ continued legal support for their use of functional behavioral assessment and positive behavioral interventions and strategies for supporting children with disabilities who exhibit problem behaviors under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 and its implementing regulations. This article will help school and legal administrators unacquainted with concepts versant to behaviorists, close the knowledge gap and learn the functional behavioral assessment’s purpose, application and implementation to more effectively train and manage personnel through the process.