All Publications

Don’t know what kind of publication you’re looking for? Start here. Publications listed below include every eBook, monograph, brief, and guide written by the PBIS Technical Assistance Center.

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Obtaining Stakeholder Feedback to Improve the Middle to High School Transition

Family
High School PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Action plan
Implementation
Outcome
Systems Alignment
In this practice brief, we explore feedback from a group of eighth and ninth grade students, families, and educators on what has been challenging, what has been missing, and what is needed during the transition from middle to high school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders. We also discuss the process for gathering stakeholder feedback and some feasible next steps for schools and districts who are interested in utilizing such valuable input for improving their systems of support.
Published
May 10, 2021

Advanced Tiers in High School: Lessons Learned from Initial Implementation

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Implementation
Tier 2
Tier 3
An increasing number of high schools have adopted Tier 1 PBIS; however, implementation of advanced tiers of PBIS in high schools is less common and specific guidance is scarce. To address this need and better understand the level of support needed to successfully implement advanced tiers of PBIS at the high school level, the National Center on PBIS is conducting a model demonstration with a cohort of four high schools. The intent of this brief is to share lessons learned related to strengths and challenges that have influenced the initial implementation of advanced tiers of support for schools and lessons learned for district leaders and trainers to consider when supporting high schools.
Published
May 3, 2021

PBIS Academy Model Demo Brief: Impact of Statewide Support Model on High-Needs Schools

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Behavior
Discipline
Evaluation
An evaluation of a state-wide support model targeting high-needs schools across the state of Massachusetts. This evaluation brief reviews the state-wide model in addition to reviewing both discipline and academic outcomes.
Published
May 3, 2021

Why Prioritize Behavior Support?

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Administrator
Behavior
PBIS Foundations
Policy
This brief describes why it's critical to continue to prioritize behavior support in addition to academic, social, and emotional supports. Without effective behavior support, research has documented that students and educators experience negative outcomes. With effective behavior support implemented within a PBIS framework, rigorous research has demonstrated that students and educators experience positive outcomes.
Published
March 25, 2021

PBIS Forum 17 Practice Brief: Facility-wide PBIS Implementation as Viewed by Roundtable Participants and From the Field

Juvenile Justice
Implementation
Secure Care
Systems Alignment
Participants in the 2017 PBIS Forum's juvenile justice strand were invited to a Roundtable discussion on issues related to PBIS implementation in juvenile justice settings. Attendees chose one of four topical small groups to share ideas about commonly-asked questions from practitioners who are considering or implementing PBIS in juvenile justice settings. Highlights of the small group discussions are presented in this Practice Brief.
Published
March 25, 2021

PBIS High School Implementation: Leveraging Features of the PBIS Framework to Support College and Career Readiness

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Alignment
Systems Alignment
The purpose of this brief is to provide guidance and concrete examples to school personnel of how schools can leverage an existing PBIS framework to support CCR efficiently and effectively.
Published
March 3, 2021

Building a Culture of Staff Wellness Through Multi-Tiered System of Supports

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Administrator
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Tier 1
Tier 2
The purpose of this brief is to provide recommendations to district and school leadership teams on how the components of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) can be used to prioritize staff health and wellbeing.
Published
March 2, 2021

Supporting PBIS Implementation Through Phases of Crisis Recovery

District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Action plan
Implementation
Trauma
As school and district communities consider options for effectively supporting students, educators, and families during and after a crisis, it can be difficult to identify critical impactful actions. The PBIS framework can serve as a road map to meeting this challenge. This practice brief provides strategies to guide implementation efforts through the various phase of crisis recovery for schools and districts that are (a) getting started or (b) strengthening and maintaining current implementation. 
Published
February 19, 2021

School Mental Health Quality Framework and Tools Alignment Guide

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Alignment
Evaluation
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
The National Center for School Mental Health provides practitioners a summary of PBIS, the Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF), and Comprehensive School Mental Health Systems (CSMHS) tools and resources that districts and schools might use to improve their efforts to support the social-emotional-behavioral health and wellness of every student. The guidance includes consideration for use of high-quality resources, what the frameworks have in common, and how to add value in their use to enhance existing efforts.
Published
February 19, 2021

Installing an Interconnected Systems Framework at the School Level: Recommendations and Examples to Guide School Leadership Teams, Practitioners and Coaches

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Systems Alignment
This Practice Guide describes and illustrates how schools, with support from coaches and district/community leaders, can benefit from the integration of mental health supports within the PBIS Framework. District/school leaders and coaches can use this information to support their efforts building an Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) of mental health and PBIS. This Guide highlights practical strategies from one school’s successful experiences, including indications of the impact on students’ success while building strong partnerships with families and community partners. Suggested Technical Assistance strategies for coaches are provided.
Published
February 18, 2021

Installing an Interconnected Systems Framework at the District/Community Level: Recommendations and Strategies for Coaches and District Leaders

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Systems Alignment
The Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) is a process to create a more stream-lined approach to school mental health and wellness by connecting all social-emotional-behavioral (SEB) efforts through one system, while eliminating barriers inherent in systems that previously have operated separately. This Practice Guide describes and illustrate how district/community leaders can embed mental health supports within the PBIS framework to create a unified and comprehensive system of social-emotional-behavioral (SEB) supports in schools. One district’s experience building such an Interconnected System Framework (ISF) is portrayed including how they engaged community partners, families and school personnel. Technical assistance strategies and tools for coaches guiding the ISF process in districts/communities and schools are included.
Published
February 18, 2021

Addressing the Growing Problem of Domestic Sex Trafficking in Minors through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
School-Wide
Action plan
Screening
Tier 1
Tier 2
The aim of this practice brief is to highlight the broader issue of domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and suggest a framework for integrating school-based prevention and intervention strategies through Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). We provide a brief review of DMST and connections to PBIS; we then discuss how actions within the PBIS framework may help prevent DMST and provide assistance to student victims and their families. 
Published
January 29, 2021

Effective Instruction as a Protective Factor

Classroom PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
School-Wide
Academics
Behavior
Tier 1
Effective instruction can be a protective factor for student wellness, mitigating competing risk factors. In this brief, we highlight key considerations and resources for educators to (a) create an effective context for learning, (b) emphasize appropriate content, and (c) use data-driven instructional practices to increase the likelihood that all students experience academic, social, emotional, and behavioral benefit.
Published
January 25, 2021

Integrated Tiered Fidelity Inventory Companion Guide

Equity
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
School-Wide
Alignment
Evaluation
Fidelity
Tier 1
This guide is intended to support school teams, coaches, and trainers working to focus on cultural responsiveness and support for mental health and wellness within the PBIS framework while also navigating the ongoing challenges of the 2020-2021 school year. This companion guide is not an additional fidelity of implementation measure. It is an action planning tool to use alongside the validated TFI to focus PBIS implementation to better meet the complex needs of students and staff.
Published
January 25, 2021

Habits of Effective Classroom Practice

Classroom PBIS
Behavior
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This practice brief describes how we (a) develop habits of effective classroom practice and (b) expand effective habits in our schools, districts, and states.
Published
December 18, 2020

Systematic Screening for Behavior in Current K-12 Instructional Settings

Data-based Decision Making
Screening
Tier 1
With the new range of instructional contexts being offered, many educators are seeking guidance regarding how to conduct systematic screenings for behavior across these different environments. In this brief, we offer three considerations for those preparing to screen for the first time and for those continuing with screening within a tiered system for in-person, remote, or hybrid instructional environments.
Published
November 23, 2020

Facility-Wide Tiered Fidelity Inventory v0.2 Technical Brief

Juvenile Justice
Alternative Settings
Assessment
Evaluation
Fidelity
This resource describes the process used for development, content validation, and usability evaluation of the FW-TFI v0.2.
Published
November 23, 2020

Adapting PBIS Practices for Rural Settings: Remote Instruction Strategy Matrix

Classroom PBIS
School-Wide
Rural
Behavior
Implementation
Social relationships
Rural education settings often have accessibility strengths and weaknesses that can make virtual instruction challenging. A range of resources are needed that can be tailored in intensity to meet various student needs (social, emotional, behavioral well-being, academic engagement) adapted to different types of technology. The Remote Instruction Strategy Matrix with corresponding resources provides educators with a continuum of learning support strategies that can be followed by adaptations for implementation based on available technology. 
Published
November 20, 2020

Integrating a Trauma-Informed Approach within a PBIS Framework

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Systems Alignment
Trauma
As educators have become increasingly aware of the impact of trauma on the school success of children and youth, they have been investing in professional development about how to address childhood trauma in schools. However, evaluation to support evidence of impact are lacking.This Guide describes how to integrate trauma-informed approaches into the PBIS framework to ensure efforts are linked to student outcomes. Strategies and tools to ensure effectiveness are included.
Published
November 17, 2020

Building Momentum for PBIS Implementation in High Need Districts

Coaching
Data-based Decision Making
District & State PBIS
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
Urban Implementation
Rural
Building district capacity for implementing PBIS in high need school districts is challenging. This practice brief summarizes the lessons learned one year into an intensive 5-year partnership with Southbridge Public Schools, a district identified as high-need. The intent of the brief is to provide district leaders, trainers, and state leaders with lessons learned and suggestions they may consider when supporting high need LEAs.
Published
October 23, 2020

Remote Learning for Families: Keeping it Accessible, Keeping it Positive

Family
Academics
Special education
This practice brief describes information and tips for families regarding accessibility during remote learning.
Published
October 13, 2020

An Overview of Endrew F.: Implications for Student Behavior

Disability
Family
Policy
Special education
Tier 3
This 2017 U.S. Supreme Court case clarified what is meant by a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) under the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA, 2004) while highlighting the role of supporting a student’s behavior to enable the student to make progress. Endrew F. is an important and relevant case for the PBIS community in terms of encouraging stakeholder involvement and engaging in effective data-based decision making. This brief highlights some implications of Endrew F. for IEP teams, including the importance of the input of parents in designing appropriate educational support plans for students with disabilities.
Published
September 23, 2020

Returning to School: Considerations for Students With the Most Intensive Behavioral Needs, A Guide to Supporting Students With Disabilities, Their Families, and Educators

Classroom PBIS
Disability
School-Wide
Behavior
Intensive
Social relationships
Social skills
This document is a set of strategies and key practices to restart classrooms and schools in a manner that students, their families, and educators can use effectively, efficiently, and relevantly in the current climate.
Published
September 11, 2020

Conducting the Tiered Fidelity Inventory and Walkthrough Remotely

Data-based Decision Making
School-Wide
Action plan
Evaluation
Fidelity
Implementation
Evidence-based frameworks, such as positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS), provide a critical foundation to meet the needs of students, families, and educators in this new context, but only when implemented with fidelity. This practice brief (a) provides a rationale for conducting the Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI)l; (b) shares guidance on how to complete the TFI, including the walkthrough, remotely; and (b) responds to frequently asked questions related to conducting the TFI remotely.
Published
September 11, 2020

Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School-Wide PBIS, Volume 2: An Implementation Guide

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
School-Wide
Alignment
Community
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Screening
This implementation guide provides step by step process with examples, activities, and resources for district and school teams to install and implement an Interconnected Systems Framework.
Published
September 9, 2020

Supporting Students with Disabilities in the Classroom within a PBIS Framework

Classroom PBIS
Disability
Behavior
Special education
Tier 1
Students with disabilities are more likely to experience exclusionary and reactive discipline practices than students without disabilities. Fortunately, when educators implement positive, proactive, and evidence-based practices within a Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework, students with disabilities benefit. In this practice brief, we describe the “top ten” intervention strategies effective educators implement to support all students, including students with disabilities, in their classroom.
Published
September 1, 2020

Improving Attendance in a Remote Learning Environment

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Administrator
Assessment
Behavior
Outcome
This brief adapts the suggestions and strategies provided in Improving Attendance and Reducing Chronic Absenteeism to guide practice during remote instruction. Latest revision includes a case study that illustrates the guidance.
Published
August 17, 2020

High School Acknowledgement Systems

High School PBIS
School-Wide
PBIS Foundations
Social relationships
Youth Voice
This practice brief focuses on effective ways to build an acknowledgement system that works in high school. We start by suggesting why considering a formal acknowledgment system is appropriate in high school, and then review examples of strategies that have been demonstrated (descriptively or empirically) to be effective.
Published
August 14, 2020

A State Guide for Returning to School During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting States, Districts, Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Framework

District & State PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This abbreviated state guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework to support students, families, and educators during the transitions back to school during and following the global pandemic in a manner that prioritizes their health and safety, social and emotional needs, and behavioral and academic growth.
Published
July 1, 2020

A District Guide for Returning to School During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting Districts, Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi- Tiered Systems of Support Framework

District & State PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This abbreviated district guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework to support students, families, and educators during the transitions back to school during and following the global pandemic in a manner that prioritizes their health and safety, social and emotional needs, and behavioral and academic growth.
Published
July 1, 2020

A School Guide for Returning to School During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Framework

School-Wide
Classroom PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This abbreviated school guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework to support students, families, and educators during the transitions back to school during and following the global pandemic in a manner that prioritizes their health and safety, social and emotional needs, and behavioral and academic growth.
Published
July 1, 2020

Returning to School During and After Crisis: A Guide to Supporting States, Districts, Schools, Educators, and Students through a Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Framework

Classroom PBIS
District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
Systems Alignment
This guide describes the use of a multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) framework to support students, families, and educators during the transitions back to school during and following the global pandemic in a manner that prioritizes their health and safety, social and emotional needs, and behavioral and academic growth.
Published
June 19, 2020

Adjusting PBIS for Students New to School: Starting the Year with Increased Support

Classroom PBIS
Data-based Decision Making
Behavior
Implementation
Social skills
Tier 1
Young students new to school experience a shift in their typical environment. This practice brief provides strategies for how school teams can increase behavior support at the beginning of the school year to support these students.
Published
June 8, 2020

Supporting Students with Disabilities at School and Home: A Guide for Teachers to Support Families and Students

Disability
Family
Classroom PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Behavior
PBIS Foundations
This guide highlights 5 key practices for teachers and families to support all students, including students with disabilities, at school and home. For each practice, the guide provides (a) tips for teachers to support students with disabilities during instruction; (b) tips for families that educators can share to support or enhance learning at home, especially during periods of remote instruction; and (c) free-access resources that include strategies shown to be effective by research (e.g., informational guides, downloadable materials, research-based programs).
Published
May 20, 2020

Guidance on Adapting Check-in Check-out (CICO) for Distance Learning

Classroom PBIS
Family
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Behavior
Screening
Tier 2
This brief provides considerations and suggestions for adapting Check-in Check-out (CICO), an evidence-based Tier 2 school intervention, for situations where students are learning from home.
Published
May 8, 2020

PBIS in Juvenile Justice Programs: Planning for Long-Term Implementation Juvenile Justice

Juvenile Justice
Alternative Settings
Secure Care
Residential
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL and is intended to be a practical tool and resource for anyone who is leading or supporting PBIS in juvenile justice programs or other types of alternative, residential programs. Common reasons that can prevent sustainability of PBIS over time and recommendations for enhancing sustainability will be described.
Published
May 6, 2020

PBIS in Early Childhood Classrooms on School Campuses

Early Childhood PBIS
Implementation
Tier 1
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL for the purpose of exploring how all classes on school campuses can meet the developmental needs of students, specifically our youngest students.
Published
May 6, 2020

Embedding Culturally Responsive Practices in Tier I

Equity
Tier 1
Community
Climate
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL.
Published
May 6, 2020

Advancing Family-School Collaboration in PBIS Through the FSCA

Family
Community
Implementation
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL with the purpose to describe the Family-School-Community Alliance (FSCA) and the FSCA’s recent work focused on family-school collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS). An introduction to the FSCA is provided, followed by the rationale and current challenges of family- school collaboration. Finally, the features of the FSCA’s model for family-school collaboration are reviewed along with suggestions for integrating and aligning family-school collaboration efforts within existing practice.
Published
May 6, 2020

IDEA & Students with Disabilities

Disability
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Special education
Policy
Tier 3
Climate
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL and is not intended to provide comprehensive legal guidance. Districts/schools should consult with their district’s legal resources for deciding on legal actions and procedures.
Published
May 6, 2020

Tier II Data, Systems & Practices

School-Wide
Targeted
Tier 2
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL and provides an overview of the process of designing and implementing Tier 2 systems and practices within a Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports (PBIS) framework. Approaching Tier 2 design from the district-level is encouraged; however, considerations and suggestions for schools implementing Tier 2 independent of a district-level initiative are included.
Published
May 6, 2020

Universal Screening – Systematic Screening to Shape Instruction

Data-based Decision Making
Screening
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL.
Published
May 6, 2020

PBIS in Rural America: Addressing Barriers and Building on Strengths

School-Wide
Implementation
This Practice Brief was developed as result of the roundtable dialogue that occurred at the 2019 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, IL.
Published
May 6, 2020

How are Schools Using the School Climate Surveys

District & State PBIS
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
School-Wide
Climate
Evaluation
Tier 1
The purpose of this brief is to provide information about how to evaluate school climate at the primary and secondary levels. Norms and ranges are provided and based on a national data; this data can help schools to contextualize local data. Information for interpreting the data and unit if for data-based decision making is also included.
Published
May 1, 2020

Supporting Families with PBIS at Home

Family
Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Families and caregivers should consider using positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in their homes on a daily basis. It is especially helpful when events disrupt normal routines – events like worldwide health pandemics. This practice brief provides recommendations for families and caregivers on how to use PBIS to continue to support their students’ social and emotional growth and minimize behavioral disruptions in the home.
Published
March 31, 2020

Supporting Families with PBIS at Home (Versión en español)

Family
Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Families and caregivers should consider using positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) in their homes on a daily basis. It is especially helpful when events disrupt normal routines – events like worldwide health pandemics. This practice brief provides recommendations for families and caregivers on how to use PBIS to continue to support their students’ social and emotional growth and minimize behavioral disruptions in the home.
Published
March 31, 2020

Positive Greetings at the Door

Classroom PBIS
Equity
Social relationships
Tier 1
Positive greetings at the door is an effective strategy for increasing academic engagement, decreasing unwanted behavior, and improving student-teacher relationships. This strategy brief breaks it down into easy steps for daily implementation.
Published
March 27, 2020

Creating a PBIS Behavior Teaching Matrix for Remote Instruction

Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This practice brief shares tips for maintaining continuity of learning through defining classroom expectations for remote (i.e., distance) instruction and online learning environments. With a few adaptations, teachers can use a PBIS framework to make remote learning safe, predictable, and positive.
Published
March 27, 2020

Creating a PBIS Behavior Teaching Matrix for Remote Instruction (Versión en español)

Classroom PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
This practice brief shares tips for maintaining continuity of learning through defining classroom expectations for remote (i.e., distance) instruction and online learning environments. With a few adaptations, teachers can use a PBIS framework to make remote learning safe, predictable, and positive.
Published
March 27, 2020

Responding to the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak through PBIS

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
School-Wide
Classroom PBIS
Social relationships
Trauma
Climate
One of the key principles of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is to focus on building prosocial skills, not simply attempting to eliminate challenging or problem behavior. We encourage all schools to continue that focus, as well as other key principles of PBIS, as you address the COVID-19 pandemic. The following are a few simple recommendations educators can embed across a continuum of supports.
Published
March 17, 2020

Responding to the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak through PBIS (Versión en español)

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
School-Wide
Classroom PBIS
Social relationships
Trauma
Climate
One of the key principles of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is to focus on building prosocial skills, not simply attempting to eliminate challenging or problem behavior. We encourage all schools to continue that focus, as well as other key principles of PBIS, as you address the COVID-19 pandemic. The following are a few simple recommendations educators can embed across a continuum of supports.
Published
March 17, 2020

Preventing & Responding to Violent Behavior in Schools

District & State PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Community
Implementation
Systems Alignment
This practice brief is intended to be a practical tool and brief overview resource for educators interested in leveraging the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) framework to support school and district-level prevention and recovery efforts related to school violence and other trauma-inducing critical incidents.
Published
March 1, 2020

DITCH THE CLIP! Why Clip Charts Are Not a PBIS Practice and What to Do Instead

Classroom PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
School-Wide
Behavior
Implementation
Trauma
Clip charts have been a common classroom strategy for many years. Once considered an effective tool for displaying behavioral progress and adherence to classroom rules, they may not be as helpful as once thought. In this practice brief, we describe how such strategies are inconsistent with a PBIS approach and, more importantly, can be harmful. We also provide alternative strategies that are evidence based and more likely to improve student behavior while promoting a safe, positive classroom.
Published
February 5, 2020

Using the PBIS Framework to Address the Opioid Crisis in Schools

Opioid Crisis and Substance Misuse
Family
School-Wide
Behavior
Community
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
In October 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services declared a public health emergency to address rising overdose deaths related to the opioid epidemic. With the effects of the opioid crisis affecting students at multiple levels, it is important to identify clear targets for school-based interventions. We describe here the ways students and families may be affected, and how school teams can leverage the PBIS framework to support them.
Published
January 28, 2020

Improving Attendance and Reducing Chronic Absenteeism

Data-based Decision Making
High School PBIS
School-Wide
Academics
Alignment
Systems Alignment
This brief provides guidance for schools or districts looking to integrate strategies for improving attendance within the PBIS framework.
Published
January 16, 2020

Four Key Actions for State Education Agency Teams to Support Implementation of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support

District & State PBIS
Administrator
Fidelity
Implementation
As states and districts adopt policies that address the “whole child,” many look to multi-tiered systems of support (MTSS) that attend to academic and social-emotional-behavioral needs of students. Key features of MTSS include a continuum of supports with increasing intensity matched to student need, the use of research informed practices, and data for decision making. School-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) is an example of an effective MTSS for behavior.
Published
December 20, 2019

Basic FBA to BSP Trainer's Manual

Coaching
Disability
Data-based Decision Making
Behavior
Assessment
Screening
This manual presents procedures to train school-based personnel to conduct basic functional behavioral assessments (FBA) and design function-based behavior support plans (BSP).
Published
October 28, 2019

Using Outcome Data to Implement Multi-tiered Behavior Support (PBIS) in High Schools

High School PBIS
Data-based Decision Making
Outcome
Evaluation
In this Practice Brief we propose that there are at least four core types of data needed by high school PBIS Leadership Teams and that these data can be used to problem-solve at the (a) whole school, (b) at-risk group, or (c) individual student levels.
Published
September 25, 2019

High School PBIS Implementation: Student Voice

High School PBIS
Youth Voice
Implementation
This brief discusses the importance of student voice, describes the unique features of high school settings that can make it challenging to include students, and offers strategies to address these barriers.
Published
September 12, 2019

Use of I-SWIS by Elementary Schools to Monitor Tier 3 Behavior Supports

Data-based Decision Making
Tier 3
Research
In this Evaluation Brief we focus on the extent to which Tier 3 (individual) support teams collect, summarize, and use data to guide implementation of behavior support plans. Our specific focus is a descriptive summary of how elementary school teams use the Individual School Wide Information System (I-SWIS) online application to guide their Tier 3 decision-making as well as general use of PBIS-focused data systems that support overall fidelity to critical components of the PBIS framework.
Published
September 9, 2019

Preventing Restraint and Seclusion in Schools

Restraint/Seclusion
Policy
Behavior
Climate
This practice brief defines restraint and seclusion, addresses prevalance, describes prevention approaches, and reviews policy implications.
Published
May 1, 2019

10 Lessons Learned from SEA and LEA SCTG Sites

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
School-Wide
Implementation
Outcome
This guide shares lessons learned from the past five years working with State Education Agency (SEA) and Local Education Agency (LEA) School Climate Transformation Grantees. SEAs and LEAs are more likely to use SCTG resources
Published
April 16, 2019

High School PBIS Implementation: Staff Buy-In

High School PBIS
School-Wide
Buy-in from stakeholders is important for the successful adoption, full implementation and sustainability of any school-based initiative. It’s also one of the critical elements for implementation of Tier 1 PBIS included in the TFI, BoQ, and the Blueprint. This brief describes the unique features of high school settings that can make building buy-in more difficult and identifies strategies that have been successful for securing staff buy-in in high schools.
Published
April 1, 2019

Do Wisconsin Schools Implementing an Integrated Academic and Behavior Support Framework Improve Equity in Academic and School Discipline Outcomes?

Equity
PBIS Foundations
Ethnicity
Community
This evaluation brief describes how Wisconsin is implementing an equitable multi-level system of supports (MLSS) framework, also known as a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS), and how schools implementing this framework with both a behavior and reading focus have shown positive outcomes for all students. The data analyzed in this brief were derived from a small, Wisconsin RtI Center staff directed project. The focus was on the impact of an equitable multi-level system of supports (MLSS).
Published
March 1, 2019

Family-School Collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Creating a School Atmosphere to Promote Collaboration

Family
Community
Tier 1
The purpose of this practice brief is to describe family-school collaboration in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) and review approaches that help to create conditions that promote collaboration. A brief background on family-school collaboration is provided, followed by guidance on a schoolwide approach for collaborating with families that strengthens family-school connections and improves student performance.
Published
February 1, 2019

Facility-wide PBIS Implementation: Possible Barriers and Potential Solutions for Six Salient Topics as Viewed by Roundtable Participants and Facilitators

Juvenile Justice
Secure Care
The 2018 PBIS Leadership Forum juvenile justice roundtable dialogue gave a voice to the conference participants who work with youth in restrictive settings. This is a summary of their ideas to spur additional conversations and to continue the growth of FW-PBIS with this population of vulnerable and marginalized youth in restrictive settings.
Published
January 31, 2019

Cultivating Positive Student-Teacher Relationships

School-Wide
Social relationships
The significance of the student-teacher relationship is substantial. The brief discusses key elements of positive student-teacher relationships and approaches for strengthening teachers' relational skills with students.
Published
January 31, 2019

Fidelity of SW-PBIS in High Schools: Patterns of Implementation Strengths and Needs

High School PBIS
Fidelity
Research
PBIS Foundations
The purpose of this brief is to summarize patterns in SW-PBIS implementation fidelity in 996 high schools across 31 U.S. states. We specially aimed to evaluate how high schools are implementing the components of SW-PBIS, and identify implementation strengths and needs.
Published
November 1, 2018

Early Childhood Program-wide PBS Benchmarks of Quality (EC-BOQ) Cultural Responsiveness Companion

Early Childhood PBIS
Equity
Climate
The EC-BOQ Cultural Responsiveness Companion is a resource for coaches and teams implementing the Pyramid Model to improve the fit of their Pyramid systems with the needs of children and their families. Teams may use this tool either during the initial Pyramid Model implementation to build cultural responsiveness into systems from the beginning or after initial implementation to enhance equity within existing systems.
Published
September 28, 2018

Lessons Learned on Implementation of PBIS in High Schools: Current Trends and Future Directions

High School PBIS
Academics
Alignment
Implementation
This monograph was designed to provide information and strategies for emerging topics that can be used as needed by administrators, coaches and Leadership Teams to address unique needs of high schools.
Published
September 5, 2018

How are Schools Using the SWPBIS Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI)?

District & State PBIS
Assessment
Research
PBIS Foundations
To understand how schools are using the TFI, this evaluation brief aims to answer the following research questions: 1. How often do schools complete the TFI per year? 2. How many tiers are assessed during each TFI administration? 3. What are the average scores at each tier of the TFI? 4. What subscales and items on the TFI have the highest and lowest scores?
Published
June 1, 2018

Teaching Social-Emotional Competencies within a PBIS Framework

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Systems Alignment
Social skills
Positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) provides an ideal framework for promoting social-emotional competencies to improve outcomes for the whole child. The purpose of this brief is to describe how school personnel can teach social-emotional competencies within a PBIS framework to support systematic, school-wide implementation through one system, rather than trying to improve student outcomes through separate, competing initiatives.
Published
April 24, 2018

Classroom Integrated Academics and Behavior Brief

Classroom PBIS
High School PBIS
Coaching
Alignment
This brief was developed to provide core features and strategies for integrating academic and behavior practices to support students in a “whole child” approach at the classroom level.
Published
March 20, 2018

Do Schools Implementing SWPBIS Have Decreased Racial and Ethnic Disproportionality in School Discipline?

Equity
Research
Ethnicity
The purpose of this study was to examine discipline disproportionality among schools implementing SWPBIS compared to the entire population of schools in the U.S. Examining patterns in a large-scale evaluation of schools implementing and not implementing SWPBIS could help determine the extent to which implementation of SWPBIS is related to lower, higher, or unchanged discipline disparities.
Published
March 1, 2018

What are Patterns and Predictors of CICO Participation in U.S. Schools?

District & State PBIS
Classroom PBIS
Tier 2
Research
Targeted
This evaluation brief looks to develop an understanding of current patterns of CICO enrollment and its potential impact on intervention fidelity and effectiveness.
Published
March 1, 2018

A 5-Point Intervention Approach for Enhancing Equity in School Discipline

Equity
The results of decades of research consistently show that students of color, particularly African American students (and even more so for African American boys and those with disabilities), are at significantly increased risk for receiving exclusionary discipline practices, including office discipline referrals and suspensions. We describe here a 5-point multicomponent approach to reduce disproportionality in schools.
Published
February 1, 2018

PBIS Technical Guide on Classroom Data: Using Data to Support Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support Practices and Systems

Classroom PBIS
Coaching
High School PBIS
PBIS Foundations
Tier 1
Evaluation
This technical guide is intended to support data selection and use at the Tier 1 level for classrooms and is not intended to describe the more intensive data collection strategies required to support students or educators receiving Tier 2 or 3 supports.
Published
December 18, 2017

What are the Economic Costs of Implementing SWPBIS in Comparison to the Benefits from Reducing Suspensions?

High School PBIS
Evaluation
Outcome
In this brief, we provide initial evidence that SWPBIS is less expensive to implement than the longer-term costs re- lated to suspensions and dropout. This finding is important as the benefits of reducing suspensions and dropout go far beyond simple fiscal savings. An analysis of the available data suggests that SWPBIS may be an economical alterna- tive to not only ineffective approaches, like suspension, but also traditional dropout prevention programs.
Published
November 8, 2017

Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Systems Alignment
This monograph is about improving the quality of life and outcomes for children and youth, especially those children who are at risk for or experiencing emotional and behavioral challenges. The editors have wisely chosen a title for the monograph that signals the pivotal role of education in this endeavor. Advancing Education Effectiveness: Interconnecting School Mental Health and School- wide Positive Behavioral Support clearly conveys the message that effective education is the primary goal and linking two important processes will be the strategy promoted to achieve this goal. The Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF) is described in the following chapters as the proposed mechanism that can effectively link School Mental Health (SMH) and Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in order to leverage the individual strengths of each of these processes and produce enhanced teaching and learning environments through their strategic linkage.
Published
September 28, 2017

Getting Back to School after Disruptions: Resources for Making Your School Year Safer, More Predictable, and More Positive

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Trauma
Students experiencing trauma, such as from public health crises, weather disasters, or other upsetting events, may have been exposed to unpredictable schedules, inconsistent supervision, or food insecurity and desperately need school to be their safest, most predictable, and most positive setting, especially if they have been displaced or are without utilities or basic comforts. Multi-tiered Systems of Supports (MTSS), such as PBIS, are ideal frameworks for implementing strategies to support students coming back to school and to prevent and address further challenges. We recommend the following six strategies for school teams to ensure a safe, predictable, and positive school year. These strategies are beneficial for all students if the school has been closed, as well as for individual students returning from extended time away from school.
Published
September 20, 2017

Getting Back to School after Disruptions: Resources for Making Your School Year Safer, More Predictable, and More Positive (Versión en español)

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Trauma
Students experiencing trauma, such as from public health crises, weather disasters, or other upsetting events, may have been exposed to unpredictable schedules, inconsistent supervision, or food insecurity and desperately need school to be their safest, most predictable, and most positive setting, especially if they have been displaced or are without utilities or basic comforts. Multi-tiered Systems of Supports (MTSS), such as PBIS, are ideal frameworks for implementing strategies to support students coming back to school and to prevent and address further challenges. We recommend the following six strategies for school teams to ensure a safe, predictable, and positive school year. These strategies are beneficial for all students if the school has been closed, as well as for individual students returning from extended time away from school.
Published
September 20, 2017

Guidance for States on ESSA State Plans: Aligning the School Climate Indicator and SW-PBIS

District & State PBIS
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Alignment
Policy
Climate
New to the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015, is specific language supporting state and local educational agencies in implementing schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SW-PBIS). This evaluation brief offers guidance to states on how to align PBIS efforts with the student success indicator in Student Support and Academic Enrichment grants.
Published
June 1, 2017

Aligning and Integrating Family Engagement in Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS): Concepts and Strategies for Families and Schools in Key Contexts

Family
PBIS Foundations
Community
Research
This e-book, supported by the Technical Assistance Center for PBIS funded by the Office of Special Education Programs comprehensively reviews reasons for and ways to significantly enhance family engagement in schools, toward improved tiered systems involving promotion/ prevention, early intervention, and intervention for students, contributing to removed and reduced academic and non-academic barriers to learning, and improved academic, social, emotional, behavioral, and occupational out- comes for them. Following the example of other e-books and monographs the center has supported, the intent of this e-book is to broadly disseminate and make accessible a free, downloadable resource (on www.pbis.org) that can be used by families, schools, collaborating staff from other youth-serving systems, policy makers, educators/practitioners, government officials, advocates, university staff and others to advance family engagement in PBIS/MTSS in realms of policy, research, and practice, and to promote linked progress across these realms.
Published
March 8, 2017

PBIS Technical Brief on Systems to Support Teachers' Implementation of Positive Classroom Behavior Support

Classroom PBIS
High School PBIS
Coaching
Tier 1
Implementation
The purpose of this technical brief is to summarize proactive, efficient, and evidence-based systems for supporting teachers’ implementation of positive classroom behavior support (PCBS) practices school-wide. Specifically, this technical brief is designed to inform and support school and district leadership teams as they address the following questions while implementing PCBS school wide.
Published
February 3, 2017

Addressing School Climate: 5 Ways Schools Can Positively and Proactively Support All Students

School-Wide
School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Climate
Bullying incidents and other concerning behaviors present educators with significant, immediate challenges in supporting students. Rather than waiting for these behaviors to occur and reacting, we encourage educators to adopt positive and proactive practices to support students and prevent these behaviors from occurring.
Published
January 27, 2017

Technical Guide for Alignment of Initiatives, Programs and Practices in School Districts

District & State PBIS
Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Alignment
The purpose of this technical guide is to provide a structured alignment process with concrete steps to assist educational leaders as they examine current practices across educational units and systems (instruction, support, improvement, special education, mental health, justice), consider the extent to which current practices are implemented with fidelity and produce meaningful academic and social/behavioral outcomes, and establish support systems to select install and implement new practices.
Published
January 18, 2017
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Aligning and Integrating Mental Health and PBIS to Build Priority for Wellness

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Interconnected Systems Framework (ISF)
Alignment
The purpose of this document is to summarize the Mental Health Integration strand, including the roundtable dialogue, from the 2017 PBIS Leadership Forum in Chicago, Illinois. Recognizing that the ISF provides an example of effective alignment of initiatives, programs and practices in schools, this summary will be organized around the steps included in the Technical Guide for Alignment (see Figure 1 below). Illustrations from sites working to implement the ISF are included as examples of the alignment process. Input and discussion from presenters and participants at the 2017 PBIS Leadership Forum Mental Health Integration sessions and roundtable dialogue, including responses to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), are included in this Brief.
Published
January 1, 2017

Status of High School PBIS Implementation in the U.S.

School-Wide
High School PBIS
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to provide a description of the current state of PBIS implementation in US high schools, as reflected by data collected by the National PBIS Technical Assistance Center.
Published
January 1, 2017

Every Student Succeeds Act: Why School Climate* Should Be One of Your Indicators

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
Policy
Climate
With the new Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA), State education agencies (SEA) have a great opportunity to revisit and update their state-wide school improvement plans. A particularly important emphasis of ESSA is school climate and safety, which are so integrally linked to academic achievement, active student and teacher engagement, and tiered systems of support for all students, but especially students with high failure risk (e.g., students with disabilities English language learners, students from disadvantaged and diverse backgrounds and environments).
Published
November 29, 2016

PBIS Cultural Responsiveness Field Guide: Resources for Trainers and Coaches

Equity
Action plan
Ethnicity
Tier 1
This field guide outlines an integrated framework to embed equity efforts into school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (SWPBIS) by aligning culturally responsive practices to the core components of SWPBIS. The goal of using this guide is to make school systems more responsive to the cultures and communities that they serve. This guide is part of a 5-point intervention approach for enhancing equity in student outcomes within a SWPBIS approach.
Published
November 1, 2016

School Climate: Academic Achievement and Social Behavior Competence

School Climate Transformation Grant (SCTG)
An operational and applied overview of school climate that can guide decisions related to policy, professional development, and practice and systems implementation at the classroom, school, district, and state levels.
Published
September 15, 2016

Does Implementation of SWPBIS Enhance Sustainability of Specific Programs, such as Playworks?

District & State PBIS
Fidelity
PBIS Foundations
Alignment
The purpose of this evaluation brief is to assess whether schools implementing SWPBIS with adequate fidelity of implementation were more likely to sustain specific school practices, such as Playworks, than schools not implementing SWPBIS with fidelity.
Published
February 1, 2016

District Level Coaching

Coaching
District & State PBIS
Implementation
PBIS Foundations
Coaching is important and necessary to maximize transfer and translation of skills and practices acquired during training into sustainable and high fidelity implementation of evidence-based practices and systems. Coaching has been identified as the most critical factor in successful implementation. This brief quickly defines coaching at the district level. It includes a graphic representation of how the role fits within a district structure and outlines the functions a district coach is expected to conduct.
Published
December 1, 2015

Classroom PBIS: Discussion of Outcomes, Data, Practices, & Systems

Classroom PBIS
Tier 1
PBIS Foundations
This document is intended to be a practical tool and resource for educators interested in implementing, sustaining, or enhancing PBIS in the classroom practices. (RDQ)
Published
October 22, 2015

The Role of the Clinician in a Multi-Tiered System of Support

Mental Health/Social-Emotional Well-Being
Data-based Decision Making
For the purpose of this brief, clinicians are considered school social workers, school psychologists, school counselors, guidance deans and community mental health clinicians based in the school setting. These clinicians play an integral role in helping build, support, and sustain a MTSS framework in schools and districts. (RDQ)
Published
October 22, 2015

PBIS Forum in Brief: TIPS

Data-based Decision Making
Action plan
Rural
Team-Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) is a model that addresses these barriers by breaking down problem solving into six critical steps to guide teams through a data-based decision making procss that leads to desired outcomes.
Published
October 1, 2015

When to use Functional Behavioral Assessment? A State-by-State Analysis of the Law

Disability
FBA/BIP/BSP
To provide students with disabilities and their families the best educational experience, the use of the functional behavioral assessment should be a viable option when challenging behaviors are interfering with learning opportunities. As the technology of FBA continues to improve through systematic research, educators should not default to the legal requirements, which may, as we have outlined here, leave considerable gaps. States should strive to close those gaps by, at a minimum, including reference to FBA in provisions on evaluation, re-evaluation, IEP development and restraint and seclusion.
Published
October 1, 2015

Examples of Engaging Instruction to Increase Equity in Education

Equity
This technical brief is based on the 5-point multicomponent approach to reduce disproportionality. This brief elaborates on point one, regarding academic instruction, by defining key principles of evidence-based instructional practices.
Published
September 1, 2015

Key Elements of Policies to Address Discipline Disproportionality: A Guide for District and School Teams

Equity
District & State PBIS
School-Wide
Policy
The guides are based on a 5-point multicomponent intervention described. This guide addresses equity policies.
Published
September 1, 2015

Preventive Classroom Behavior Management Practices

Classroom PBIS
This guide was developed to provide an overview of recommended practices for student behavior within effective school-wide and classroom systems. To be most useful, the implementation of these practices and supports should be led by a team and integrated within a multi-tiered positive support framework in which all students have maximum opportunities and direct access to effective academic and behavior instruction curricula school and classroom wide.
Published
August 31, 2015
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